Menachot 110aמנחות ק״י א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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110aק״י א

ונשבעות לה' צבאות הלכו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים ובנו מזבח והעלו עליו לשם שמים שנאמר (ישעיהו יט, יט) ביום ההוא יהיה מזבח לה' בתוך ארץ מצרים

and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). They went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificed offerings upon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is stated in the following verse: “In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).

(ישעיהו יט, יח) עיר ההרס יאמר לאחת מאי עיר ההרס יאמר לאחת כדמתרגם רב יוסף קרתא דבית שמש דעתיד למיחרב איתאמר דהיא חדא מנהון וממאי דעיר ההרס לישנא דשימשא היא דכתיב (איוב ט, ז) האומר לחרס ולא יזרח

The verse states: “One shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the verse: “One shall be called the city of destruction”? The Gemara answers: As Rav Yosef translates into Aramaic: Concerning the City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from where is it derived that in the phrase: “The city of destruction [heres],” the term heres is referring to the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ḥeres], and it does not rise; and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).

(ישעיהו מג, ו) הביאי בני מרחוק ובנותי מקצה הארץ הביאי בני מרחוק אמר רב הונא אלו גליות של בבל שדעתן מיושבת עליהן כבנים ובנותי מקצה הארץ אלו גליות של שאר ארצות שאין דעתן מיושבת עליהן כבנות

§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth” (Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of “bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons, and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of “and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters.

אמר רבי אבא בר רב יצחק אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מצור ועד קרטיגני מכירין את ישראל ואת אביהם שבשמים ומצור כלפי מערב ומקרטיגני כלפי מזרח אין מכירין את ישראל ולא את אביהן שבשמים

§ Rabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak says that Rav Ḥisda says, and some say that Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The gentiles living from Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people, their religion, and their Father in Heaven. But those living to the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven.

איתיביה רב שימי בר חייא לרב (מלאכי א, יא) ממזרח שמש ועד מבואו גדול שמי בגוים ובכל מקום מוקטר מוגש לשמי ומנחה טהורה אמר ליה שימי את דקרו ליה אלהא דאלהא

Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection to the statement of Rav from the verse: “From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav said to him: Shimi, is it you who is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means that although they worship idols, they call Him the God of gods.

בכל מקום מוקטר מוגש לשמי בכל מקום סלקא דעתך אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן אלו תלמידי חכמים העוסקים בתורה בכל מקום מעלה אני עליהן כאילו מקטירין ומגישין לשמי

§ The verse states: “And in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it enter your mind to say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings in every place? Rather, Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torah study in every place. God says: I ascribe them credit as though they burn and present offerings to My name.

ומנחה טהורה זה הלומד תורה בטהרה נושא אשה ואחר כך לומד תורה

Furthermore, when the verse states: “And a pure meal offering,” this is referring to one who studies Torah in purity, i.e., one who first marries a woman and afterward studies Torah. Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.

(תהלים קלד, א) שיר המעלות הנה ברכו את ה' כל עבדי ה' העומדים בבית ה' בלילות מאי בלילות אמר ר' יוחנן אלו תלמידי חכמים העוסקים בתורה בלילה מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו עסוקים בעבודה

The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. “A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night” (Psalms 134:1). What is the meaning of “at night,” given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torah study at night. The verse ascribes them credit as though they engage in the Temple service.

(דברי הימים ב ב, ג) לעולם זאת על ישראל אמר רב גידל אמר רב זה מזבח בנוי ומיכאל שר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן

§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the Shabbatot, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. This is an ordinance forever for Israel” (II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordinance forever”? Rav Giddel says that Rav says: This is referring to the altar that remains built in Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, and the angel Michael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it.

ורבי יוחנן אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים העסוקין בהלכות עבודה מעלה עליהם הכתוב כאילו נבנה מקדש בימיהם

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says that there is an alternative explanation of the verse: These are Torah scholars, who engage in studying the halakhot of the Temple service. The verse ascribes them credit as though the Temple was built in their days and they are serving in it.

אמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא ז, לז) זאת התורה לעולה למנחה ולחטאת ולאשם כל העוסק בתורה כאילו הקריב עולה מנחה חטאת ואשם

§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the law [torah] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering, and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that anyone who engages in Torah study is considered as though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering.

אמר רבא האי לעולה למנחה עולה ומנחה מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבא כל העוסק בתורה אינו צריך לא עולה (ולא חטאת) ולא מנחה ולא אשם

Rava said an objection to this interpretation: This verse states: “Of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.” If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse should have written: “Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava says that the correct interpretation of this verse is: Anyone who engages in Torah study need not bring a burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering.

אמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (ויקרא ו, יח) זאת תורת החטאת וזאת תורת האשם כל העוסק בתורת חטאת כאילו הקריב חטאת וכל העוסק בתורת אשם כאילו הקריב אשם:

Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the law of the sin offering” (Leviticus 6:18), and: “This is the law of the guilt offering” (Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that anyone who engages in studying the law of the sin offering is ascribed credit as though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages in studying the law of a guilt offering is ascribed credit as though he sacrificed a guilt offering.

מתני׳ נאמר בעולת בהמה (ויקרא א, ט) אשה ריח ניחוח ובעולת עוף (ויקרא א, ט) אשה ריח ניחוח ובמנחה (ויקרא ב, ב) אשה ריח ניחוח לומר לך אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים:

MISHNA: It is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), and with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), and with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is to say to you that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering have equal merit, provided that he directs his heart toward Heaven.

גמ׳ אמר ר' זירא מאי קראה (קהלת ה, יא) מתוקה שנת העובד אם מעט ואם הרבה יאכל

GEMARA: Rabbi Zeira said: What is the verse from which this principle is derived? “Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much”(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted.

רב אדא בר אהבה אמר מהכא (קהלת ה, י) ברבות הטובה רבו אוכליה ומה כשרון לבעליו:

Rav Adda bar Ahava said that the source is from here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner, except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.

תניא אמר רבי שמעון בן עזאי בוא וראה מה כתיב בפרשת קרבנות שלא נאמר בהן לא אל ולא אלהים אלא ה' שלא ליתן פתחון פה לבעל דין לחלוק

The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: As in these verses, the divine names El and Elohim are not stated, but only “the Lord.” This is so as not to give a claim to a litigant to argue. Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods.

ונאמר בשור הגס (ויקרא א, ט) אשה ריח ניחוח ובעוף הדק (ויקרא א, ט) אשה ריח ניחוח ובמנחה (ויקרא ב, ב) אשה ריח ניחוח לומר לך אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין את לבו לשמים

And it is stated with regard to a large bull offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), and with regard to a small bird offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), and with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is to say to you that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering have equal merit, provided that he directs his heart toward Heaven.

ושמא תאמר לאכילה הוא צריך תלמוד לאמר (תהלים נ, יב) אם ארעב לא אומר לך כי לי תבל ומלואה ונאמר (תהלים נ, י) כי לי כל חיתו יער בהמות בהררי אלף ידעתי כל עוף הרים וזיז שדי עמדי האוכל בשר אבירים ודם עתודים אשתה

And lest you say that God needs these offerings for consumption, in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, the verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it” (Psalms 50:12). And it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine” (Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: “Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?” (Psalms 50:13).

לא אמרתי אליכם זבחו כדי שתאמר אעשה רצונו ויעשה רצוני לא לרצוני אתם זובחים אלא לרצונכם אתם זובחים שנאמר (ויקרא יט, ה) לרצונכם תזבחהו

I did not say to you: Sacrifice offerings to me, so that you will say: I will do His will, i.e., fulfill His needs, and He will do my will. You are not sacrificing to fulfill My will, i.e., My needs, but you are sacrificing to fulfill your will, i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, as it is stated: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, you shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted” (Leviticus 19:5).

דבר אחר לרצונכם תזבחהו לרצונכם זבחו לדעתכם זבחו

Alternatively, the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, you shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [lirtzonkhem]” (Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: Sacrifice willingly [lirtzonkhem]; sacrifice intentionally.

כדבעא מיניה שמואל מרב הונא מנין למתעסק בקדשים שהוא פסול שנאמר ושחט את בן הבקר שתהא שחיטה לשם בן בקר

This is as Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From where is it derived with regard to one who acts unawares in the case of consecrated items, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, that the offering is disqualified? Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bull before the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly unless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull, i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.

אמר לו זו בידינו הוא לעכב מנין תלמוד לאמר לרצונכם תזבחהו לדעתכם זבחו:

Shmuel said to Rav Huna: We have this as an established halakha already, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but from where is it derived that this requirement is indispensable? Rav Huna said to him that the verse states: “With your will you shall slaughter it” (Leviticus 19:5), i.e., sacrifice intentionally, in the form of a purposeful action.



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