Nitzavim, Siman 1 נצבים, א׳
1 א

אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: הָפוֹךְ רְשָׁעִים וְאֵינָם, וּבֵית צַדִּיקִים יַעֲמֹד (משלי יב, ז). כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִסְתַּכֵּל בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים וּמְהַפֵּךְ בָּהֶם, אֵין לָהֶם תְּקוּמָה. הָפַךְ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, לֹא הָיְתָה לָהֶם תְּקוּמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּמַּח אֶת כָּל הַיְקוּם (בראשית ז, כג). הָפַךְ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם, וְלֹא הָיְתָה בָהֶן תְּקוּמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיַּהֲפֹךְ אֶת הֶעָרִים הָאֵל (שם יט, כה). הָפַךְ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל מִצְרִים, וְלֹא הָיְתָה לָהֶן תְּקוּמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לֹא נִשְׁאַר בָּהֶם עַד אֶחָד (שמות יד, כח). הָפַךְ בַּמַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל בָּבֶל וְלֹא הָיְתָה לָהּ תְּקוּמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהִכְרַתִּי לְבָבֶל שֵׁם וּשְׁאָר וְנִין וָנֶכֶד (ישעיה יד, כב). וְעַל כֻּלָּם אָמַר דָּוִד, שָׁם נָפְלוּ פּוֹעֲלֵי אָוֶן וְגוֹ' (תהלים לו, יג). אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, נוֹפְלִין וְעוֹמְדִין. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, אַל תִּשְׂמְחִי אוֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי וְגוֹ' (מיכה ז, ח). כִּי אֲנִי ה' לֹא שָׁנִיתִי וְגוֹ' (מלאכי ג, ו), אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מֵעוֹלָם לֹא הִכֵּיתִי אֻמָּה וְשָׁנִיתִי לָהּ. אֲבָל אַתֶּם בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב לֹא כְלִיתֶם (מלאכי ג, ו), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: חִצַּי אֲכַלֶּה בָּם (דברים לב, כג), חִצַּי כָּלִין וְהֵן אֵינָן כָּלִים. וְכָךְ אָמְרָה כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, דָּרַךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ וַיַּצִּיבֵנִי וְגוֹ' (איכה ג, יב). מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה, לְגִבּוֹר שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד אֶת הַקּוֹרָה וְהָיָה זוֹרֵק בּוֹ אֶת הַחִצִּים. חִצָּיו כָּלִין וְהַקּוֹרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת. אַף יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַיִּסּוּרִין בָּאִין עֲלֵיהֶן, הַיִּסּוּרִין כָּלִין וְהֵם בִּמְקוֹמָן עוֹמְדִין וְאֵינָן כָּלִין. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הָפוֹךְ רְשָׁעִים וְאֵינָם. אָמַר חִזְקִיָּה בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי חִיָּא, לָמָּה נִסְמְכָה פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ לְפָרָשַׁת קְלָלוֹת. לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאָה קְלָלוֹת חָסֵר שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ חוּץ מֵאַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים, מִיָּד הוֹרִיקוּ פְּנֵיהֶם וְאָמְרוּ, מִי יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בְּאֵלּוּ. מִיָּד קָרָא אוֹתָן מֹשֶׁה וְהָיָה מְפַיְּסָן. מַה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן, וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ', הַמַּסּוֹת הַגְּדוֹלוֹת וְגוֹ', וַתָּבֹאוּ אֶל הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְגוֹ'. וְאַתֶּם לֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקוֹלִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לְפָנַי דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתֶּם חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָיָה וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי אֶתְכֶם כְּלָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם לֹא הִשְׂכִּילוּ נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ וְגוֹ' (תהלים קו, ז). וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁאֲמַרְתֶּם לָעֵגֶל, אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל (שמות לב, ד). וְאִם תֹּאמַר מִפְּנֵי מָה הַגּוֹיִם נִתְחַיְּבוּ כְּלָיָה וְאָנוּ קַיָּמִין. לְפִי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּאוּ עֲלֵיהֶן יִסּוּרִין, מְבַעֲטִים בָּהֶן וְאֵינָם מַזְכִּירִין שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שְׁפֹךְ חֲמָתְךָ עַל הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְדָעוּךָ וְגוֹ' (תהלים עט, ו). אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּשֶׁהַיִּסּוּרִין בָּאִין עֲלֵיהֶן, הֵן נִכְנָעִין וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: צָרָה וְיָגוֹן אֶמְצָא וְגוֹ' (שם קטז, ג-ד). לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקְּלָלוֹת הַלָּלוּ בָּאוֹת עֲלֵיכֶם, הֵן מַעֲמִידוֹת אֶתְכֶם. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ וְגוֹ' (דברים ח, טז). וְכָךְ אָמַר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּסּוּרִין הַלָּלוּ בָּאִין עֲלֵיכֶם, יֵשׁ לָכֶם עֲמִידָה. לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם כֻּלְּכֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִפְּנֵי מָה עֲשָׂאָן מֹשֶׁה מַצֵּבָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין מִדַּעַת לְדַעַת. מִדַּעַת מֹשֶׁה לְדַעַת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. מִדַּעַת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְדַעַת הַזְּקֵנִים. וְאַף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשָׂאָן מַצֵּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֶּאֱסֹף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת כָּל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁכֶמָה וְגוֹ' (יהושע כד, א). וְאַף שְׁמוּאֵל שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין מִדַּעְתּוֹ לְדַעַת מְלָכִים, עֲשָׂאָן מַצֵּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעַתָּה הִתְיַצְּבוּ וְאֶשְׁפְּטָהּ אֶתְכֶם (ש״‎א יב, ז). דָּבָר אַחֵר, אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם, מָה הַיּוֹם מֵאִיר פְּעָמִים וּמַאֲפִיל פְּעָמִים, אַף אַתֶּם כְּשֶׁאֲפֵלָה לָכֶם, עָתִיד לְהָאִיר לָכֶם אוֹר עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהָיָה לְךָ ה' לְאוֹר עוֹלָם (ישעיה ס, יט). אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁתִּהְיוּ כֻּלְּכֶם אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: חַיִּים כֻּלְּכֶם הַיּוֹם (דברים ד, ד). בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם, אִם נוֹטֵל אָדָם אֲגֻדָּה שֶׁל קָנִים, שֶׁמָּא יָכֹל לְשָׁבְרָם בְּבַת אַחַת. וְאִלּוּ נוֹטֵל אַחַת אַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ תִּינוֹק מְשַׁבְּרָן. וְכֵן אַתְּ מוֹצֵא שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נִגְאֲלִין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻּלָּן אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה וּבָעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם ה' יָבֹאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְנֵי יְהוּדָה יַחְדָּו וְגוֹ' (ירמיה נ, ד). כְּשֶׁהֵן אֲגוּדִים, מְקַבְּלִין פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה.

(Deut. 29:9:) “You are standing today.” This text is related (to Prov. 12:7), “The wicked are overturned (rt.: hpk) and are no more, but the house of the righteous shall stand.” Every time that the Holy One, blessed be He, looks at the works of the wicked and turns (rt.: hpk) them over (examines them), there is no recovery for them. He turned over the works of the generation of the flood, and there was no recovery for them, as stated (in Gen. 7:23), “And he wiped out all living things.” He turned over the works of the Sodomites, and there was no recovery for them, as stated (in Gen. 19:25), “And he overturned those cities.” He turned over the works of the Egyptians, and there was no recovery for them, as stated (in Exod. 14:28), “and not so much as one of them remained.” He turned over the works of Babylon, and there was no recovery for them, as stated (in Is. 14:22), “and from Babylon i will cut off name, remnant, offspring, and posterity.” Moreover, David has said about all of them (in Ps. 36:13), “There the evildoers have fallen; they are thrust down and cannot rise.” When Israel falls, however, it stands up [again], as stated (in Micah 7:8), “Rejoice not over me, O my enemy; when I fall, I shall arise….” It also says (in Mal. 3:6), “For I the Lord do not change; [and you, O Children of Jacob, are not destroyed (rt.: klh).” R. Hanina bar Pappa said, “The Holy One, blessed be He, said, ‘I have never smitten a people and [restored] them, but (according to Mal. 3:6), “you Children of Jacob are not destroyed,”’ This is as stated (in Deut. 32:23), ‘I will use up (rt.: klh) My arrows on them,’ [meaning that] My arrows are used up (rt.: klh) but they are not destroyed (rt.: klh).” And so has the assembly of Israel said (in Lam. 3:12), “He has bent his bow; he has set me as a target for the arrow.” To what is the matter comparable? To a warrior who raises up the [target] post and shoots the arrows at them. The arrows are used up (rt.: klh), but the post stands. So it is also with Israel. Every time that afflictions came upon them, the afflictions ended, and they were standing in their place. Ergo it is stated (in Prov. 12:7), “The wicked are overturned and are no more.” Hezekiah the son of R. Hiyya said, “Why is this parashah next to the parashah about curses (i.e., Deut. 27:11-28:69)?1Rashi on Deut. 29:12. Because Israel heard a hundred curses less two in this parashah, apart from the forty-nine which are uttered in the priestly Torah (i.e., in Leviticus). They immediately turned green in the face and said, ‘Who can withstand these [curses]?’ Moses called them immediately (in Deut. 29:1) and pacified them with [the words from Deut. 29:9].” What is written above the matter (in Deut. 29:1-2, 6)? “Then Moses summoned all of Israel [and said unto them, ‘You have seen all that the Lord did before your eyes in the land of Egypt,] …. The great trials [which your eyes saw, the signs, and those great wonders]. When you came unto this place, [Sihon king of Heshbon and Og king of Bashan came out to engage us in battle; but we defeated them].” And you did not heed My voice, and you uttered words before Me for which you deserved destruction. Still I did not wreak destruction upon you, when it is stated (in Ps. 106:7), “When our ancestors were in Egypt, they did not consider Your wondrous works….” And not only that, but they said of the calf (in Exod. 32:4), “This is your god, O Israel.” Now if you should say, “For what reason did the [other] nations deserve destruction, while we are remaining alive?” It is because when afflictions come upon them, they kick against them and do not mention the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, as stated (in Ps. 79:6), “Pour out your wrath upon the nations that have not known you, [upon the kingdoms that do not invoke Your name].” In the case of Israel, however, when afflictions come upon them, they make submit and pray, as stated (in Ps. 116:3-4), “I found trouble and sorrow, but I shall invoke the name of the Lord.” Therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Even though these maledictions come upon you, they [themselves] stand you up; and so it says (in Deut. 8:16), ‘in order to humble you and in order to test you, [so as to benefit you in the end].’” Thus did Moses say to Israel, “Even though afflictions come upon you, you have a standing.” It is therefore stated (in Deut. 29:9), “You are standing today, all of you.” Another interpretation (of Deut. 29:9), “You are standing (nizavim) today”: Why did Moshe make them into a pillar (mazevah)2A type of altar generally used for idolatry, but always forbidden by the Torah. See Deut. 16:22.? Because they would [change] from one opinion to another opinion: from the opinion of Moshe to the opinion of Joshua; from the opinion of Joshua to the opinion of the elders. And Joshua also made them into a pillar, as stated (in Josh. 24:1), “Joshua assembled all the tribes of Israel at Schechem, [and he summoned Israel’s elders and commanders, magistrates and officers; and they presented (yityazvu) themselves].” And Samuel – since they [changed] from his opinion to the opinion of the kings – also made them into a pillar, as stated (in I Sam. 12:7), “And now stand (hityazvu) and I will judge you.” Another interpretation (of Deut. 29:9), “You are standing today”: Just as today (literally: the day) sometimes darkens and sometimes lightens, so it is with you. Although you have darkness, the Holy One, blessed be He, is going to shine on you with light eternal, as stated (in Is. 60:19), “for the Lord shall be your everlasting light.” When? When you all become one group, as stated (in Deut. 4:4), “are all alive today.” According to universal custom, if one takes a group of reeds, will he be able to break them at one stroke! But if he takes them one by one, even an infant can break them. So also you find that Israel was not redeemed until they became one group, as stated (in Jer. 50:4), “’In those days and at that time,’ says the Lord,’ the children of Israel, they and the children of Judah, shall come together.’” When they are united, they shall welcome the face of the Divine Presence.