״וְהָיוּ״, בַּהֲוָיָתָן יְהוּ. וְרַבָּנַן, מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר קְרָא: ״שְׁמַע״, בְּכׇל לָשׁוֹן שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ. “And these words…shall be” (Deuteronomy 6:6), teaching that these words, the words of the Shema, always “shall be” as they are, i.e., in the Hebrew language. The Gemara asks: And as for the Sages, what is the reason for their opinion? The verse states: “Hear, O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4), which could also be translated, “Understand, O Israel,” indicating that you may recite these words in any language that you hear, i.e., understand.
וְרַבִּי נָמֵי, הָא כְּתִיב: ״שְׁמַע״? הַהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ: הַשְׁמַע לְאָזְנֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה מוֹצִיא מִפִּיךָ. וְרַבָּנַן — סָבְרִי כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר הַקּוֹרֵא אֶת שְׁמַע וְלֹא הִשְׁמִיעַ לְאׇזְנוֹ יָצָא. The Gemara asks: And according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi as well, isn’t it indeed written, “hear”? What does he learn from this word, if not that the Shema may be recited in any language? The Gemara answers: This word is necessary to teach something else: Make heard to your ears what your mouth is saying, i.e., the Shema must be recited audibly, not merely thought in one’s heart. The Gemara asks: And how do the Sages know this? The Gemara explains: They hold like the one who said that if one recites the Shema but does not make it audible to his ears, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.
וְרַבָּנַן נָמֵי, הָכְתִיב ״וְהָיוּ״? הַהוּא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא לְמַפְרֵעַ. וְרַבִּי, שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא לְמַפְרֵעַ מְנָא לֵיהּ? מִ״דְּבָרִים״ ״הַדְּבָרִים״. וְרַבָּנַן — ״דְּבָרִים״ ״הַדְּבָרִים״ לָא מַשְׁמַע לְהוּ. The Gemara asks: And according to the Sages as well, isn’t it indeed written, “And these words shall be”? What do they learn from this, if not that the Shema must be recited in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: That word is necessary to teach that one must not recite the words of the Shema out of order, but they “shall be” as they are, in the proper order. The Gemara asks: And from where does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi learn that one must not recite the Shema out of order? The Gemara answers: He derives it from the fact that the verse does not say just: Words, but “the words,” referring to specific words, which teaches that they must be recited in their proper order without any variation. The Gemara asks: And what do the Sages learn from the phrase “the words”? The difference between words and “the words” is inconsequential according to them.
לֵימָא קָסָבַר רַבִּי כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה כּוּלָּהּ בְּכׇל לָשׁוֹן נֶאֶמְרָה, דְּאִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקּוֹדֶשׁ נֶאֶמְרָה — לְמָה לִי לְמִכְתַּב ״וְהָיוּ״! The Gemara analyzes the dispute: Shall we say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi maintains that the entire Torah may be recited in any language? As, if it enters your mind to say that the entire Torah may be recited only in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and not in any other language, why do I need the Torah to write “and these words shall be” with respect to the Shema? Why would I think that the Shema is different from the rest of the Torah?
אִצְטְרִיךְ, סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ ״שְׁמַע״ — כְּרַבָּנַן, כְּתַב רַחֲמָנָא ״וְהָיוּ״. The Gemara rejects this argument: There is no proof from here, as even if the Torah must generally be recited in Hebrew it is nevertheless necessary to specify the matter here, since without such specification it might have entered your mind to say that in this context “hear” means understand, as maintained by the Sages, and that the Shema may be recited in any language. Therefore the Merciful One writes in the Torah, “and these words shall be,” to teach us that the Shema may be recited only in the original Hebrew.
לֵימָא קָסָבְרִי רַבָּנַן כׇּל הַתּוֹרָה בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקּוֹדֶשׁ נֶאֶמְרָה, דְּאִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ בְּכׇל לָשׁוֹן נֶאֶמְרָה — לְמָה לִי לְמִכְתַּב ״שְׁמַע״! The Gemara suggests: Shall we say then that the Sages maintain that the entire Torah must be recited specifically in the sacred tongue, Hebrew? As, if it enters your mind to say that the entire Torah may be recited in any language, why do I need the Torah to write “hear” with respect to the Shema? Why would one think that the Shema is different from the rest of the Torah?
אִיצְטְרִיךְ, סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ אָמֵינָא ״וְהָיוּ״ — כְּרַבִּי, כְּתַב רַחֲמָנָא ״שְׁמַע״. The Gemara rejects this argument: Even if the Torah may generally be recited in any language, it was nevertheless necessary to specify the matter here. Without such specification it could enter your mind to say that the words “and these words shall be” teach that the Shema may be recited only in Hebrew, as asserted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Therefore the Merciful One writes the word “hear” in the Torah, to teach us that the Shema may be recited in any language.
תְּפִלָּה מְנָא לַן? דְּתַנְיָא: שִׁמְעוֹן הַפָּקוֹלִי הִסְדִּיר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל עַל הַסֵּדֶר בְּיַבְנֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים זְקֵנִים, וּבָהֶם כַּמָּה נְבִיאִים, תִּיקְּנוּ שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת עַל הַסֵּדֶר. § The baraita cited previously taught that the halakha against reciting a text out of order applies to the Amida prayer as well. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is taught in a baraita: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings of the Amida prayer before Rabban Gamliel in their fixed order in Yavne, which indicates that there is a specific order to these blessings that must not be changed. Rabbi Yoḥanan said, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: A hundred and twenty Elders, i.e., the Men of the Great Assembly, and among them several prophets, established the eighteen blessings of the Amida in their fixed order, which also shows that the order of these blessings may not be changed.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: מִנַּיִן שֶׁאוֹמְרִים אָבוֹת — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הָבוּ לַה׳ בְּנֵי אֵלִים״. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאוֹמְרִים גְּבוּרוֹת — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הָבוּ לַה׳ כָּבוֹד וָעוֹז״. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאוֹמְרִים קְדוּשּׁוֹת — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הָבוּ לַה׳ כְּבוֹד שְׁמוֹ הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַה׳ בְּהַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ״. The Gemara proceeds to explain this order: The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that one says the blessing of the Patriarchs, the first blessing of the Amida? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, mighty ones” (Psalms 29:1), which means that one should mention before the Lord the mighty ones of the world, i.e., the Patriarchs. And from where is it derived that one then says the blessing of mighty deeds? As it is stated in the continuation of that verse: “Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength” (Psalms 29:1). And from where is it derived that one then says the blessing of holiness? As it is stated in the next verse: “Give to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness” (Psalms 29:2).
וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר בִּינָה אַחַר קְדוּשָּׁה — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְהִקְדִּישׁוּ אֶת קְדוֹשׁ יַעֲקֹב וְאֶת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲרִיצוּ״, וּסְמִיךְ לֵיהּ: ״וְיָדְעוּ תוֹעֵי רוּחַ בִּינָה״. וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר תְּשׁוּבָה אַחַר בִּינָה — דִּכְתִיב: ״וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ״. The Gemara continues: And why did they see fit to institute to say the blessing of understanding after the blessing of holiness? As it is stated: “They shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall revere the God of Israel” (Isaiah 29:23), and adjacent to that verse it is written: “They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding” (Isaiah 29:24). This shows that it is proper for the theme of understanding to follow the theme of God’s holiness. And why did they see fit to institute to say the blessing of repentance after the blessing of understanding? As it is written: “And they will understand with their heart, repent, and be healed” (Isaiah 6:10-11), showing that the theme of repentance properly follows the theme of understanding.
אִי הָכִי — לֵימָא רְפוּאָה בָּתְרַהּ דִּתְשׁוּבָה? לָא סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְיָשׁוֹב אֶל ה׳ וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ״. The Gemara asks: If so, that the sequence of blessings is based on this verse, let us say that the blessing of healing should be said after the blessing of repentance. Why, then, is the next blessing in the Amida the blessing of forgiveness and not the blessing of healing? The Gemara explains: This cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And let him return to the Lord, and He will have compassion upon him; and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon” (Isaiah 55:7), which shows that the theme of repentance should be followed by that of forgiveness.
וּמַאי חָזֵית דְּסָמְכַתְּ אַהָא? סְמוֹךְ אַהָא! כְּתַב קְרָא אַחֲרִינָא: ״הַסּוֹלֵחַ לְכׇל עֲוֹנֵיכִי הָרוֹפֵא לְכׇל תַּחֲלוּאָיְכִי הַגּוֹאֵל מִשַּׁחַת חַיָּיְכִי״. לְמֵימְרָא דִּגְאוּלָּה וּרְפוּאָה בָּתַר סְלִיחָה הִיא, וְהָכְתִיב: ״וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ״! הָהוּא לָאו רְפוּאָה דְתַחְלוּאִים הִיא, אֶלָּא רְפוּאָה דִסְלִיחָה הִיא. The Gemara poses a question: But what did you see to rely on this verse? Rely on the other verse, which juxtaposes repentance to healing. The Gemara answers: Another verse, in which it is written: “Who forgives all your iniquities, Who heals all your diseases, Who redeems your life from the pit” (Psalms 103:3–4), proves that the theme of healing should follow that of forgiveness. The Gemara asks: Is that verse coming to say that the blessings of redemption and healing should be placed following the blessing of forgiveness? But isn’t it written: “Repent, and be healed” (Isaiah 6:10), which suggests that repentance should be followed by healing? The Gemara answers: That verse is referring not to the literal healing from illness, but rather to the figurative healing of forgiveness, and therefore this verse too supports the sequence of forgiveness following repentance.
וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר גְּאוּלָּה בִּשְׁבִיעִית? אָמַר רָבָא: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁעֲתִידִין לִיגָּאֵל בִּשְׁבִיעִית — לְפִיכָךְ קְבָעוּהָ בִּשְׁבִיעִית. וְהָאָמַר מָר: בְּשִׁשִּׁית קוֹלוֹת, בִּשְׁבִיעִית מִלְחָמוֹת, בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית בֶּן דָּוִד בָּא! מִלְחָמָה נָמֵי אַתְחַלְתָּא דִגְאוּלָּה הִיא. The Gemara continues: And why did they see fit to institute to say the blessing of redemption as the seventh blessing? Rava said: Since there is a tradition that the Jewish people are destined to be redeemed in the seventh year of the Sabbatical cycle, consequently, they fixed redemption as the seventh blessing. But didn’t the Master say in a baraita: In the sixth year of the Sabbatical cycle in the days of the arrival of the Messiah, heavenly sounds will be heard; in the seventh year there will be wars; and upon the conclusion of the seventh year, in the eighth year, the son of David, the Messiah, will come? The redemption will take place not during the seventh year but after it. The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the war that takes place during the seventh year is also the beginning of the redemption process, and it is therefore correct to say that Israel will be redeemed in the seventh year.
וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר רְפוּאָה בִּשְׁמִינִית? אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנִּתְּנָה מִילָה בִּשְׁמִינִית שֶׁצְּרִיכָה רְפוּאָה — לְפִיכָךְ קְבָעוּהָ בִּשְׁמִינִית. The Gemara continues: And why did they see fit to institute that one says the blessing of healing as the eighth blessing? Rabbi Aḥa said: Since circumcision was assigned to the eighth day of life, and circumcision requires healing, consequently, they established healing as the eighth blessing.
וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר בִּרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים בִּתְשִׁיעִית? אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי: כְּנֶגֶד מַפְקִיעֵי שְׁעָרִים, דִּכְתִיב: ״שְׁבוֹר זְרוֹעַ רָשָׁע״, וְדָוִד כִּי אַמְרַהּ — בִּתְשִׁיעִית אַמְרַהּ. And why did they see fit to institute that one says the blessing of bountiful years as the ninth blessing? Rabbi Alexandri said: This blessing was instituted in reference to those who raise the prices of food. We pray for rain so that the price of produce will not rise as a result of shortages, as it is written: “Break the arm of the wicked” (Psalms 10:15), referring to the wicked, who practice deception and extort the poor. And when David expressed this request, he expressed it in the ninth psalm. Although today it is considered the tenth psalm, the first and second psalms are actually counted as one, and therefore this is the ninth psalm. Therefore, the blessing of the years was fixed as the ninth blessing.
וּמָה רָאוּ לוֹמַר קִיבּוּץ גָּלִיּוֹת לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַשָּׁנִים? דִּכְתִיב: ״וְאַתֶּם הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַנְפְּכֶם תִּתֵּנוּ וּפֶרְיְכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ לְעַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי קֵרְבוּ לָבוֹא״. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ גָּלִיּוֹת — נַעֲשֶׂה דִּין בָּרְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְאָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ וְאֶצְרוֹף כַּבּוֹר סִיגָיִךְ״, וּכְתִיב: ״וְאָשִׁיבָה שׁוֹפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשׁוֹנָה״. The Gemara asks: And why did they see fit to institute that one says the blessing of the ingathering of the exiles after the blessing of the years? As it is written: “And you, O mountains of Israel, you shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people Israel; for they will soon be coming” (Ezekiel 36:8), which indicates that the ingathering of the exiles will follow after Eretz Yisrael is blessed with bountiful produce. And once the exiles have been gathered, judgment will be meted out to the wicked, as it is stated: “And I will turn my hand against you and purge away your dross as with lye” (Isaiah 1:25), and immediately after it is written: “And I will restore your judges as at first” (Isaiah 1:26). For this reason the blessing of the restoration of judges comes after the blessing of the ingathering of the exiles.
וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה דִּין מִן הָרְשָׁעִים — כָּלוּ הַפּוֹשְׁעִים, וְכוֹלֵל זֵדִים עִמָּהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשֶׁבֶר פּוֹשְׁעִים וְחַטָּאִים יַחְדָּיו (יִכְלוּ)״. And once judgment is meted out to the wicked, the transgressors, i.e., the heretics and sectarians, will cease to be. Consequently, the next blessing is that of the heretics, and one includes evildoers with them, as it is stated: “And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the Lord shall cease to be” (Isaiah 1:28). The “transgressors and sinners” are the evildoers, and “they that forsake the Lord” are the heretics.
וְכֵיוָן שֶׁכָּלוּ הַפּוֹשְׁעִים — מִתְרוֹמֶמֶת קֶרֶן צַדִּיקִים, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְכׇל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ תְּרוֹמַמְנָה קַרְנוֹת צַדִּיק״. וְכוֹלֵל גֵּירֵי הַצֶּדֶק עִם הַצַּדִּיקִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן״ — וּסְמִיךְ לֵיהּ: ״וְכִי יָגוּר אִתְּכֶם גֵּר״. And once the heretics cease to be, the horn, i.e., the glory, of the righteous will be exalted, as it is written: “All the horns of the wicked will I cut off; but the horns of the righteous shall be exalted” (Psalms 75:11). Therefore, after the blessing of the heretics, one says the blessing about the righteous. And he includes the righteous converts along with the righteous, as it is stated: “You shall rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the elder” (Leviticus 19:32), and adjacent to this it is stated: “And if a stranger sojourns with you” (Leviticus 19:33). An “elder” is one with Torah wisdom and a “stranger” is one who has converted to Judaism.
וְהֵיכָן מִתְרוֹמֶמֶת קַרְנָם — בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״שַׁאֲלוּ שְׁלוֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָם יִשְׁלָיוּ אוֹהֲבָיִךְ״. And where will the horns of the righteous be exalted? In Jerusalem, as it is stated: “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem; they who love you shall prosper” (Psalms 122:6). “They who love you” are the righteous. Therefore, the blessing of the rebuilding of Jerusalem is placed after the blessing of the righteous.
וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּבְנֵית יְרוּשָׁלַיִם — בָּא דָּוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: And once Jerusalem is rebuilt, the Messiah, scion of the house of David, will come, as it is stated: