דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָדָם כִּי יִהְיֶה. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא וְגוֹ' (חבקוק א, ז). הַפָּסוּק מְדַבֵּר בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וּבְפַרְעֹה וּבֶאֱדֹם וּבְסַנְחֵרִיב וּבִנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר. בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן כֵּיצַד. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, בְּרָאוֹ כִּדְמוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ (בראשית א, כז). וּכְשֶׁבְּרָאוֹ, בְּרָאוֹ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשׁוֹנִים וְגוֹ' (דברים ד, לב). וְהָיָה שׁוֹלֵט בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם (בראשית א, כח). וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, וּמוֹרָאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה וְגוֹ' (שם ט, ב). לָכֵן נֶאֱמַר, אָיֹם. וְנוֹרָא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא (חבקוק א, ז), זוֹ חַוָּה שֶׁיָּצְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהִיא גָּרְמָה לוֹ לָמוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתִּתֵּן גַּם לְאִישָׁהּ וְגוֹ' (בראשית ג, ו). וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁיָּצְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁכֵּן כְּתִיב: עֶצֶם מֵעַצְמִי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי (שם ב, כג). הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה שֶׁיָּצְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא, זֶה פַּרְעֹה שֶׁהָיָה קוֹזַאקְרָטוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: מוֹשֵׁל עַמִּים וַיְפַתְּחֵהוּ (תהלים קה, כ). מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְגַּדֵּל בְּבֵיתוֹ וְהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא בֶּן בֵּיתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִיאֵהוּ וְגוֹ' (שמות ב, י). וְעָמַד וְהֵבִיא עָלָיו עֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעַתָּה לְכָה וְאֶשְׁלָחֲךָ וְגוֹ' (שם ג, י). אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר אַמִּי, הַמַּטֶּה, מַשּׂוֹי אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הָיָה, וְשֶׁל סְנַפִּרִינוֹן הָיָה, וְעֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת חֲקוּקוֹת עָלָיו בִּכְתַב נוֹטְרִיקוֹן דצ״ךְ עד״ש באח ״ב. וּמֹשֶׁה הָיָה מַבִּיט בַּמַּטֶּה וְרוֹאֶה אֵיזֶה מַכָּה רְאוּיָה לָבוֹא עַל פַּרְעֹה, וּמְבִיאָהּ עָלָיו. הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא זֶה פַּרְעֹה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה מֹשֶׁה. וְאַף הַמָּשִׁיחַ שֶׁעָתִיד לִיפָּרַע מִגּוֹג וּמָגוֹג וְחֵילוֹתָיו, שָׁם עִמָּהֶם גָּדַל בַּמְּדִינָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבַּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִיפֶיהָ (ישעיה כז, י). דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אֱדֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: דְּחִילָה וְאֶמְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא וְגוֹ' (דניאל ז, ז). מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עוֹבַדְיָה, שֶׁהָיָה גֵּר אֱדוֹמִי וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עָלֶיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: חֲזוֹן עוֹבַדְיָה, כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים לֶאֱדֹם שְׁמוּעָה שָׁמַעְנוּ (עובדיה א, א). הֱוֵי, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא, זֶה אֱדֹם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עוֹבַדְיָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ, וְאַחֲרִיב בְּכַף פְּעָמַי כֹּל יְאוֹרֵי מָצוֹר (מ״ב יט, כד). וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת אֲשֶׁר הִצִּילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי (שם יח, לה). וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, וְהָיָה מֻטּוֹת כְּנָפָיו מְלֹא רֹחַב אַרְצְךָ עִמָּנוּ אֵל (ישעיה ח, ח). אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים אוּכְלֻסִין הָיָה מְסַפֵּק אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהָיָה מֻטּוֹת כְּנָפָיו, הַמֻּטָּה הַזּוֹ שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹל אֶחָד מִן שִׁשִּׁים בִּכְנָפָיו. כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לְהִכָּנֵס לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, אָמַר לְאוּכְלֻסָּיו, שִׁכְבוּ הַלַּיְלָה וּבַבֹּקֶר אָנוּ מַשְׁלִיכִים לְתוֹכָהּ אֶת הַטַּבָּעוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ וְנִסְקֹל אוֹתָם בָּהֶם. הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו, שֶׁכְּשֶׁעָלָה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַחֲרִיב אוֹתָהּ וְלֹא עָלְתָה בְיָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר וְגוֹ' (מ״ב יט, לה), וּכְתִיב: וַיָּשָׁב בְּבֹשֶׁת פָּנִים לְאַרְצוֹ וַיָּבֹא בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו וְגוֹ' (דה״ב לב, כא). הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁהֲרָגוּהוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, דִּכְתִּיב בָּהּ, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה (ישעיה יד, יג). מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדָךְ בְּנוֹ. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה: כְּשֶׁנִּטְרַד נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ, מִן אֲנָשָׁא לָךְ טָרְדִין וְגוֹ' (דניאל ד, כב). כָּל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים הָיָה אֱוִיל מְרֹדָךְ בְּנוֹ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ תַּחְתָּיו. כְּשֶׁחָזַר, חֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים. וְכָל מִי שֶׁנֶּחְבַּשׁ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים עַל יָדוֹ, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בַּיְתָה (ישעיה יד, יז). כְּשֶׁמֵּת נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, בִּקְּשׁוּ לְהַמְלִיךְ לֶאֱוִיל מְרֹדָךְ, וְנִכְנְסוּ עָלָיו לְהַמְלִיכוֹ וְלֹא קִבֵּל מֵהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם: בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם וּלְפִיכָךְ נֶחְבַּשְׁתִּי, וְעַכְשָׁו אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, שֶׁמָּא הוּא חַי וְיַעֲמֹד וְיַהַרְגֵנִי. עָמְדוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר וּגְרָרוּהוּ מִקִּבְרוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּ, וְרָאָה אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהוּא מֵת, וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ. לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ כְּנֵצֶר נִתְעָב וְגוֹ' (ישעיה יד, יט). הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדָךְ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה בְּנֵי אָדָם, שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹלֵט בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, דִּכְתִּיב בָּהּ, תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶךָ כָּל שָׁתָה תַּחַת רַגְלָיו (תהלים ח, ז). מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָדָם חוֹטֵא, הֲרֵי מֵבִיא עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִסּוּרִין בְּגוּפוֹ. לָמָּה, שֶׁאֵין מִדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּמִדַּת בָּשָׂר וָדָם. מִדַּת בָּשָׂר וָדָם, כְּשֶׁסָּרַח עָלָיו עַבְדּוֹ, מֵבִיא אֶת הַכְּבָלִים וְכוֹבְלוֹ, מֵבִיא אֶת הַמַּגְלֵבִין וּמַכֵּהוּ. וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֶלָּא מִגּוּפוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם רוֹדֶה אוֹתוֹ. וּמִנַּיִן, מִמַּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּעִנְיָן אָדָם כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְגוֹ' (ויקרא יג, ב). וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר, וְכָל חֶפְצִי אֶעֱשֶׂה (ישעיה מו, י). וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר, חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' (שם מט, יח). זֶהוּ הָאָמוּר בָּעִנְיָן אָדָם כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְגוֹ'. וּכְתִיב: כִּי לֹא אֵל חָפֵץ רֶשַׁע, אַתָּה, לֹא יְגֻרְךָ רָע.
(Lev. 13:2:) “When anyone has on the skin of his flesh.” This text is related (to Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful [is that one].”27In the biblical context THAT ONE is the nation of the Chaldeans. This verse is speaking about the first Adam, about Pharaoh, about Edom, about Sennacherib and about Nebuchadnezzar.28Cf. Lev. R. 18:2. How does it concern the first Adam? R. Abba bar Kahana said, “When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first Adam, He created him in His likeness, as stated (in Gen. 1:27), ‘And God created man (Adam) in His own image.’” And when He created him, He created him [to extend] from the one end of the world to the other, as stated (in Deut. 4:32), “So please ask about the former days which came before you, [ever since the day that God created man upon the earth, even from one end of heaven to the other].”29Cf. Gen. R. 8:1. Now he ruled over the whole earth, as stated (in Gen. 1:28), “and rule over the fish of the sea […].” It also says (in Gen. 9:2), “And the dread of you and the fear of you [shall be upon every beast of the earth].” It is therefore stated (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful.” This refers to the first Adam. (Ibid., cont.:) “His justice and his dignity proceed from himself.”30The midrash requires such a literal translation. In the biblical context a more normal translation would read with reference to the Chaldeans: THEIR JUSTICE AND THEIR DIGNITY PROCEED FROM THEMSELVES. This refers to Eve who came out of him, as she caused him to die, as stated (in Gen. 3:6), “Then she also gave some to her husband, and he ate.” And where is it shown that she came out of him? Where it is so written (in Gen. 2:23), “bone out of my bone and flesh out of my flesh.” Ergo (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful [is that one],” this refers to the first Adam; “his justice and his dignity proceed from himself,” this refers to Eve, who came out from him. Another interpretation (of Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is that one”: This refers to Pharaoh, [when] he was world ruler,31Gk.: Kosmokraton. as stated (concerning him in Ps. 105:20), “the ruler of peoples released him (i.e., Joseph).” (Hab. 1:7, cont.:), “His justice and his dignity proceed from himself.” This refers to Moses, since he was reared within that one's house, so that he believed that he [actually] was a child of his house, as stated (in Exod. 2:10), “When the boy had grown up, she brought him [to Pharaoh's daughter; and he became her son].” Then he arose and brought ten plagues upon him, as stated (in Exod. 3:10), “So come now, I will send you unto Pharaoh.” R. Judah said, “The rod had a weight of forty seah and was [made] of sapphire;32Gk.: sappheirinon, an adj. meaning “of sapphire,” or “of lapsis lazuli.” it also had ten plagues (makkot) inscribed upon it with the acronym33notarikon. dtsk 'dsh b'hb.34D = dam (“blood”), Ts = Tsefardia‘ (“frogs”), K= kinnim (“gnats”), ‘ = ‘arov (“flies”), D = dever (“cattle pestilence”), Sh = shehin (“boils”), B = barad (“hail”), ‘ = ‘arbeh (“locusts”), H = hoshekh (“darkness”), B = bekhorot (“first-born”). Then Moses, when he had looked at the rod and seen the punishment (makkah) which had been appointed to come, brought it upon Pharaoh. Ergo (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful [is that one],” this refers to Pharaoh; “his justice and his dignity proceed from himself,” this refers to Moses. And also the messiah, who in the future will take retribution from Gog and Magog and all of its troops, grew up with them in the city, as stated (Isaiah 27:10), “there shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down and consume the branches thereof.” Another interpretation (of Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful [is that one]”: This refers to Edom, of which it is stated (in Dan. 7:7), “frightful, dreadful, and [exceedingly] strong.” (Hab. 1:7, cont.), “His justice and his dignity proceed from himself.” This refers to Obadiah since he was an Edomite proselyte and he also prophesied [against] him (i.e., against Edom, in Obad. 1:1), “The vision of Obadiah; thus says the Lord God to Edom […].”35Cf. Sanh. 39b. Ergo (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful,” this refers to Edom; “his justice and his dignity proceed from himself,” this refers to Obadiah.Another interpretation (of Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful”: This refers to Sennacherib, since it is stated (in II Kings 19:24), “with the sole of my feet I have dried up all the streams of Egypt.” He also said (in II Kings 18:35 = Is. 36:20 // II Chron. 32:14), “Who are there among all the gods of the lands which have saved their land from my hand?” And it also says (in Is. 8:8), “and the radial bones36For this translation of muttah, see Jastrow, s.v. In the context of Scripture, a more normal translation of muttah would be “spread.” of his wings (i.e., the army of Sennacherib) shall fill the breadth of your land, O Immanu-El].”37Cf. M. Pss. 79:1. One sixtieth of the troops38Gk.: ochlos. had been sufficient for the Land of Israel, since it is stated (ibid.), “and the radial bone of his wings.” This radial bone of a cock is one sixtieth of its wings. When he came to enter Jerusalem, he said to his troops, “You sleep, and in the morning we shall throw our rings into its midst and stone them with them.”39In other words, Sennacherib believed that his army was so large and Jerusalem so small that his army could bury the city in their rings. Cf. Sanh. 95a, according to some renderings of which, each soldier would use as much mortar as necessary to seal a letter with a signet ring. So Levi, in his Talmud and Midrash lexicon, s.v., gulmohrag. See also Rashi on this passage, according to whom the army would use stones easily dislodged from the wall of Jerusalem. Ergo (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is he.” (Ibid., cont.:), “His justice and his dignity proceed from himself.” These refer to his children. When he went up to destroy Jerusalem, he did not succeed. [It is so stated (in II Kings 19:35 = Is. 37:36),] “the angel of the Lord went out and smote [one hundred and eighty-thousand] in the camp of Assyria….” It is also written (in II Chron. 32:21), “so he returned shamefaced to his own land, and when he came into the house of his god, [some of those who came out of his own belly struck him down there with the sword].” Ergo (in Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is he,” this refers to Sennacherib; “his justice and his dignity proceed from himself,” this refers to his children, who killed him. Another interpretation (of Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is he”: This refers to Nebuchadnezzar, of whom it is stated (in Is. 14:13), “And I will ascend to the heavens; [above the stars of God I will set my throne].” (Hab. 1:7, cont.:) “His justice and his dignity proceed from himself.” This refers to Evil-merodach (his son). Our masters have said, “When Nebuchadnezzar was driven away, just as it is written (in Dan. 4:29), ‘You shall be driven away from humankind’; all that time Evil-merodach served in his place.” Then when he returned, he put him in prison. Now whoever was imprisoned by him never emerged from the prison until the day of his death. Thus it is stated (in Is. 14:17), “he never released his prisoners to their homes.” When Nebuchadnezzar died, they wanted to make Evil-merodach king. They approached him, but he did not accept. He said to them, “I listened to you the first time. For that reason I was imprisoned. So now I shall not listen to you. Perhaps he is alive. Then he will rise up against me and kill me.” They stood over Nebuchadnezzar, dragged him from his grave, and brought him out. Then he saw that he was dead, and they made him king. [This act was] to fulfill what is stated (in Is. 14:19), “And you have been cast from your grave like a detestable offshoot.” Ergo (Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is he,” this refers to Nebuchadnezzar; “his justice and his dignity proceed from himself,” this refers to Evil-merodach. Another interpretation (of Hab. 1:7), “Terrible and dreadful is he”: This refers to the human race, which rules over all which the Holy One, blessed be He, has created in His world. Thus it is stated (in Ps. 8:7), “You have set him as ruler over the [works] of Your hands [….].” (Hab. 1:7, cont.) “His justice and his dignity proceed from him.” Thus when he sins, the Holy One, blessed be He, brings torments upon him from his [own body]. Why? Because His ways are not like the ways of flesh and blood. When [a person of] flesh and blood wants to punish his slaves, he brings [whips] and fetters to punish them and cause them pain; but the Holy One, blessed be He, is not like that. Rather it is from a person's whole body that He punishes and beats him. And from where is it shown? From what is written about the matter (in Lev. 13:2), “When anyone has on the skin of his flesh [a swelling or a sore or a bright spot, and it becomes on the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy, he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest].” One verse says (in Is. 46:10), “My plan shall come to pass, and I will accomplish all My desire.” But another verse says (in Ezek. 33:11), “As I live, says the Lord, [it is not my delight for the wicked to die].” This is what is written about the matter, (in Lev. 13:2), “When anyone has on the skin of his flesh ….”; and it is [yet also] written (in Ps. 5:5), “For You are not a God who delights in wickedness; evil may not abide with You.”