יְלַמְּדֵנוּ רַבֵּנוּ, אֵי זֶה הוּא עָרֵב שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. כָּךְ שָׁנוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן נַנָּס אוֹמֵר, אֵי זֶה הוּא עָרֵב שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם. הָאוֹמֵר הַלְוֵהוּ וַאֲנִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ וְנָשָׂא וְנָתַן בְּיָד, הֶעָרֵב חַיָּב. Then Judah came near unto him (Gen. 44:18). May it please our master to teach us: Which guarantor is responsible for the repayment of a loan? Thus do our masters teach us: R. Simeon the son of Nanos answered the query: Which guarantor is responsible for the repayment of a loan? It is the one who says: “Lend him the money and I will repay you.” When he places it in the hand of the guarantor, he is the one who is liable.1The lender gave the money because of his confidence in the guarantor.
וּמִי הָיָה זֶה הֶעָרֵב, זֶה יְהוּדָה שֶׁאָמַר תְּנָה אוֹתוֹ עַל יָדִי וַאֲנִי אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ אֵלֶיךָ. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יֵרֵד בְּנִי עִמָּכֶם וְגוֹ' וּקְרָאָהוּ אָסוֹן. מִכָּאן אַתְּ לָמֵד, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא לַדֶּרֶךְ, הַשָּׂטָן מְקַטְרְגוֹ. Who was one such guarantor? Judah, for he said: Send the lad with me … I will be surety for him (Gen. 43:8–9). And he (Jacob) said: “My son shall not go down with you … if harm befall him by the way in which ye go (ibid. 42:38). From this verse, you may conclude that Satan brings charges against one who embarks on a journey.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסִי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ, עַל שָׁלֹשׁ עֲבֵרוֹת נָשִׁים מֵתוֹת בִּשְׁעַת לֵדָתָם. לָמָּה בִּשְׁעַת לֵידָתָן, שֶׁהַשָּׂטָן מְקַטְרֵג בִּשְׁעַת הַסַּכָּנָה. R. Yosé the son of Hanina declared: We have learned that women die in childbirth because of three transgressions they commit. But why in childbirth? Because Satan always brings charges against a person in a time of danger.2Highway travel and pregnancy were both considered dangerous, and Satan brings charges against a person when he endangers his life. See Tan. Noah 1, M. Shabbat 2:6.
יָרַד בִּנְיָמִין עִם אֶחָיו וְלָקְחוּ שֶׁבֶר, צִוָּה יוֹסֵף וְנָתְנוּ אֶת הַגָּבִיעַ בְּשַׂקּוֹ. עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִרְחִיקוּ, שָׁלַח אַחֲרֵיהֶן, אָמַר לָהֶם: הֲרֵעֹתֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם. אָמַר, מִי שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא הַגָּבִיעַ בְּיָדוֹ, יִהְיֶה לִי עָבֶד. כְּשֶׁנִּמְצָא בְשַקּוֹ שֶׁל בִּנְיָמִין, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד הָפַךְ פָּנָיו. וּמִי עָמַד כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, הֶעָרֵב. הֱוֵי, וַיִּגַּשׁ אֵלָיו יְהוּדָה. Benjamin descended with his brothers. After they had purchased the corn, Joseph commanded his steward to insert the goblet in his sack. When they had gone but a short way, he sent after them, and he said to them: “How could you do this evil deed? Whoever is found to have my goblet in his possession must become my servant.” When it was found in Benjamin’s sack, each of them turned away.3They were not responsible because they had not guaranteed Benjamin’s safety. Who, alone, confronted Joseph? The guarantor: Then Judah came near.