למה נמנו שנותיו של ישמעאל כדי ליחס בהן שנותיו של יעקב דכתיב (בראשית כה, יז) ואלה שני חיי ישמעאל מאת שנה ושלשים שנה ושבע שנים כמה קשיש ישמעאל מיצחק ארביסר שנין דכתיב (בראשית טז, טז) ואברם בן שמונים שנה ושש שנים בלדת הגר את ישמעאל לאברם וכתיב (בראשית כא, ה) ואברהם בן מאת שנה בהולד לו את יצחק בנו וכתיב (בראשית כה, כו) ויצחק בן ששים שנה בלדת אותם בר כמה הוה ישמעאל כדאתיליד יעקב בר שבעים וארבעה כמה פיישן משניה שתין ותלת
Why were the years of Ishmael mentioned in the Torah? For what purpose were we told the life span of that wicked man? In order to reckon through them the years of Jacob. As it is written: “And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirty-seven years” (Genesis 25:17). How much older was Ishmael than Isaac? Fourteen years. As it is written: “And Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram” (Genesis 16:16). And it is written: “And Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him” (Genesis 21:5). And it is written with regard to Jacob and Esau: “And Isaac was sixty years old when she bore them” (Genesis 25:26). Based on these verses, how old was Ishmael when Jacob was born? Seventy-four. How many of his years remained then until his death? Sixty-three, as Ishmael died at the age of a hundred and thirty-seven.
ותניא היה יעקב אבינו בשעה שנתברך מאביו בן ששים ושלש שנה ובו בפרק מת ישמעאל דכתיב (בראשית כח, ו) וירא עשו כי ברך וגו' וילך עשו אל ישמעאל ויקח את מחלת בת ישמעאל אחות נביות ממשמע שנאמר בת ישמעאל איני יודע שהיא אחות נביות מלמד שקידשה ישמעאל ומת והשיאה נביות אחיה
And it was taught in a baraita: Jacob our father was sixty-three years old at the time he was blessed by his father, and at that same time Ishmael died. How is it known that these two events occurred at the same time? As it is written: “When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob…then Esau went to Ishmael and took for a wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth” (Genesis 28:6–9). From the fact that it is stated: “the daughter of Ishmael,” do I not know that she was the sister of Nebaioth? For what purpose then does the verse say this explicitly? This teaches that Ishmael betrothed her to Esau and in the meantime he died, and Nebaioth her brother married her off. Therefore, special mention is made of Nebaioth. Consequently, it is understood that Jacob was sixty-three years old when he received his blessing and left his father’s house.
שתין ותלת וארביסר עד דמתיליד יוסף הא שבעין ושבעה וכתיב (בראשית מא, מו) ויוסף בן שלשים שנה בעמדו לפני פרעה הא מאה ושבע שב דשבעא ותרתי דכפנא הא מאה ושיתסר
If we calculate these sixty-three years and the fourteen until Joseph was born, this means that Jacob should have been seventy-seven at the time of Joseph’s birth. And it is written: “And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh” (Genesis 41:46). This indicates that Jacob should have then been at least a hundred and seven years old when Joseph was thirty. Add the seven years of plenty and the two of famine, and this would then indicate that Jacob should have been a hundred and sixteen years old when he arrived in Egypt in the second year of the famine.
וכתיב (בראשית מז, ח) ויאמר פרעה אל יעקב כמה ימי שני חייך ויאמר יעקב אל פרעה ימי שני מגורי שלשים ומאת שנה מאה ושיתסר הויין
But it is written: “And Pharaoh said to Jacob, How many are the days of the years of your life? And Jacob said to Pharaoh, The days of the years of my sojournings are a hundred and thirty years” (Genesis 47:8–9). Jacob indicated that he was a hundred and thirty-three when he arrived in Egypt, which is different from the hundred and sixteen years calculated previously. Where are the missing fourteen years from Jacob’s lifetime?
אלא ש"מ ארבע עשרה שנין דהוה בבית עבר לא חשיב להו דתניא היה יעקב בבית עבר מוטמן ארבע עשרה שנה עבר מת לאחר שירד יעקב אבינו לארם נהרים שתי שנים יצא משם ובא לו לארם נהרים נמצא כשעמד על הבאר בן שבעים ושבע שנה
Rather, learn from here that the fourteen years that Jacob spent in the house of Eber are not counted here. As it is taught in a baraita: Jacob was studying in the house of Eber for fourteen years while in hiding from his brother Esau. If we were to calculate the life spans recorded in the Torah, we would find that Eber died when Jacob was seventy-nine years old, two years after Jacob our father went down to Aram-naharaim, to the house of Laban. When Jacob left after completing his studying there, he then went immediately to Aram-naharaim. Therefore, when Jacob stood at the well upon his arrival in Aram-naharaim, he was seventy-seven years old.
ומנלן דלא מיענש דתניא נמצא יוסף שפירש מאביו עשרים ושתים שנה כשם שפירש יעקב אבינו מאביו דיעקב תלתין ושיתא הויין אלא ארביסר דהוה בבית עבר לא חשיב להו
And from where do we derive that Jacob was not punished for the fourteen years that he was in the house of Eber, during which time he failed to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents? As it is taught in a baraita: It turns out that Joseph was away from his father for twenty-two years, just as Jacob our father was away from his own father for that same period of time. According to the previous calculation, however, the baraita is difficult, as Jacob was absent for thirty-six years. Rather, conclude from here that the fourteen years that he was in the house of Eber are not counted, as he was not punished for them.
סוף סוף דבית לבן עשרין שנין הויין אלא משום דאשתהי באורחא תרתין שנין דתניא יצא מארם נהרים ובא לו לסכות ועשה שם שמונה עשר חודש שנאמר (בראשית לג, יז) ויעקב נסע סכותה ויבן לו בית ולמקנהו עשה סכות ובבית אל עשה ששה חדשים והקריב זבחים:
The Gemara raises an objection: But ultimately, Jacob was in Laban’s house for only twenty years. Why, then, is he faulted for being away from his father for twenty-two years? Rather, he was punished because on his journey back from Aram-naharaim he tarried another two years before returning home to his parents, as it is taught in a baraita: Jacob left Aram-naharaim and came to Sukkot, and spent eighteen months there, as it is stated: “And Jacob journeyed to Sukkot, built himself a house, and made booths [sukkot] for his cattle” (Genesis 33:17). The Gemara understands this verse to mean that first he made booths [Sukkot], to live in during the summer, and then he built a house in the winter, and afterward he again made booths [sukkot] during the next summer, indicating that he must have been there for eighteen months. He then was in Bethel for six months, and he brought offerings, totaling two years in all. In this way, all the various calculations of years are reconciled.
הדרן עלך מגילה נקראת
May we return to you Chapter “The Megillah is Read”
מתני׳ הקורא את המגילה למפרע לא יצא קראה על פה קראה תרגום בכל לשון לא יצא אבל קורין אותה ללועזות בלעז והלועז ששמע אשורית יצא
MISHNA: With regard to one who reads the Megilla out of order, reading a later section first, and then going back to the earlier section, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he read it by heart, or if he read it in Aramaic translation or in any other language that he does not understand, he has not fulfilled his obligation. However, for those who speak a foreign language, one may read the Megilla in that foreign language. And one who speaks a foreign language who heard the Megilla read in Ashurit, i.e., in Hebrew, has fulfilled his obligation.
קראה סירוגין ומתנמנם יצא היה כותבה דורשה ומגיהה אם כוון לבו יצא ואם לאו לא יצא
If one read the Megilla at intervals, pausing and resuming, or while he is dozing off, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one was writing a Megilla, or expounding upon it, or correcting it, and he read all its words as he was doing so, the following distinction applies: If he had intent to fulfill his obligation with that reading he has fulfilled his obligation, but if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation.
היתה כתובה בסם ובסיקרא ובקומוס ובקנקנתום על הנייר ועל הדפתרא לא יצא עד שתהא כתובה אשורית על הספר ובדיו:
If one reads from a Megilla that was written not with ink but with sam or with sikra or with komos or with kankantom, or from a Megilla that was written not on parchment but on neyar or on diftera, a kind of unprocessed leather, he has not fulfilled his obligation. He does not fulfill his obligation unless he reads from a Megilla that is written in Ashurit, i.e., in the Hebrew language and using the Hebrew script, upon parchment and with ink.
גמ׳ מה"מ אמר רבא דאמר קרא ככתבם וכזמנם (אסתר ט, כז) מה זמנם למפרע לא אף כתבם למפרע לא
GEMARA: It was taught in the mishna that one who reads the Megilla out of order has not fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rava said: The verse states concerning Purim: “That they should unfailingly observe these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed times every year” (Esther 9:27), and the word “times” is referring to the two days of Purim, the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Adar. And we learn by way of analogy: Just as their appointed times cannot be out of order, as the fifteenth of Adar cannot possibly come before the fourteenth, so too, their writing must not be out of order.
מידי קריאה כתיבה הכא עשייה כתיבה דכתיב להיות עושים את שני הימים אלא מהכא דכתיב והימים האלה נזכרים ונעשים (אסתר ט, כח) איתקש זכירה לעשייה מה עשייה למפרע לא אף זכירה למפרע לא
The Gemara rejects this derivation: Is reading written here at all? It is “observing” that is written here in this verse, not reading, as it is written: “That they should unfailingly observe these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed times.” Rather, the proof is from here, as it is written: “And that these days should be remembered and observed throughout every generation” (Esther 9:28). Remembering is juxtaposed to observing, indicating: Just as observing cannot be out of order, as was derived from the words “That they should unfailingly observe these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed times,” so too, remembering, by reading the Megilla, may not be out of order.
תנא וכן בהלל וכן בקריאת שמע ובתפלה
§ The Sages taught in a baraita: This halakha of not reading out of order applies also to hallel, and also to the recitation of Shema, and also to the Amida prayer, meaning that to fulfill one’s obligation he must recite the text of each of these in order.
הלל מנלן רבה אמר דכתיב (תהלים קיג, ג) ממזרח שמש עד מבואו רב יוסף אמר (תהלים קיח, כד) זה היום עשה ה'
The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that hallel may not be recited out of order? Rabba said: As it is written in hallel: “From the rising of the sun until its setting the Lord’s name is to be praised” (Psalms 113:3). Just as the sunrise and sunset cannot be reversed, so too, hallel may not be recited out of order. Rav Yosef said: It is derived from the verse in hallel that states: “This is the day that the Lord has made” (Psalms 118:24); just as the day follows a certain order, so too, hallel must be recited in its proper order.
רב אויא אמר (תהלים קיג, ב) יהי שם ה' מבורך ורב נחמן בר יצחק ואיתימא ר' אחא בר יעקב אמר מהכא (תהלים קיג, ב) מעתה ועד עולם
Rav Avya said: It is derived from the verse in hallel: “Blessed be the name of the Lord” (Psalms 113:2), indicating that the blessing of God must “be” just as it is written. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said, and some say that it was Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov who said: It is derived from here, the end of the aforementioned verse: “From now and for evermore” (Psalms 113:2), i.e., it should be like time, which cannot be reversed.
ק"ש דתניא ק"ש ככתבה דברי רבי וחכ"א בכל לשון מ"ט דרבי אמר קרא
From where do we know one has not fulfilled his obligation of reciting the Shema if he recited it out of order? As it is taught in a baraita: The recital of the Shema must be as it is written, i.e., in Hebrew; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. But the Rabbis say: It may be recited in any language. The Gemara asks: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The verse states: