Musaf for Yom Kippur, The Avodah Service תפלת מוסף, סדר העבודה

אַמִּיץ כֹּֽחַ כַּבִּיר וְרַב אוֹנִים. אֲשֶׁר מִי יַעֲשֶׂה כְּמַֽעַשׂ גְּבוּרוֹתֶיךָ. אֹֽמֶץ עֲלִיּוֹת קֵרִֽיתָ עַל קָרִים. אַף יִסַּֽדְתָּ תֵבֵל עַל בְּלִימָה: בִּהְיוֹת עוֹלָם חֽשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָֽוֶת וְעֵיפָה. בְּמַעֲטֵה לְבוּשְׁךָ אוֹר בֹּֽקֶר הִגַּֽהְתָּ. בֵּין זֵידוֹנִים חַֽצְתָּ כְּקֶֽרַח הַנּוֹרָא. בְּצוּל הִקְוִיתָם לְבַל יְכַסּוּן חָֽלֶד: גִּלִּֽיתָ פְּנֵי נֶֽשִׁי וְהֵנֵצָה תְנוּבָה. גַּן מִקֶּֽדֶם טַֽעְתָּ לְשַׁעֲשֽׁוּעַ מַאֲמִירֶֽיךָ. גֹּֽדֶל מְאוֹרוֹת תַּֽתָּה בִּרְקִֽיעַ עֻזֶּֽךָ. גַּם צְבָא מַזָּרוֹת עִמָּם צִוִּֽיתָ: דֵּי שָׂחִים וְדוֹאִים מִשַּֽׁעַל צַֽרְתָּה. דִּמְיוֹן בָּרִֽיחַ לְכֵרַת יוֹשְׁבֵי גַנִּים. דְּבוּקַת רְגָבִים הוֹצִֽיאָה רוֹמְשִׂים וְשׁוֹאֲפִים. דָּר קָנֶה וּבִצָּה לַאֲרוּחַת קְרוּאֶֽיךָ: הֵכַֽנְתָּ טֶֽבַח וּמֶֽסֶךְ וְסוֹעֵד אָֽיִן. הִקְרַֽצְתָּ גֹּֽלֶם מֵחֹֽמֶר בְּתַבְנִית חוֹתָמֶֽךָ. הִפַּֽחְתָּ בְחֶלְדּוֹ טֹֽהַר נֶֽשֶׁם מִזְּבוּלֶֽךָ. הֻרְדַּם וּמִצַּלְעוֹ עֵֽזֶר לוֹ יִעַֽדְתָּ: וְצִוִּיתוֹ בְּלִי לְעֹט מֵעֵץ הַדָּֽעַת. וְהֵפֵר צִוּוּי כְּפֶֽתִי בְּהַשָּׁאַת זוֹחֵל. וְעֻנַּשׁ בְּזֵעַת אַף לִטְרֹף חֻקּוֹ. וְאִוֶּֽלֶת בְּצִירִים וְעָרוּם עָפָר לַחְמוֹ: זֵרוּי רִבְעוֹ הִקְפֵּֽיתָ בְּבֶֽטֶן חוֹמֶֽדֶת. זָרְעָה וְהוֹלִֽידָה אִכָּר וְרוֹעֵה צֹאן. זֶֽבַח וְשַׁי הִגִּֽישׁוּ לְמוּלְךָ יַֽחַד. זָעַֽמְתָּ בָּרַב וְשַֽׁעְתָּ תְּשׁוּרַת צָעִיר: חֶֽמֶל רַחֲמָיו שִׁחֵת וְעָרַף אָח. חִלָּה פָנֶֽיךָ וְשַֽׂמְתָּ לוֹ אוֹת. חָלוּ שָׁלִישִׁים קְרֹא בְשִׁמְךָ לַסֶּֽמֶל. חֵיל נוֹזְלִים קָרָֽאתָ וּשְׁטָפוּם וְאָבָֽדוּ: טָעוּ גֵאִים וּפָצוּ סוּר לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ. טֹרְפוּ בְּחֹם הוֹמִים וְזֹרְבוּ נִצְמָֽתוּ. טָעוּן גֹּֽפֶר נוֹשַׁע כְּסָגַֽרְתָּ בַּעֲדוֹ. טְפוּלָיו הִפְרֵֽיתָ וּמָלְאוּ פְנֵי צִיָּה: יָעֲצוּ נֶאֱחָדִים לָרוּם עַד לַשַּֽׁחַק. יֻקָּֽשׁוּ נֻפָּֽצוּ בְּרֽוּחַ סוֹעָה וָסָֽעַר. יְדִיד אֲתוּי עֵֽבֶר יִדַּעֲךָ בָּעוֹלָם. יִחוּם זְקוּנָיו הֶעֱלָה לְךָ לְכָלִיל: כְּשֶׂה תָּמִים בֻּחַר אִישׁ תָּם. כְּחָשַׁק יְשִׁיבַת אֹהָלִים וְנִמְשַׁךְ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ. כּֽשֶׁר חֲנִיטֵי יוֹף הוֹצֵֽאתָה מֵחֲלָצָיו. כֻּלּוֹ זֶֽרַע אֱמֶת וְאֵין דֹּֽפִי: לְשָׁרֶתְךָ אִוִּֽיתָה לֵוִי אִישׁ חֲסִידֶֽךָ. לְהַבְדִּיל מִגִּזְעוֹ מֻקְדָּשׁ קֹֽדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים. לִקְשֹׁר נֶֽזֶר קֹֽדֶשׁ וְלַעֲטוֹת אוּרִים. לֵישֵׁב כִּכְבֻדָּה פְּנִֽימָה יָמִים שִׁבְעָה: מַחֲזִיקֵי אֲמָנָה שָׁבֽוּעַ קֹדֶם לֶעָשׂוֹר. מַפְרִישִׁים כֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ כְּדָת הַמִּלֻּאִים: מַזִּים עָלָיו מֵי חַטָּאת לְטַהֲרוֹ. זוֹרֵק מַקְטִיר וּמֵטִיב לְהִתְרַגֵּל בָּעֲבוֹדָה: כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרָתֶֽךָ: כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה צִוָּה יְהֹוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם:

Source of all energy and power! Who could possibly duplicate Your mighty works? You constructed chambers above the cold waters,19See Tehillim 104:3, Bereishis Rabbah 4:1. The construction of the heavens is described by the commentators to Tehillim 104:3, and in Bereishis Rabbah. On the second day of creation, Hashem established the sky within the waters which subsequently separated the upper waters from the lower waters. Above the upper waters, a “ceiling” or “roof” was placed. This is the meaning of the verse. (See Metsudah, Radak, ibid.). and placed the globe in space.20Job 27:7; the original word, as it appears in Job, is the verb “תּוֹלֶה” meaning “to suspend.” When the world was filled with total darkness21The three words חשֶׁךְ-צַלְמָוֶת-עֵיפָה are found in Job 10:21—22 and are all expressions for darkness (See Malbim ibid.). You wrapped yourself in Your garment,22Tehillim 18:29. The creation of light is so described in Bereishis Rabbah 3:4. radiating with morning light. You divided the impetuous waters with an awesome, crystal-like sky;23Yechezkel 1:22. and gathered them into the depths so they would not cover the dry land.24Tehillim 104:9. You uncovered the surface of the earth,25Bereishis 1:11—12. The phraseology is based upon Tehillim 88:13, Shir Hashirim 6:11. and brought forth vegetation. You planted a garden in the East for those who praise you.26Bereishis 2:8. This refers to the righteous who will occupy Gan Eden in the World to Come. Great luminaries You placed in the sky27This refers to the sun and the moon. The phraseology is based upon Tehillim 150:1. along with host of stars and constellations; which You commanded [to illuminate the world]. An abundance of swimming creatures [fish]28Yeshaya 25:11. and flying creatures [birds etc.]29Devorim 28:49. You created from the palm of Your hand30Yeshaya 40:12.; and the Leviathan which You reserved for the feast of Torah scholars.31This feast will be in the World to Come. The Livyoson is discussed in detail in Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer 9. The congealed ground brought forth insects and animals; the wild-ox dwelling in swamps and reeds You reserved for the meal of the righteous.32Vayikra Rabbah 24:10. The Midrash relates that this wild ox will be served to the righteous in the World to Come. You prepared food and drink even before there was anyone to feast.33Since Adam was not created until the sixth day, everything in the world was already prepared for him. You then formed man from clay in the likeness of Your image and breathed into him a pure soul from your “Zevul.”34The Talmud, Maseches Chagigah (12a) describes זְבוּל (Zevul) as being one of the seven heavens. You caused him to sleep, and from his side You fashioned a helpmate for him.35Bereishis 2:20—22. This refers to the creation of Chavah, Eve, the first woman, who was created from Adam’s side. You commanded him not to eat from the tree of knowledge. He foolishly violated Your command, because he was enticed by the snake. He was punished that only by the sweat of his brow would he gain his sustenance. Woman [was punished] with painful childbirth and the cunning [snake] would forever eat dirt. You congealed his [Adam's] seed in the womb of she [Eve] who desired him. She became pregnant and gave birth to a farmer and a shepherd.36This refers to Kayin and Hevel, see Bereishis 4:2. They brought You a sacrifice and a gift.37The verse seems to imply that both Kayin and Hevel brought gifts and sacrifices, but in Bereishis 4:3,4 it is clear that Kayin brought vegetables and Hevel brought sheep as sacrifices. You were angered with that of the oldest, but pleased with the offering of the youngest.38Bereishis 4:45. Without mercy, he [Cain] killed Abel39Bereishis 4:8. The phraseology is adapted from Amos 1:11. He pleaded for Your forgiveness, and You set a saving mark upon him.40Bereishis 4:15. Hashem inscribed a letter from His Name upon Kayin’s forehead. (Rashi) At the third generation of man,41This refers to the generation of Chanoch. See Bereishis 4:26. people began to worship You through idols.42See Sifri Devorim 43; the use of the expression “worshipped You through idols” is elaborated upon in detail in the Rambam’s Mishnah Torah at the beginning of the Laws of Idolatry (Avodah Zarah). The dreaded flood waters, You summoned, and they were drowned and destroyed. An arrogant generation erred and dared tell You to go away.43This refers to the generation of the flood. Midrash Tanchumah (Bereishis 12) says that during this generation there lived a race of giants who worshipped the sun and the moon, and subsequently told Hashem to “go away.” They were tossed about by the boiling water; they were burned and scalded.44The Talmud, Maseches Rosh Hashanah (12a) says that the generation of the flood was destroyed by a flood of boiling water. The Midrash Vayikra Rabbah 7:6 states that this punishment corresponded to their sin of pride and arrogance. Noah, who was commanded to build an ark, an ark of gopher-wood, was delivered when You enclosed him within.45Bereishis 6:14, Bereishis 7:16. The Torah says that Hashem closed the door of the ark after Noach entered. His sons, You made fruitful and they filled the face of the earth. A united people conspired to build a tower unto the heavens.46This refers to the Dor Hahaphlaga the “generation of division” which built the Migdal Bavel, the “Tower of Bavel.” Being of one language, they were united in speech and hence, subsequently, in conspiracy (Bereishis 11:1). They were entrapped by their evil action, and were scattered about the earth47Bereishis 11:8. as if by a violent wind. Your loved one [Avraham]48Yeshaya 41:8. who came “across the river,”49The word עִבְרִי “Ivri” refers to the fact that Avraham came from the other side of the river. made famous Your Name in the world.50See Bereishis 12:8 and the commentary of Ibn Ezra (ibid). The son of his old age, [Yitzchak] he offered to You in sacrifice. Like a perfect, unblemished lamb Yaakov was chosen; he who was without blemish.51In Bereishis 25:27, Yaakov is called תָּם “Tam” which Rashi interprets as denoting “equal in tongue and heart.” He desired to sit in tents52This refers to the period when Yaakov studied in the Yeshivos of Shem and Aver (See Rashi ibid.). and followed you. Righteous children You brought forth from him, all of whom stayed true to their heritage, none ever deviating. To serve You, You desired Levi, Your pious one.53Devorim 33:8. After the sin of the golden calf, Hashem chose the tribe of Levi to serve inthe Tabernacle because they did not participate in the sin. From his tribe, You chose one [Aharon] to be Your holiest;54This refers to Aharon and his sons who came from the tribe of Levi and were chosen to become the priests. to wear the holy mitre and the Urim VeTumim,55Vayikra 8:8—9. These were worn by the High Priest during his service. and to dwell inside the Tabernacle for seven days.56Before the final consecration of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, the priests were confined to the Tabernacle for seven days during which time they offered sacrifices each day to become initiated into the priesthood. Upholders of the Jewish faith, [The Sanhedrin], a week before the tenth day [of Tishrei], secluded the High Priest as was done in the seven days after the completion of the Mishkan.57Maseches Yoma, Mishnah 1:1; This law is derived from the seven days of consecration of the Mishkan during which time Aharon and his sons stayed inside of the Mishkan, see Talmud 2:9,b. The High Priest was confined to a special chamber called ‘lishkas phalhedrin’ (ibid. 2a). They sprinkled upon him water mixed with the ashes of red heifers58Maseches Yoma, 4a, 8a. According to the Mishnah (in Para ch. 3:11), from each red heifer which was burnt, from the time of Moshe, one third of its ashes were stored away, and some of the ashes from each were used to sprinkle over the High Priest. The Rambam (1:4) states that the sprinkling took place on the third and seventh day of confinement as a precaution lest the priest had been made impure upon contact with a dead body. in order to purify him. [Each of the seven days] he sprinkled the blood of the daily sacrifices, burned the incense59Maseches Yoma Mishnah 14a. The incense was burned twice daily, in the morning and in the afternoon. According to the Rambam the order was: sprinkling, cleaning out five wicks, burning the morning incense, then cleaning out the remaining two wicks. [upon the golden altar in the Sanctuary,] and cleaned away the ashes, [from the wicks of the Menorah], [he did these things] to acquaint himself with the daily service.60This was because the entire service on Yom Kippur was performed exclusively by the High Priest. See Rambam (Ch. 1:2,5). As it was written in Your Torah: As it was done on this day, Adonoy commanded that it be done to atone for you.

נִלְוִים אֵלָיו נְבוֹנִים יְשִׁישֵׁי שַֽׁעַר. נוֹאֲמִים לוֹ קְרָא נָא בְּפִיךָ. נֹֽגַהּ תְּשִׁיעִי יַעֲמִידֽוּהוּ בְּשַֽׁעַר קָדִים. נוֹי זִבְחֵי יוֹם לְפָנָיו יַעֲבִֽירוּ: סֶֽמֶךְ בִּיאַת שֶֽׁמֶשׁ צֵידוֹ יַמְעִֽיטוּ. סַֽאַב לֹֽבֶן פֶּן בְּרֶֽדֶם יִקְרֵֽהוּ. סָבֵי שִׁבְטוֹ לְלַמֵּד חֵֽפֶן יוֹלִיכֽוּהוּ. סַמִּים לְתַמֵּר בִּפְנִים אוֹתוֹ יַשְׁבִּֽיעוּ: סָמַר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהִדְמִֽיעַ כִּי נֶחֱשַׁד. סָֽרוּ גַם הֵם וּבֶֽכֶה הִגִּֽירוּ. שִֽׂיחַ מִדְרָשׁ בְּפֶה וּבִכְתַב הִגָּיוֹן. סְבִיבָיו יְשַׁנְּנוּ לְעוֹרְרוֹ עַד חֲצוֹת: עָלְצוּ תְּרֹם דֶּֽשֶׁן בְּפַֽיִּס רִאשׁוֹן. עוֹד יָפִֽיסוּ לְדִּשּׁוּן פְּנִימִי וּמְנוֹרָה. עֵֽקֶב קְטֹֽרֶת פַּיֵּס חֲדָשִׁים יְשַׁלֵּֽשׁוּ. עֲרֹךְ נְתָחִים יַֽחַד פַּיִּס הָרְבִיעִי: עָלָה בְּרַק הַשַּֽׁחַר כְּנָם הַצּוֹפֶה. עָלָיו פֵּרְשְׂזוּ מָסָךְ בּוּץ לְהֶצְנֵֽעַ. עֵרָה סוּתוֹ טָבַל וְעָט זְהָבִים. עָמַד וְקִדֵּשׁ וְקֵרַץ תְּמִיד הַשַּֽׁחַר: פִּקֵּד לְמָרְקוֹ וְהוּא קִבֵּל וְזָרַק. פֵּרַשׁ הִקְטִיר וְהֵטִיב הִקְרִיב וְנִסֵּךְ. פְּעֻלַּת כָּלִיל פְּעֻלַּת כָּלִיל הִשְׁלִים וְעָשׂ כַּסֵּדֶר. פֵּרְשׂוּ סָדִין לָבָן עוֹד כְּבָרִאשׁוֹנָה. פַּרְוָה בַּקֹּֽדֶשׁ שָׁם קִדֵּשׁ וּפָשַׁט. פָּסַע וְטָבַל לְבָנִים עָט וְקִדֵּשׁ. פְּלוּסִים עֶרְכָּם מָנִים שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר. פְּאוּרִים לְשָׁרֵת בָּם לְמֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד. פָּרוֹ מֻצָּב בֵּין אוּלָם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. פָּנָיו יָֽמָּה וְרֹאשׁוֹ נֶֽגְבָּה מְעֻקָּם: פָּגַשׁ וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ. פְּשָׁעָיו הוֹדָה וּבְחֻבּוֹ לֹא טָמָן:

Each day he was visited by wise men, the elders of the Sanhedrin61Mishnah Yoma Ch. 1:3. who said to him, “Please study [the order of the Daily Service.]”62Ibid. The Mishnah continues, “Perhaps you have forgotten (the service), or perhaps you never learned it.” Tiferes Yisroel explains that he himself was asked to read since this would help him best to remember. On the morning of the ninth day of Tishrei, he was placed at the eastern gate [of the Temple courtyard]. The choice [animals] which would be sacrificed, were brought before him.63Ibid. This was done in order to acquaint him with the animals that he would sacrifice the next day. The goats, however, were not shown to him, for being that they would be an atonement for sin, he might become frightened and shaken. Before sunset [of the Day of Atonement] his food intake was diminished, for fear he might become impure during the sleep brought on by excess food.64Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:4. During the first six days, he was permitted to eat and drink as much as he wanted. The Mishnah states that too much food and drink could bring about sleep, during which time an emission could occur. He was instructed how to take the handful of spices used for the incense offering of the Day of Atonement. [Before] the elders of his tribe taught him how to perform chafina (ִחֲפִינָה),65Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:5. The ritual of taking a handful of incense and bringing it in the Holy of Holies was a special service done only on the Day of Atonement and was one of the most difficult of all temple services. Consequently, it was important to instruct him how to perform it. and burn the incense inside [the Holy of Holies,] the elders of Sanhedrin gave him an oath.66Ibid. It is a tradition of the oral law that the incense should be placed on the pan of coals inside the Holy of Holies and not outside, as the Sadducees contended. The oath was administered because there were priests who were suspected of being Sadducees (see Rambam 1:7). They made him swear in the Name of Hashem, that he would not change anything of what he was instructed. His flesh crept [with fear]; and he cried because he was suspected. The elders of Sanhedrin turned aside and also wept for having suspected him.67Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:5. The Rambam writes that it is forbidden by our Torah to suspect someone or to think ill of someone when the matter is in doubt, except if absolutely necessary. They lectured to him and read from Scriptures. They gathered around him to study,68Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:6. Since it was necessary that he not fall asleep lest he have an impure emission while sleeping, those around him kept him up all night. to keep him awake until midnight.69Ibid. For at midnight, the service of Yom Kippur begins with the Terumas HaDeshen, which consisted of removing some of the burnt coals and placing them on the floor next to the Altar. It should be noted that according to the Talmud Maseches Yoma, 19:6 it seems that he did not commence until dawn and that it was therefore necessary to keep him awake until then. Joyously they chose70Each day in the Temple there were four lots to determine which kohanim would do the various services. There is a dispute among the commentaries whether lots were drawn also on Yom Kippur or whether these services too (in addition to the main services of sacrifice, sprinkling blood etc.) had to be performed by the High Priest (See Rambam 4:1, Ramban, Tosafos Yeshonim Yoma 20b, Ba’al Meor). for the Terumas Hadeshen,71Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:1. The Terumas Hadeshen was the first service of the day and consisted of the priest going up to the center of the Altar, collecting some burnt coals, and placing them on the floor next to the Altar. the first choosing of the day. They chose again72Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:3. According to the Talmud, Yoma 24b, the four choosing’s were not held at one time because they wanted to summon a crowd four times during the day. It is considered an honor to the King to assemble a great multitude in the Temple (בְּרוֹב עָם הַדְרַת מֶלֶךְ). to clean the inner Altar and five wicks of the meonrah.73The second lot was for picking two priests: one to clean the inner Altar (upon which incense was barred), and a second after him to clean five wicks from the Menorah (Yoma 25:1). However, the choosing to burn the incense was limited to those who had never done so.74Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:4. The third lot to determine who would burn the incense on the inner Altar was drawn just among the new priests who had not yet performed that service. The reason for this, explains the Talmud, is that this service increases the wealth of the priest who performed it. Therefore, care was taken to give every priest an opportunity to partake of the blessing. It should be noted that all commentaries agree that on Yom Kippur, only the High Priest could burn incense on the inner Altar. Bringing up the limbs to the Altar, was the fourth choosing. The break of dawn was announced by the watchman.75Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:1. A watchman was stationed on a high place in the courtyard (Tifferes Yisroel) to watch for the break of dawn, which signaled the time to proceed with the sacrifice of the daily morning offering, i.e. the Tamid Shel Shachar. A sheet of linen was placed before the mikvah76Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. Before putting on the eight garments, he immersed himself in the ritual bath, the Mikvah, since whoever enters the Temple Courtyard (Azarah) is required to immerse himself. The opening to the chamber of the mikvah was covered with a linen cloth to symbolize the fact that the special Yom Kippur services would be performed in linen clothes. for his modesty. He took off his clothes,77Ibid. That is to say, he took off his daily everyday clothes. immersed himself and put on the eight golden garments.78Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. The High Priest performed his service during the entire year with eight garments, four which were worn by regular priests, and four additional ones. On Yom Kippur he wore two types of clothing. For those services which were not specially performed for Yom Kippur, he wore his usual eight garments. For those services, however, which were performed especially in the Holy of Holies for Yom Kippur, he wore only four white garments (shirt, pants, belt, and hat). Before commencing service, he wore “everyday” clothes, and put on the eight garments of “gold” for the opening service which was the slaughtering of the daily morning sacrifice. He washed his hands and feet79Ibid. It is a positive commandment in the Torah for a priest to wash his hands and feet from a special laver. The initial dressing requires only one washing (afterwards), but the subsequent changes in clothing require one washing before taking off the initial set of clothes and another when dressing in the next set (Rambam 2:2, 4:1). and made the incision80Ibid. The High Priest performed the minimal cut; the major part of each of the two “signs” which characterize the slaughter of an animal according to the Torah: the gullet and trachea (Rambam 4:1). The reason for this was so that he could quickly receive the blood coming out of the neck of the animal. The slaughter was completed by another priest. in the Daily morning Sacrifice. Another priest was appointed to complete the slaughter,81Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. Since only the High Priest could receive the blood of the animal, it was necessary to give him time to do so. Consequently, he only performed the minimal cut, leaving the rest to another priest. (Rambam 4:1, Rashi Yoma 31b). permitting the High Priest to receive [the blood] and sprinkle it [on the outer Altar.] He withdrew, [entered the Sanctuary,] and burned incense82Ibid. This was the daily burning of incense upon the smaller Golden Altar that is inside the Sanctuary. [upon the inner altar;] then he cleaned the wicks of the Menorah. Then he burnt the Daily Morning Offering,83After cleaning the Menorah, the High Priest left the Sanctuary and offered the daily morning sacrifice upon the outer Altar. and poured a libation of wine upon the Altar. The Daily Morning Offering he thus completed and proceeded in order with the next services. A white sheet was set before him as before.84The white sheet afforded him privacy for his immersion. This immersion, the second, proceeded the change of clothes from the “eight golden garments” to the “white garments.” The white garments were worn for those parts of the service which were special to Yom Kippur. He was brought to the Parve chamber85The first immersion was in a mikvah adjacent to his personal chamber but was not considered to be part of the Temple courtyard, as indeed it was forbidden for him to enter the courtyard until he immersed himself. Subsequent immersions took place in the Parve chamber which was considered part of the courtyard (Rambam 2:3). [which was located] within the Temple courtyard. There he washed his hands and feet, and took off the eight golden garments. He stepped [into the Mikvah] and immersed himself, and after which he put on white garments; then washed his hands and feet.86It was incumbent upon him to wash before taking off his clothes and then once again after putting on new ones. The white garments were of linen from Pallus worth eighteen measures, the finest linen with which to serve the King of Glory. His ox stood87Mishnah Yoma 3:8. The High Priest would sacrifice two oxen on Yom Kippur. One he brought for himself, from his own funds, and one for the Jewish people, from public funds. between the antechamber and the outer Altar;88The ox stood in the northern sector of the area between the outer Altar and the Sanctuary. It was positioned there in order to minimize the distance the High Priest would have to walk in carrying its blood to the outer Altar. its face to the West, its head to the South.89The head of the ox faced south and its body to the north. The reason it was not placed from east to west was in order that it should not emit waste in the direction of the Altar (Yoma 35b, 36a). He leaned his hands upon its head, and confessed his sins, not hiding even one.

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר. אָֽנָּא הַשֵּׁם, חָטָֽאתִי. עָוִֽיתִי. פָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי: אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא. לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וּלַפְּשָׁעִים. שֶׁחָטָֽאתִי. וְשֶׁעָוִֽיתִי. וְשֶׁפָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי. כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ. כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

And this was his confession: I beg of You Hashem;90Mishnah 3:8.There is a dispute among commentaries whether the explicit Name was uttered at this point or not. I have sinned, acted wickedly and rebelled against You,91Our Sages distinguish three forms of sin: a. חֵטְא unintentional sin b. עָווֹן intentional sin, [iniquity] that is to say, a sin committed intentionally but material motiovated. c. פֶּשַׁע—a rebellion, that is to say, an intentionally committed sin without material motive, thus with the sole purpose of defying Hashem (Rashi, Yoma 36b). I and my household. I beg of You, with Your Name, atone the sins, iniquities, and rebellions that I have sinned, acted wickedly, and rebelled against You, I and my household; as is written in the Torah of Moshe, Your servant, from the mouth of Your glory: “For on this day He will make atonement for you, to cleanse you from all your sins, before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה. כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה. הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וּמוֹדִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם. וְאוֹמְרִים בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

And the priests and the people who were standing in the Temple Courtyard when they heard the glorious and awesome Name [of God] explicitly pronounced from the mouth of the High Priest92The Talmud says that the explicit Name of Hashem was uttered by the High Priest ten times on the Day of Atonement, and each time the people fell to the floor and pronounced “Blessed [is His] Name” etc. with holiness and with purity, they bowed, prostrated themselves, offered thanks, and fell upon their faces and said, “Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵן לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם תִּטְהָֽרוּ: וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ וְסוֹלֵֽחַ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶֽךָ:

And he prolonged the intoning of the Name93This refers to the Name of Hashem uttered in the pervious verse, ’‘before Adonoy.” until the worshippers completed [the response]. And, [completing the verse,] said to them: “You will be cleansed.” And [now] with your great goodness arouse Your mercy, and pardon Your faithful servant.

צָעַד לֵילֵךְ לוֹ לְמִזְרַח עֲזָרָה. צֶֽמֶד שְׂעִירִים שָׁם מֵהוֹן עֵדָה. צְמוּדִים אֲחוּיִים שָׁוִים בְּתֹֽאַר וּבְקוֹמָה. צָגִים לְכַפֵּר עֲו‍ֹן בַּת הַשּׁוֹבֵבָה. צֵהוּב חֲלָשִׁים טָרַף וְהֶעֱלָה מִקַּלְפִּי. צָנַח וְהִגְרִיל לְשֵׁם גָּבֹֽהַּ וְלַצּוּק. צָעַק בְּקוֹל רָם לַיהֹוָה חַטָּאת. צוֹתְתָיו עָנוּ לוֹ וּבֵרְכוּ אֶת הַשֵּׁם. צֶֽבַע זְהוֹרִית קָשַׁר בְּרֹאשׁ הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּֽחַ. צִגָּתוֹ אִמֵּן נֶֽגֶד בֵּית שִׁלּֽוּחַ: צָלַח וּבָא אֵֽצֶל פָּרוֹ שֵׁנִית. צַֽחַן מַטֵּֽהוּ פְּנֵי צוּר הִתְוַדָּה:

The High Priest then walked to the eastern part of the Temple Courtyard where stood a pair of goats bought with communal funds. They stood next to each other like twins, identical in color and height,94The Mishnah stipulates four categories of similarity: looks (color), height, value, and simultaneous purchase. ready to atone for the sins of a rebellious daughter [Yisrael].95Yirmiyahu 31:21. Two golden lots were mixed,96Mishnah Yoma 3:9, 4:1. then lifted out of the box,97The High Priest placed both hands into the box, then mixed the lots inside, and lifted them out, one in his right hand and one in his left (Rambam ch. 3). one lot for God, the other for “Azazel.”98Mishnah Yoma 4:1. On one lot was written “For Hashem” and on the other was written “For Azazel.” The two goats stood in front of him facing west. The goat to his right received the lot in his right hand, and the goat on the left was allotted that in his left. He shouted aloud “A sin offering for Adonoy.”99Ibid. This was shouted when he placed the lot “for Adonoy” on the appropriate goat. Those who heard him responded, blessing ‘the Name of God.'100They actually responded saying: “Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom is forever and ever”; as was the procedure each time the Name of Hashem was explicitly pronounced (see note 92). In addition, as before, the people prostrated themselves (see Rambam ch. 2). The goat receiving the lot “for Hashem” would later be sacrificed as a sin offering, while the goat receiving the lot “for Azazel” would be sent out to the Judean hills. A thread of red wool he tied on the head of the Azazel goat101Mishnah Yoma 4:2. This was done so that the scapegoat should not be confused with the other goat, to be sacrificed. which was placed at the eastern gate102Ibid. This was the “gate of Niknor.” from whence it would be sent away. He completed this service, approached his ox a second time,103Ibid. This was the ox upon which he had previously confessed his and his household’s sins. Thus, the two confessions were interspersed by the drawing of the lots for the two goats. and made confession.104This confession was for himself and his fellow priests.

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם. חָטָֽאתִי. עָוִֽיתִי. פָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶֽׁךָ: אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא. לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וְלַפְּשָׁעִים. שֶׁחָטָֽאתִי. וְשֶׁעָוִֽיתִי. וְשֶׁפָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶֽׁךָ: כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ. כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

And this was his confession: I beg of You, Hashem: I have sinned, acted wickedly, and rebelled against You, I and my household, and the sons of Aharon, Your holy people. I beg of You Hashem, atone the sins, iniquities and rebellions, that I have sinned, acted wickedly, and rebelled against You, I and my household, and the sons of Aharon, Your holy people. As it is written in the Torah of Moshe, Your servant, from the mouth of Your glory: “For on this day, He will make atonement for you, to cleanse you, from all your sins, before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה. כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה. הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וּמוֹדִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם. וְאוֹמְרִים בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

And the priests and the people who were standing in the Temple Courtyard; when they heard the glorious and awesome Name [of God] explicitly pronounced from the mouth of the High Priest, with holiness and with purity, they bowed, prostrated themselves, offered thanks, and fell upon their faces, and said: “Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם תִּטְהָֽרוּ: וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ וְסוֹלֵֽחַ לְשֵֽׁבֶט מְשָׁרְתֶֽיךָ:

And he [the High Priest] prolonged the intoning of the Divine Name until the worshippers completed [the response]; and [completing the verse] said to them: “You will be cleansed.” And [now] with Your goodness, arouse Your mercy, and pardon the tribe that serves You.

קָח מַאֲכֶֽלֶת חַדָּה וּשְׁחָטוֹ כַּסֵּֽדֶר. קִבֵּל דָּם בְּמִזְרָק וּנְתָנוֹ לַמְמָרֵס. קְרִישָׁתוֹ יִמַּס עַד עֵת הַזָּיָה. קָפוּי פֶּן יְהִי וְתָעֳדַר סְלִיחָה. קֽוֹחַ לוֹחֲשׁוֹת חָת בְּמַחְתַּת פַּרְוַֽיִם. קַלָּה וְגֶֽלֶד רַךְ וַאֲרֻכַּת יָד. קָדַר לְתוֹכָהּ שְׁלֽשֶׁת קַבִּין גֶּחָלִים. קֵרְבוּ לוֹ בָזָךְ וּגְדוּשַׁת דַּקָּה. קָלַט וְחָפַן וְהֵרִיק לְתוֹךְ בָּזָךְ. קָפַץ מַחְתָּה בִּימִין וּבָזָךְ בִּשְׂמֹאל. קִישׁ צְעָדָיו לְפַרְכוֹת וְקֵרַב לַבַּדִּים. קְטֹֽרֶת שָׂם בֵּינֵֽימוֹ וְעִשֵּׁן וְיָצָא: רוֹבֶה מְמָרֵס מֶֽנּוּ נָטַל דָּם. רִצֵּף וְנִכְנַס וְקָם בֵּין שָׁדַֽיִם. רִצּוּי הַזָּיוֹת טָבַל וְהִצְלִיף בְמִנְיָן. רוּם מַֽעְלָה אַחַת וּמַֽטָּה שֶֽׁבַע:

He then took a sharp knife and slaughtered the ox in the usual manner.105Mishnah Yoma 4:3. The phraseology “in the usual manner” seems to indicate the opinion of the Peitan, that unlike the morning sacrifice in which only a minimal cut was made, here the High Priest completed the cut. Tiferes Yisroel, in his commentary to the Mishnah, explains that because the slaughter of the ox was part of the special service of Yom Kippur, it was certain that the High Priest would be extra diligent to make sure he received its blood. Other commentaries however (see, e.g. Tosefos Yom Tov to Mishnah 4:3) maintain that the same minimal incision was made for all sacrifices of the day. He received the blood in a holy vessel and gave it to a priest who would stir it;106Ibid. Since the blood was not sprinkled until later, it was necessary to keep it from coagulating. thus keeping it liquid-like until the time came to sprinkle it. For if it became too hard to sprinkle, there could be no atonement. He107Mishnah Yoma 4:3. The Peitan now describes the burning of incense in the Kodesh HaKodashim, the Holy of Holies, a service which was performed only once a year, on Yom Kippur. stirred the coals on the outer Altar, scooped up some of the innermost coals with a reddish-gold shovel.108The Talmud, Maseches Yoma (43b) states that the shovel used to stir and carry coals was made of “reddish” gold, similar in color to the blood of an ox. The shovel was especially light, of very thin metal, and had an especially long handle.109Mishnah Yoma 4:4. Since the burning of incense in the Kodesh HaKodashim on Yom Kippur was a totally different procedure than the usual incense burning (even for that very day), the High Priest used a specially designed shovel to facilitate his work. Unlike the usual twice-daily incense service, this special burning required that the High Priest himself stir the coals, and carry them in the shovel into the Sanctuary and finally into the Kodesh HaKodashim. Thus the shovel was made especially light. It had an extra long handle so that the High Priest could rest the handle under his arm as he carried it, taking some of its weight off his hands (see Rambam 2:5). The shovel held three kavim of coals. He was then brought a ladle110After taking some coals in the shovel, the High Priest laid the shovel on the floor, temporarily, while he proceeded with the taking of incense. He would later come back, and bring the shovel of coals into the Sanctuary (Rambam ibid.). and a brimming vessel filled with incense.111Mishnah Yoma 5:1. He took two handfuls of incense from the vessel and emptied them into the ladle.112Mishnah 5:1 He quickly took the shovel of coals in his right hand and the ladle with incense in his left.113Ibid. His footsteps were heard as he walked between the curtains114These curtains separated between the Kodesh, Holy and the Kodesh HaKodashim, Holy of Holies. There was a space of one cubit, between the curtains, through which he walked to gain entrance to the area referred to as “between the poles.” and approached [between] the poles of the Ark.115He placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark. In the Holy of Holies of the first Temple, the Ark containing the Tablets of Law, rested upon the Evan Shesiya, the Foundation Stone. On each side of the Ark there extended a long handle which reached practically until the wall at the entrance to the Holy of Holies. The High Priest, as he entered, would be standing between the two long handles, and would place the shovel upon the Foundation Stone which protruded a bit from under the Ark. Since there was no Ark in the Second Temple, the Peitan describes the High Priest’s location only by correspondence. The incense he placed between the poles116After placing the shovel with the coals in the area corresponding to “between the poles,” he heaped the incense upon the coals which caused tremendous smoke. and caused them to rise in smoke117From the burning incense. and he left.118The service of burning the incense in the Holy of Holies was completed. From the young boy priest who had been stirring the blood, he now took the vessel of blood. He quickly reentered the Holy of Holies119Carrying the vessel with the blood. and stood between the “two handles of the Ark.” He dipped his finger into the blood,120Ibid. Each sprinkling was proceeded by its own dipping (Rambam 3:6). and sprinkled the blood, with a count— one upper sprinkling and seven lower ones.121Ibid. The word מַצְלִיף indicates the fact that the blood was not sprinkled on the Ark itself but rather on the floor in front of it. The terms “upper” and “lower” refers to the direction of the movement of the hand in sprinkling the blood. The “upper” sprinkling was done by moving the hand up, whereby the blood would rise in an arcwise motion and fall to the floor. The seven “lower” sprinklings were done by a downward movement of the hand; in each case the movement originating at a lower level, with the blood falling straight down to the floor (Rambam 3:5). During the first Bais Hamikdash when there was an Ark, the sprinkling was performed one cubit in front of the Kapores (the Cover of the Ark) (Rambam ibid.). In the Second Temple, the sprinkling was performed in the corresponding area.

וְכַךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה. אַחַת. אַחַת וְאַחַת. אַחַת וּשְׁתַּֽיִם. אַחַת וְשָׁלשׁ. אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע. אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ. אַחַת וָשֵׁשׁ. אַחַת וָשֶֽׁבַע:

Each time he sprinkled, he counted aloud.122Mishnah 5:3. The High Priest counted the sprinklings out loud so as not to make a mistake in the proper numbers (Rambam 3:5). One123This was the first (and only “upper” sprinkling). One and one;124This was the first “lower” sprinkling. The counting procedure was “one and one” so that he should not count the upper sprinkling as the first lower sprinkling. The six remaining are “lower” sprinklings. One and two; One and three; One and four; One and five; One and six; One and seven.

רָץ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּכָּן וְשָׁחַט שָׂעִיר. רִצָּה וְקִבֵּל דָּמוֹ בַּאֲגַן קֹדֶשׁ. רִגֵּל וְעָמַד מְקוֹם וִעוּד אָרוֹן. רִצָּה הַזָּיוֹת כְּמַעֲשֵׂה דַּם פָּר:

He hurried to place the vessel on a stand,125Mishnah Yoma 5:3. The vessel filled with the remaining blood was placed on a golden stand, specially designated, in the outer Sanctuary. There were two stands in the Sanctuary, one for the vesel of ox blood and one for the vessel of goat blood (Rambam 4:2). and slaughtered the goat.126Mishnah Yoma 5:4. This was the goat that had previously drawn the lot “for Hashem.” He quickly received its blood in a holy vessel, and returned to the place of the Ark.127That is to say, in front of where the Ark would be located between its two handles. He sprinkled the blood [of the goat], in the same manner as with the blood of the ox.

וְכַךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה. אַחַת. אַחַת וְאַחַת. אַחַת וּשְׁתַּֽיִם. אַחַת וְשָׁלשׁ. אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע. אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ. אַחַת וָשֵׁשׁ. אַחַת וָשֶֽׁבַע:

Each time he sprinkled, he counted aloud: One; One and one; One and two; One and three; One and four; One and five; One and six; One and seven.

רָהַט וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְדַם פָּר נָטַל. רַגְלָיו הֵרִיץ וְצָג חוּץ לְבוֹדָֽלֶת. רִקְמֵי פָרֹֽכֶת יַז כְּמִשְׁפַּט כַּפֹּֽרֶת. רָגַשׁ וְשָׁנָה וְהִזָּה מִדַּם שָׂעִיר: שָׁב וּבְלָלָם וְחִטֵּא מִזְבֵּֽחַ סָגוּר. שֶֽׁבַע עַל טָהָרוֹ וּבִקְרָנָיו אַרְבַּע. שָׁקַד וּבָא אֵֽצֶל הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי. שִׁגְיוֹן עַם וּזְדוֹנוֹ יוֹדֶה לָאֵל:

He swiftly exited, placing it128The vessel with the remaining blood of the goat. on its stand129According to the first opinion in the Mishnah, each vessel had its own designated stand. See Mishnah 5:4. and took the vessel of ox blood. He ran back and stood outside the curtain and sprinkled blood before the curtain the same way he had sprinkled the blood in front of the Ark Cover.130Ibid. That is to say, he sprinkled one “upper” sprinkling and seven lower sprinklings (Rambam 3:35), and counted them in the same manner. He then sprinkled the blood of the goat. He mixed the blood of the ox and goat,131Mishnah Yoma 5:4. He poured the blood of the ox into the blood of the goat, then spilled the mixture into an empty vessel so that it should become homogenous (Rambam 4:2). sprinkling the mixture upon the Golden Altar132This was the smaller Altar inside the Sanctuary that was used for the burning of incense. It is called the “Golden Altar” because it was made of gold. seven sprinklings on the surface of the Altar, and four sprinklings on the corners. He then approached the live goat.133Mishnah Yoma 6:2. This was the goat which received the lot “for Azazel,” which had been left standing in the courtyard (Rambam 4:2). The intentional and unintentional sins of the people, he confessed to the Almighty.134The first two confessions were for the sins of the High Priest, his household, and then the entire priestly clan. The third confession was for the sins of the entire nation (Rambam 2:6).

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם. חָטְאוּ. עָווּ. פָּשְׁעוּ. לְפָנֶֽיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא. לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וְלַפְּשָׁעִים. שֶׁחָטְאוּ. וְשֶׁעָֽווּ. וְשֶׁפָּשְׁעוּ לְפָנֶֽיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל. כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ. כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

And this was his confession: I beg of You, Hashem; they have sinned, acted wickedly, rebelled against You— Your people, the House of Yisrael— I beg of You, Hashem, atone the sins, iniquities, and rebellions that were committed against You, by Your people, the House of Yisrael. As it is written in the Torah of Moshe, Your servant, from the mouth of Your glory: “For on this day He will make atonement for you, to cleanse you, from all your sins before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה. כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה. הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וּמוֹדִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם. וְאוֹמְרִים בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

And the priests and the people who were standing in the Temple Courtyard; when they heard the glorious and awesome Name [of God] explicitly pronounced from the mouth of the High Priest, with holiness and with purity, they bowed, prostrated themselves, offered thanks, and fell upon their faces, and said: “Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious kingdom is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם תִּטְהָֽרוּ: וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶיךָ וְסוֹלֵחַ לַעֲדַת יְשֻׁרוּן:

And He [the High Priest] prolonged the intoning of the Divine Name until the worshippers completed [the response]; and [completing the verse] said to them: “You will be cleansed.” And [now] with Your great goodness, arouse Your mercy, and pardon the community of Yeshurun.

שִׁגְּרוֹ בְּיַד אִישׁ עִתִּי לְמִדְבַּר עָז. שֶׁמֶץ כִּתְמֵי זוּ שְׂאֵת לִגְזֵרָה שֵׁן סֶלַע הֲדָפוֹ וְגֻלְגַּל וְיָרַד שֻׁבְּרוּ עֲצָמָיו כְּנֶפֶץ כְּלִי יוֹצֵר שְׁחוּזָה אָחַז פָּר וְשָׂעִיר קָרַע. שָׁלַף אֵמוּרִים וּגְוִיּוֹת קָלַע לִשְׂרוֹף שָׁאַג סִדְרֵי יוֹם קִדֵּשׁ וּפָשַׁט שִׁלֵּשׁ וְטָבַל פַּזִים עַט וְקִדֵּשׁ. תָּכַף וְעָשׂ אֵילוֹ וְאֵיל עָם. תְּרַב חַטָּאת וּמוּסָפִין הִקְרִיב כַּחוֹק. תָּר וְקִדֵּשׁ פָּשַׁט טָבַל וְקִדֵּשׁ. תַּכְרִיךְ בַּדִּים עָט וְנִכְנַס לַדְּבִיר. תְּכוּנַת כְּלֵי קְטֹרֶת הוֹצִיא וְקִדֵּשׁ. תִּלְבּוֹשֶׁת מַדָּיו הִפְשִׁיט וְגָנַז נֶצַח. תִּרְגַּל וְטָבַל חֲרוּצִים עָט וְקִדֵּשׁ. תָּמִיד הִסְדִּיר וְתִמֵּר וְנֵרוֹת הֶעֶלָה תֶּכֶל עֲבוֹדוֹת יָד וְרֶגֶל קִדֵּשׁ. תִּמֵּם טְבִילוֹת חָמֵשׁ וְקִדּוּשִׁים עֲשָׂרָה. תֹּאַר מְגַמָּתוֹ כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבוּרָה, תָּקַף וְדָץ וְעָטָה בִּגְדֵי הוֹנוֹ. תַּמָּה תְּלַוֶּה צִיר נֶאֱמָן לַבַּיִת תָּגֵל בְּהִתְבַּשֵּׂר הַשְׁלַג אֹדֶם תּוֹלָע. תַּעְדֶה יֶשַׁע תַּעֲטֶה מְעִיל צְדָקָה. תָּפִיק צָהֳלָה תַּבִּיעַ דִיץ וְחֶדְוָה תְּלוּלֵי הִרְעִיפוּ זַרְזִיף טַלָּם. תַּלְמֵי שָׂדַי רָווּ תֵּת יְבוּלָם. תּוֹדָה נָתְנוּ אוֹסְפֵי זֶרַע שָׁלוֹם. תְּהִלָּה בִּשְּׂרוּ נוֹשְּׂאֵי אֲלֻמּוֹת בְּרֶנֶן. תַּחְתִּיּוֹת אֶרֶץ צְבִי זֶמֶר שִׁמֵּעוּ. תִּנּוּ צִדְקוֹתָיו חֲצַץ הוֹלְכֵי נְתִיבוֹת. תִּקְוַת שׁוֹלְחָיו אֵמוּן לֹא אַכְזָב תּוֹחַלְתָּם כְּצִנַּת שֶׁלֶג בְּיוֹם קָצִיר. מִצּוֹאָתָם רֻחָצוּ מִטֶּנֶף צַחֲנָתָם זַכּוּ. שְׁלֵמִים תְּמִימִים בְּבוֹר כַּפֵּימוֹ זֻכְזָכוּ. לְהַגִּיד כִּי מְטַהֲרָם מְקוֹר מַיִם חַיִּים. מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל מְנַקָּם מַיִם נֶאֱמָנוּ. בְּטֹהַר וּבְנִקָּיוֹן יִנָּקוּ וְיֻטְהָרוּ. יְחֻדְּשׁוּ כַּחֲדָשֵׁי בְקָרִים מִכֶּתֶם יְצֻחְצָחוּ. רוֹמְמוֹת אֵל יֶהְגוּ בִגְרוֹנָם בִּלְשׁוֹנָם רוֹן בְּפִימוֹ שִׁיר חָדָשׁ. יָגִילוּ בְרַעַד יַעַבְדוּ בְּיִרְאָה. קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַדֵּשׁ קְדוֹשִׁים. לְשַׁנֵּן לְרַנֵּן לְתוֹפֵף וּלְצַלְצֵל. וּלְנַצֵּחַ בִּנְגִינוֹת וּלְהַנְעִים זֶמֶר. נֶחֱבָקִים בְעוֹז יָמִין רוֹמֵמָה. יַחַד נִתְמָכִים בִּמְלֵאָה צֶדֶק. מְשׁוּכִים לָבֹא שְׁעָרָיו בִּרְנָנָה. וְשָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ נֶצַח שָׂשִׂים וְגָלִים בִּשְׁמוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם חָדִים בְּשִׂמְחָה אֶת פָּנָיו זִיו אוֹרָם כַּשַּׁחַר יִבָּקַע. קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ וְיָרֹנּוּ בִּגְאוֹן צוּר עוֹלָמִים: אַשְׁרֵי הָעָם שֶׁכָּכָה לּוֹ. אַשְׁרֵי הָעָם שֶׁיְהֹוָה אֱלֹהָיו: וְיוֹם טוֹב הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְכָל אוֹהֲבָיו כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּשָׁלוֹם וְיָצָא בְשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶּֽגַע:

He handed the goat to one appointed,135Mishnah Yoma 6:3. After the confession, the High Priest handed the scapegoat over to someone who would in turn send it to its death. This person was usually another priest although it was not necessary that he be one (See Yoma 66a). to lead it out to the harsh desert. The spiritual blemishes of the people it carried to the desert. He pushed it off the rocky cliff and it tumbled down, breaking its bones like shattered potter's ware.136Mishnah Yoma 6:6. The goat’s bones were broken before it even reached the bottom of the cliff (Yoma 67a, Rambam 3:7). With a sharp knife he cut open the [slaughtered] ox and goat.137Mishnah Yoma 6:7. He removed the sacrificial parts,138These parts include the kidneys, part of the liver and certain fats which were offered on the Altar. and intertwined their limbs onto poles; and removed them to a place of burning.139Ibid. The carcasses, their limbs now removed, were placed upon poles and would be carried outside of Yerushalayim where they would be burnt in the “burning house” (Rambam 3:7, 4:2). He read aloud from the Sefer Torah pertaining to the service of the day, then washed his hands and feet, and took off his (white) garments.140Mishnah 7:3. Until now the High Priest had performed the special services for Yom Kippur, and thus wore the appropriate white garments. For the third time that day, he immersed himself in a mikvah. He then put on the golden garments and again washed his hands and feet. He immediately proceeded to sacrifice his ram, and the ram of the people.141Mishnah Yoma 7:3. In addition to the goat and ox which were burned outside the city, the High Priest brought two “olah” offerings, which were completely consumed upon the Altar. They consisted of two rams, one for himself (meaning that he paid for it) and one for the nation (i.e. that was brought with public funds). The entire sacrificial service of these two rams was performed at this point including the slaughter, the sprinkling of blood upon the outer Altar, the pouring of a wine libation on the Altar, and the burning of the entire animal. He burned the fats of the sin-offering,142This refers to the fats of the goat and ox which were burnt outside Yerushalayim. The fats are the only parts which are burnt upon the Altar (Rambam 4:2). Though the Peitan only mentions the fats of the goat (which is technically considered a “sin-offering”), the fats of the ox were also burnt at this time. and sacrificed the Musaf offering.143The Musaf-offering of Yom Kippur consisted of the following animals which are brought specially for Yom Kippur: 1) one ox 2) one ram 3) seven ewes 4) one goat “sin-offering”. The ox and ram of the High Priest are not included in this group. He dipped his hands and feet in water, then he washed them, he took off the golden garments, immersed himself; and again washed his hands and feet. He put on the white garments and entered the Holy of Holies. The vessels used for the incense offering,144Ibid. The pan of coals and incense which was earlier placed in the Holy of Holies was now removed. he removed from the Holy of Holies; and again washed his hands and feet. He then took off his white garments and placed them away forever.145The white garments were used only once, and then they were put away forever. He immersed himself, put on the golden garments, and washed.146Mishnah Yoma 7:4. He offered up the Daily Afternoon Sacrifice, burned the Daily Afternoon Incense, and lit the candles of the Menorah.147Ibid. The daily afternoon sacrifice, the Talmid shel Ben Haarbaim was the last sacrifice offered each day. The incense burned at this point was the second incense burning of the day. The final service of the day consisted of the lighting of the Menorah. The Service now completed, he washed his hands and feet.148Ibid. After this, the High Priest put on his own clothes, the service of the day now having been completed. Thus performing for the day, five immersions and ten washings. The appearance of his face was like the brilliance of a sunrise.149When the Divine Presence, the “Shechina” is upon a person, his face radiates like a burning fire.—Mateh Levi, from Midrash Rabbah, Yalkut Shimoni, Acharei Mos With great joy, he put on his own clothes.150Mishnah Yoma 7:4 The perfect ones [Yisrael] accompanied its faithful messenger home.151Mishnah Yoma, ibid. “Messenger” refers to the High Priest. They rejoiced in the news that the red thread had turned white.152Yoma 67a. The red string was attached to a rock at the opening of the sanctuary as well as to the horns of the scapegoat so that one could see it turn white when the goat was pushed over the jagged cliffs. This was a symbol that the sins of the Jewish nation had been atoned for, and was the cause for rejoicing. (See Mishnah 6:6) The Redeemer had been faithful, and enwrapped Himself in a cloak of righteousness. A great joy burst forth, happiness and rejoicing rang out. The clouds above dripped, and showered forth their dew. The furrowed fields brought forth their produce. Thanks was given by those who harvested their crop in peace. Praise was recited by those who carried the sheaves joyously. The lowliest places of the beautiful land rang out with song. God's goodness was told by all who traveled through byways. He was the hope of those who sent him, their faith was not misfounded.153This refers to the Jewish people whose messenger was the Kohein Gadol. Their hope to him was like the coolness of snow on a hot harvest day. From their filth they were washed, from their offensive dirt they were purified. The complete and perfect ones, from a well—had cleansed their hands. To tell all, that their Purifier [God] is a source of living water. The purifying waters of Yisrael154See Maseches Yoma, Mishnah, 8:9, Rabbi Akiva likens Hashem to a “mikvah”—i.e., purifying waters—of Yisrael. had cleansed them with [His] faithful waters. With purity and cleanliness, they will be cleaned and purified. They will be renewed, like the renewal of morning; from their stain, they will be polished clean. The praises of the Almighty will be spoken in their throats, on their tongues will be singing, from their mouths will come a new song. They will rejoice, with trembling and will worship with awe. The Holy One of Yisrael, Who sanctifies His holy people. To cheer, to sing, to beat the drum, and beat the cymbal; to sing songs, and to play music. Embraced, with the strength of the glorious Right Hand of God. Supported in unity, filled with righteousness, they will be drawn to enter His gates, with joy. Joy and happiness will be theirs forever. Rejoicing and celebrating in His Name the entire day, together in joy in His Presence. The splendor of their light will be like the break of dawn. They will lift their voices and sing of the greatness of Him Who is the strength of the world. Fortunate is the people whose lot is thus. Fortunate is the people for whom Adonoy is their God. And a celebration was made by the High Priest for all his loved ones, after entering the [Holy of Holies] in peace, and leaving peacefully, unharmed.

וְכַךְ הָיְתָה תְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים בְּצֵאתוֹ מִבֵּית קֹֽדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים בְּשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶֽגַע:

And this was the prayer155This prayer of the High Priest appears in three places: the Babylonian Talmud, Yoma (53b), Talmud Yerushalmi Yoma (5:2), and Midrash Rabba, (Vayikra 20). The prayer as recorded in the Machzor is without reference in certain passages, but does contain references in others, mainly based on Talmud Yerushalmi and the Midrash. of the High Priest on Yom Kippur as he left the Holy of Holies in peace, unharmed:

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת הַבָּאָה עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל: שְׁנַת אוֹצָרְךָ הַטּוֹב תִּפְתַּח לָֽנוּ. שְׁנַת אֹֽסֶם. שְׁנַת בְּרָכָה. שְׁנַת גְּזֵרוֹת טוֹבוֹת מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ. שְׁנַת דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר. שְׁנַת הַרְוָחָה וְהַצְלָחָה וְקַיָּמִים. שְׁנַת וִעוּד בֵּית מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ. שְׁנַת זוֹל. שְׁנַת חַיִּים טוֹבִים מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ. שְׁנַת טְלוּלָה וּגְשׁוּמָה אִם שְׁחוּנָה. שְׁנַת יַמְתִּֽיקוּ מְגָדִים אֶת תְּנוּבָתָם. שְׁנַת כַּפָּרָה עַל כָּל עֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ. שְׁנַת לַחְמֵֽנוּ וּמֵימֵֽינוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן. שְׁנַת נָבוֹא לְבֵית מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ. שְׁנַת שֽׂבַע. שְׁנַת עֹֽנֶג. שְׁנַת פְּרִי בִטְנֵֽנוּ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֵֽנוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת צֵאתֵֽנוּ וּבוֹאֵֽנוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ תוֹשִֽׁיעַ. שְׁנַת רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יִכְמְרוּ עָלֵֽינוּ. שְׁנַת שָׁלוֹם וְשַׁלְוָה. שָׁנָה שֶׁתּוֹלִיכֵֽנוּ קוֹמְמִיּוּת לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ. שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא תַפִּיל אִשָּׁה אֶת פְּרִי בִטְנָהּ. שְׁנַת תַּעֲלֵֽנוּ שְׂמֵחִים לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ: שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרְכוּ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה לָזֶה וְלֹא לְעַם אַחֵר בְּתִתְּךָ בְּרָכָה בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם: וְעַל אַנְשֵׁי הַשָּׁרוֹן הָיָה אוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיּנוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֵעָשׂוּ בָתֵּיהֶם קִבְרֵיהֶם:

May it be Your Will Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers, that this year approaching us and all Your people, the House of Yisrael, be a year in which Your good treasure will be opened for us, a year of plenty, a year of blessing, a year of good decrees declared by You, a year of grain, wine and oil, a year of profit and success, a year of Your Divine Presence in Your Temple, a year of economic stability, a year of good life, in Your presence, a year of dew and rain, and warmth, a year of deliciously sweet fruits, a year of atonement for all our iniquity, a year in which our food and drink will be blessed, a year of [prosperity in] business, a year of attending our Holy Temple, a year of abundance, a year of delight, a year in which our offspring and the fruit of our land will be blessed, a year in which our going and coming will be blessed, a year in which our community will be delivered, a year in which Your mercy will be aroused upon us, a year of peace and tranquility, a year in which You lead us upright to our land, a year in which no woman will suffer a miscarriage, a year in which You bring us [all] joyfully to our land, a year in which Your people Yisrael will not be in need of one another's [help], nor the help of any other people, for You will bless the work of their hands. And for the people of Sharon, he would pray: May it be Your will, Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers, that their homes shall not become their graves.156The land in the Sharon valley was not sufficiently firm for lasting construction, and the houses built there often fell in. Thus the High Priest prayed that there be no loss of life, when this occurred.

אֱמֶת מַה נֶּהְדָּר הָיָה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּצֵאתוֹ מִבֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים בְּשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶגַע:

How truly glorious was the High Priest as he left the Holy of Holies, peacefully, unharmed.

כְּאֹהֶל הַנִּמְתַּח בְּדָרֵי מַעְלָה. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the canopy of the heavens stretched out on high, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּבְרָקִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מִזִּיו הַחַיּוֹת. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the glitter of light emanating from the brilliance of the Chayos, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּגֹדֶל גְּדִילִים בְּאַרְבַּע קְצָווֹת. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the beautiful [blue] thread in the fringes of the four corners of a garment,157This refers to the color of תְּכֵלֶת which is to be part of the צִיצִית fringes, worn at each corner of a four-cornered garment. According to the Talmud, Menachos 43b, the color of techailes resembles the color of the sea, which in turn resembles the color of the sky, which in turn resembles the color of Hashem’s heavenly throne. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּדְמוּת הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the rainbow in the clouds, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּהוֹד אֲשֶׁר הִלְבִּישׁ צוּר לִיצוּרִים. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the garment of majestic splendor with which the Creator attired His creatures,158This refers to the כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר, the garment of skin, with which Hashem clothed Adam and Chavoh, after they sinned and realized their nakedness. See Bereishis 3:21. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּוֶרֶד הַנָּתוּן בְּתוֹךְ גִּנַּת חֶמֶד. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As a rose planted in a beautiful garden, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּזֵר הַנָּתוּן עַל מֵצַח מֶלֶךְ. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As a crown set upon a king's forehead, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּחֶסֶד הַנִּתַּן עַל פְּנֵי חָתָן. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the grace reflected in the face of a groom, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּטֹהַר הַנָּתוּן בְּצָנִיף טָהוֹר. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the purity of the pure mitre,159The mitre was one of the priestly garments. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּיוֹשֵׁב בְּסֵתֶר לְחַלּוֹת פְּנֵי מֶלֶךְ. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As he [Moshe] who was concealed,160When the Jews sinned with the golden-calf, Moshe was on the mountain, concealed by Hashem’s Divine Presence, and from there he pleaded to Hashem to forgive them. pleading before God, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּכוֹכָב הַנֹּגַהּ בִּגְבוּל מִזְרָח. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the bright star shining in the east,161This might refer to the morning star. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּלְבוּשׁ מְעִיל וּכְשִׁרְיוֹן צְדָקָה. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As one enwrapped in a cloak and breastplate of righteousness,162See Yeshaya 61:10. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּמַלְאָךְ הַנִּצָּב עַל רֹאשׁ דֶּרֶךְ. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the angel that stood at the head of the path,163This refers to the angel which appeared to Bilaam. (See Bamidbar 22:22.) was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּנֵר הַמֵּצִיץ מִבֵּין הַחַלּוֹנוֹת. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the candle that shines in the windows,164See Shir Hashirim 2:8 was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּשָׂרֵי צְבָאוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ עַם קֹדֶשׁ. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the officers as the head of the [army of] holy people,165See Devorim 20:9 was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּעוֹז אֲשֶׁר הִלְבִּישׁ טָהוֹר לַמִּטַּהֵר מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the [garments of spiritual] might166This refers to the priestly garments with which Moshe dressed Aharon. (See Vayikra 9:6.) with which the pure one [Moshe] dressed him, [Aharon] who purified others, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּפַעֲמוֹנֵי זָהָב בְּשׁוּלֵי הַמְּעִיל. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן: כְּצוּרַת הַבַּיִת

As the [brilliance of the] golden bells along the bottom of the [priestly] cloak, was the appearance of the High Priest. As the beautifully decorated Temple,

וּפָרֹכֶת הָעֵדוּת. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

and the colorful curtain,167This was the curtain in front of the Holy of Holies. was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּקְהִלָּה מְכֻסָּה תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As a chamber hung with tapestries of blue and purple, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּרוֹאֶה זְרִיחַת שֶׁמֶשׁ עַל הָאָרֶץ. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the sight of the rising sun on the earth, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּשׁוֹשַׁנַּת גַּן בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As a rose garden between the thorns, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּתַבְנִית כְּסִיל עָשׁ וְכִימָה מִתֵּימָן. מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

As the likeness of Arcturus, Orion and Pleiades,168These are names of heavenly constellations. (See Job 9:9.) from the [heavenly chambers] of the south, was the appearance of the High Priest.

כָּל אֵֽלֶּה בִּהְיוֹת הַהֵיכָל עַל יְסוֹדוֹתָיו. וּמִקְדַּשׁ הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ עַל מְכוֹנוֹתָיו. וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹמֵד וּמְשָׁרֵת. דּוֹרוֹ רָאוּ וְשָׂמָֽחוּ: אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה כָל אֵֽלֶּה. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

All this took place when the Temple was on its foundation, and the Holy Sanctuary was on its site, and the High Priest stood and served. His generation saw and rejoiced. Fortunate is the eye that saw all of this. For to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה אָהֳלֵֽנוּ. בְּשִׂמְחַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw our Temple amidst the joy of our people; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה גִילֵֽנוּ. דִּיצַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw our exultation, the happiness of our people; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה הַמְּשׁוֹרְרִים. וְכָל מִינֵי שִׁירִים. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the singers singing the various songs169This refers to the Levites who were both musicians and singers; they would sing various portions of Tehillim during the service in the Bais Hamikdash. for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה זְבוּל הַמְתֻכָּן. חַי בּוֹ שָׁכָן. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the established Habitation, where the source of all our life dwelled; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה שִׂמְחַת בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה. עַם שׁוֹאֶֽבֶת רֽוּחַ הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ רֽוּחַ נְדִיבָה. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ: אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה פְּרִישַׁת כֹּהֵן בְּרֶֽשֶׁם. צוֹעֵק אָֽנָּא הַשֵּׁם. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the rejoicing at the drawing of water,170The “Festival of drawing water” took place during the holiday of Succos. The Talmud says, “anyone who did not see the joy of the festival of drawing the water never saw joy in his life” (Mishnah Succah 5:1). and the people which drew from it the spirit of holiness and generosity; for to mention it makes our souls grieve. Happy is the eye that saw the High Priest uttering the explicit Name of God171In his confessions on Yom Kippur, the High Priest uttered the explicit Name of Hashem. crying out, “We plead with You, Hashem;” for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה קְהַל קְדוֹשִׁים. רוֹגְשִׁים בְּבֵית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the holy people converging upon the Holy Temple; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה שָׁנִי הַמְלֻבָּן. מִשְּׂעִיר הַקָּרְבָּן. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the red thread tied to the scapegoat,172A red thread of wool was tied to the horn of the goat sent to die in the wilderness (Mishnah Yoma 4:2) turn white unlike the goat sacrificed to Hashem; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה תְּמִידִים קְרֵבִים. בְּשַֽׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים. הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

Happy is the eye that saw the daily sacrifices offered in the gate of the sanctuary; for to mention it makes our souls grieve.

אֲבָל עֲו‍ֹנוֹת אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ הֶחֱרִֽיבוּ נָוֶה. וְחַטֹּאתֵֽנוּ הֶאֱרִֽיכוּ קִצּוֹ. אֲבָל זִכְרוֹן דְּבָרִים תְּהֵא סְלִיחָתֵֽנוּ. וְעִנּוּי נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ תְּהֵא כַפָּרָתֵֽנוּ:

But the iniquities of our fathers destroyed our home, and our sins have prolonged its period of captivity; yet may the mention of these things bring us pardon, and the affliction of our souls be our atonement.

עַל כֵּן בְּרַחֲמֶֽיךָ הָרַבִּים נָתַֽתָּ לָּֽנוּ אֶת יוֹם צוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים הַזֶּה. וְאֶת יוֹם מְחִילַת הֶעָו‍ֹן הַזֶּה. לִסְלִיחַת עָו‍ֹן וּלְכַפָּֽרַת פָּֽשַׁע. יוֹם אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה. יוֹם אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה. יוֹם אָסוּר בִּרְחִיצָה. יוֹם אָסוּר בְּסִיכָה. יוֹם אָסוּר בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה. יוֹם אָסוּר בִּנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל. יוֹם שִׂימַת אַהֲבָה וְרֵעוּת. יוֹם עֲזִיבַת קִנְאָה וְתַחֲרוּת. יוֹם שֶׁתִּמְחֹל לְכָל עֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ. וּבָעֵת וּבָעוֹנָה הַזֹּאת גָּלוּי וְיָדֽוּעַ לְפָנֶֽיךָ וְלִפְנֵי כִסֵּא כְבוֹדֶֽךָ. שֶׁאֵין לָֽנוּ לֹא מְנַהֵל כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. לֹא כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן. וְלֹא מִזְבֵּֽחַ לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו כָּלִיל:

Therefore, with Your great mercy You have given us this Day of Atonement and this Day of forgiveness of iniquity to pardon inquity and to atone rebellion; a day on which it is forbidden to eat, a day on which it is forbidden to drink, a day on which it is forbidden to wash a day on which it is forbidden to apply ointments, a day on which it is forbidden to engage in marital relations, a day on which it is forbidden to wear leather shoes. A day for restoring love and brotherhood, a day of abandoning envy and strife, a day which You will forgive all our iniquities. At this time of year, at this moment, it is known and revealed before You and before Your glorious throne that we have none to guide us as we had in earlier times, no High Priest to offer sacrifices, no Altar on which to offer burnt-offerings;

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: אֵין לָֽנוּ לֹא אִשִּֽׁים. וְלֹא אָשָׁם: לֹא בַדִּים. וְלֹא בְלוּלוֹת: לֹא גוֹרָל. וְלֹא גַחֲלֵי אֵשׁ: לֹא דְבִיר. וְלֹא דַקָּה: לֹא הֵיכָל. וְלֹא הַזָּיָה: לֹא וִדּוּי. וְלֹא פַר חַטָּאת: לֹא זֶֽבַח וְלֹא זְרִיקָה: לֹא חַטָּאת. וְלֹא חֲלָבִים: לֹא טְבִילָה. וְלֹא טָהֳרָה: לֹא יְרוּשָׁלַֽיִם. וְלֹא יַֽעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן: לֹא כִיּוֹר. וְלֹא כַנּוֹ: לֹא לְבוֹנָה. וְלֹא לֶֽחֶם הַפָּנִים: לֹא מִזְבֵּֽחַ. וְלֹא מִנְחָה: לֹא נִיחֽוֹחַ. וְלֹא נְסָכִים: לֹא סֹֽלֶת. וְלֹא סַמִּים: לֹא עֵֽרֶךְ. וְלֹא עוֹלָה: לֹא פָרֹֽכֶת. וְלֹא כַפֹּֽרֶת: לֹא צִיּוֹן. וְלֹא צִיץ הַזָּהָב: לֹא קְטֹֽרֶת. וְלֹא קָרְבָּן: לֹא רוֹקֵֽחַ. וְלֹא רֵֽיחַ נִיחֽוֹחַ: לֹא שַׁי, וְלֹא שְׁלָמִים: לֹא תוֹדָה. וְלֹא תְמִידִים:

and because of our many iniquities we have: neither sacrifices nor guilt-offerings, neither the handles of the holy ark, nor the mixtures of grain offerings, neither the lottery173This might either refer to the lottery used to choose between the scapegoat and the goat for Hashem on Yom Kippur, or the daily choosing used to assign priests their specific duties for the day. nor the burning coals,174This denotes the coals used for burning incense in the Temple. neither the Holy of Holies,175This was the innermost chamber of the Holy Temple which in the Mishkan and first Temple contained the Holy Ark with the Tablets. The High Priest entered this chamber once each year on Yom Kippur to burn the incense. nor the thin-powdered incense,176This refers to the thin powdered incense that was burnt twice each day on the Golden Altar in the Temple. neither the Sanctuary nor the sprinkling of blood, neither the confession177This was the confession which the High Priest performed several times on Yom Kippur over the sacrificial animals. nor the ox for a sin-offering, neither the slaughter of sacrifices nor the sprinkling of blood,178All sacrifices which were slaughtered had their blood received in a holy vessel which was then “sprinkled” upon the altar in various ways corresponding to the respective types of offerings. neither the sin offering179The “chatos” or “sin-offering” was brought at any time for an unintentional sin that, had it been committed intentionally, would carry the penalty of excision (an early death). nor the fats, neither immersion180The High Priest immersed himself in a mikveh five times on Yom Kippur, (ritual bath), each time changing from the “golden garments” to the “white garments” and vice versa. nor purification, neither Yerushalayim nor the forests of Lebanon, neither the wash basin181The wash basin contained the water with which the priests washed their hands and feet before serving in the Temple. nor its stand, neither Levona182“Levonah” is commonly translated as frankincense, an incense which was burnt daily in the Temple. nor the bread of the sanctuary,183Twelve loaves of bread were arranged upon the Table in the Sanctuary each Sabbath and were replaced the following Sabbath with twelve new loaves. neither Altar nor grain offerings, neither pleasing odor of sacrifices184This refers to Hashem’s acceptance of all that was offered in fire to Him in the Temple. nor libations,185There were two types of libations poured upon the Altar: water and wine. neither flour nor herbs, neither the arrangement of logs nor the totally consumed offering, neither the curtain nor the Ark-covering, neither Tziyon nor the golden head-band,186This was a golden band worn on the High Priest’s forehead which served, among other things, to “atone any” impurities in sacrifices and service. neither incense187Incense was burnt on the inner Altar of gold twice daily: in the morning and in the afternoon. nor sacrifices, neither spices nor the pleasing smell, neither gift188The term “שַׁי” literally means gift. Here, it can refer to anything donated to the Temple, including non-obligatory sacrifices. nor peace-sacrifices,189Peace-offerings were a large class of offerings brought not because of sin, but rather as some sort of obligations, e.g. festive sacrifice, or non-obligatory donations. Their distinguishing characterr was that they were eaten by the “owners,” those who brought the sacrifices. neither the offering of thanksgiving, nor the daily sacrifices.190There were two daily sacrifices: one in the morning, and one in the afternoon. These two sacrifices commenced and completed respectively, all other sacrifices brought in the Temple (with the exception of the Pascal Lamb).

כִּי בַעֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ וּבַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ חָסַֽרְנוּ כָּל אֵֽלֶּה:

For because of our many inquities, and the iniquities of our fathers, we are lacking all these things.

וּמֵעֵת חָסַֽרְנוּ כָּל אֵֽלֶּה: תָּכְפוּ (נ"א תָּקְפוּ) עָלֵֽינוּ צָרוֹת. תְּלָאוֹת עָבְרוּ רֹאשֵֽׁנוּ: שִׁחַֽרְנוּ יְשׁוּעָה וָאָֽיִן. שָׁלוֹם וְהִנֵּה קְפָדָה: רַֽבּוּ הַקָּמִים עָלֵֽינוּ. רָֽמוּ וְגַם נָֽשְׂאוּ רֹאשׁ: קַֽצְנוּ בְּעֹל עַלִּיזִים. קָשֶׁה עָלֵֽינוּ סִבְלָם: צְבִי אֶֽרֶץ חָנְפָה עָלֵֽינוּ. צָמְחָה וְלֹא לִבְרָכָה: פָּנִֽינוּ לְהַרְבֵּה וְהִנֵּה מְעָט. פַּח נֶֽפֶשׁ בָּא בַאֲסָמֵֽינוּ: עָשְׁקוּ זֵיתִים שַׁמְנָם. עֲשׂוֹתָם וְלֹא מָֽלְאוּ סֶֽפֶק: סְמָדַר אִם יַרְבֶּה כֶֽרֶם. סָבְאוֹ לֹא יַשְׁפִּֽיעַ יֶֽקֶב: נֶאֶרְרוּ אִבֵּי שָׂדֶה. נִלְקְחוּ מַטְעַמֵּי אֹֽכֶל: מִמִּכְלְאוֹת צֹאן עֲדָרִים דָּלְלוּ. מִגֵּז וּמִמִּיץ וּמֵהֵרָיוֹן: לְזָנָב וְלֹא לְרֹאשׁ הוּשַֽׁתְנוּ. לַעֲבֹט וְלֹא הָעֳבַט לָֽנוּ: כֹּחֵֽנוּ לָרִיק וּבֶהָלָה. כָּלָה מִבְּלִי שָׂכָר: יַד כָּל עָמָל בְּכִשְׁרוֹן. יָרְדָה וְאֵין מִי יַחֲזִיק: טֻלְטַֽלְנוּ מִיָּם וְעַד יָם. טַרְפָּם לֹא מָֽצְאוּ סֶֽפֶק (נ"א טַרְפָּם לֹא סֻפַּק לָֽמוֹ): חֲשֵׁכָה לְעֵין מִשְׂתַּכֵּר. חֻשַּׁב שְׂכָרוֹ לְמַפָּח: זֹעֲמוּ מַלְוֶה וְלֹוֶה. זֶה בָּזֶה שֻׁלְּחוּ מֵעַתָּה: וְנִלְאוּ יְדֵי מַמְצִֽיאֵי יָד. וְעָשִׁיר לֹא חוֹנֵן רָשׁ: הֵן אֶֽרֶץ נִמְכְּרָה בְּיַד רָעִים. הֲמוֹן בָּהּ לֹא מָֽצְאוּ רֶֽוַח: דְּבִיר בֵּית אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ שָׁמֵם. דְּרָכֵֽינוּ מֵאֲנוּ לְהַצְלִֽיחַ: גִּיל נָוֶה שָׁבַת. גִּילָה לִלְבָבֵֽנוּ מַה נַּֽעַל: בְּאֵין אֲרֻחַת אָב תָּמִיד. בְּכֵן בֶּֽטֶן בָּנִים תֶּחְסָר: אֲדוֹן בַּֽיִת כְּאוֹרֵֽחַ בַּמָּלוֹן. אֵיפֹה נִמְצָא מָנֽוֹחַ:

וּמִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ: תַּנּוֹת צָרוֹת לֹא נוּכַל. שֶֽׁבֶר בְּכָל יוֹם וַאֲנָחָה: רָֽבְתָה בָֽנוּ חַלְחָלָה. קֶֽרֶן יָרְדָה עַד עָפָר: צָֽרֵי עַֽיִן מָֽצְאוּ יָד. פּֽוֹעֲלֵי שֶֽׁקֶר חַֽיִל עָשׂוּ: עוֹשֵׂי צְדָקָה לֹא נִרְאוּ. שֽׂוֹנְאֵי בֶֽצַע לֹא עָמָֽדוּ: נִדְמִֽינוּ כִּכְלִי רֵק. מִכֹּל נִשְׁאַֽרְנוּ עֲרוּמִים: לֹא נָבִיא וְלֹא חָזוֹן בָּֽנוּ. כְּעִוְרִים נְגַשֵּׁשׁ וְנֵלֵךְ: יוֹם יוֹם נֹאמַר מַה בְּסוֹפֵֽנוּ. טוֹב מָֽוֶת מֵחַיִּים אָמָֽרְנוּ: חַיֵּֽינוּ תְּלוּיִים מִנֶּֽגֶד. זָרִים לְרֹאשׁ וַאֲנַֽחְנוּ לְזָנָב: וּמַה נַּעֲשֶׂה וַחֲטָאֵֽינוּ עָֽשׂוּ. הֵן אָֽנוּ כְּלֹא הָיִֽינוּ: דַּלִּים נִבְזִים וּשְׁפָלִים. גְּעוּלִים מְאוּסִים וּבְזוּיִים: בְּנֵי נֵכָר מָֽשְׁלוּ בָֽנוּ. אָמַֽרְנוּ נִגְזַֽרְנוּ אָבָֽדְנוּ: אָדוֹן הָקֵל עֻלֵּֽנוּ. וּשְׁלַח יֶֽשַׁע לְגָאֳלֵֽנוּ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: אַל תַּֽעַשׂ עִמָּֽנוּ כָּלָה. תֹּאחֵז יָדְךָ בַּמִּשְׁפָּט: בְּבוֹא תוֹכֵחָה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ. שְׁמֵֽנוּ מִסִּפְרְךָ אַל תִּמָּח: גִּשְׁתְּךָ לַחֲתֹם מוּסָר. רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יְקַדְּמוּ רָגְזֶֽךָ: דַּלּוּת מַעֲשִׂים בְּשׁוּרֶֽךָ. קָרֵב צֶֽדֶק מֵאֵלֶֽיךָ: הוֹרֵֽנוּ מַה שֶּׁנִּצְעַק לְפָנֶֽיךָ. צַוֵּה יְשׁוּעָתֵֽנוּ בְּמַפְגִּֽיעַ: וְתָשִׁיב שְׁבוּת אָֽהֳלֵי תָם. פְּתָחָיו רְאֵה כִּי שָׁמֵֽמוּ: זְכֹר שַֽׂחְתָּ. לֹא תִשָּׁכַח עֵדוּת מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ: חוֹתָם תְּעוּדָה תַּתִּיר. סוֹדְךָ שִׂים בְּלִמּוּדָהּ: טַבּוּר אַגַּן הַסַּֽהַר. נָא אַל יֶחְסַר הַמָּֽזֶג: יָהּ דַּע אֶת אֲשֶׁר יְדָֽעוּךָ. מַגֵּר עַם לֹא יְדָעֽוּךָ: כִּי תָשִׁיב לְבִצָּרוֹן. לְכוּדִים אֲסִירֵי הַתִּקְוָה:

וְהֵן אָֽנוּ עַתָּה: כְּתוֹעִים וְאֵין לְבַקֵּשׁ. כִּשְׁבוּיִים וְאֵין לְשׁוֹבֵב: כִּרְעֵבִים וְאֵין לְהַאֲכִיל. כִּקְנוּיִים וְאֵין לִקְנוֹת: כִּצְמֵאִים וְאֵין לְהַשְׁקוֹת. כִּפְתָאִים וְאֵין לְלַמֵּד: כַּעֲיֵפִים וְאֵין לְהָשִׁיב. כִּשְׂנוּאִים וְאֵין לֶאֱהֹב: כְּנֶהְדָּפִים וְאֵין לְקָרֵב. כִּמְנֻדִּים וְאֵין לְהַתִּיר: כִּלְקוּחִים וְאֵין אֲדוֹנִים. כְּפוּפִים וְאֵין לִזְקֹף: כִּיתוֹמִים וְאֵין לָהֶם אָב. כִּטְמֵאִים וְאֵין לְטַהֵר: כַּחֲסֵרִים וְאֵין לְמַלֹּאת. כִּזְנוּחִים וְאֵין לִזְכֹּר: כְּהוֹמִים וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנוּחָה. כְּדַלִּים וְאֵין לְחָנְּנָם: כְּגֵרִים וְאֵין לְקַבֵּל. כִּבְזוּיִים וְאֵין לְכַבֵּד: כַּאֲבֵלִים וְאֵין לְנַחֵם. כַּאֲנוּסִים וְאֵין מָנוֹס:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: אִם תָּעִֽינוּ לֹא תַתְעֵֽנוּ. אִם שָׁגַֽגְנוּ לֹא תַשְׁלֵֽנוּ: אִם רָחַֽקְנוּ קָרֵב נָא. אִם קָרַֽבְנוּ לֹא תִרְחָק: אִם צָעַֽקְנוּ לֹא תַעְלִים. אִם פָּשַֽׁעְנוּ לֹא תִפְרָע: אִם עָוִֽינוּ לֹא תִטֹּר. אִם סַֽרְנוּ לֹא תָסוּר: אִם נָקַֽמְנוּ לֹא תִלְחָם. אִם מָרִֽינוּ לֹא תַמְרֵֽנוּ: אִם לַֽצְנוּ לֹא תִלְחָץ. אִם כִּחַֽשְׁנוּ לֹא תְכַלֶּה: אִם יָרַֽדְנוּ לֹא תַטְבִּֽיעַ. אִם טָעִֽינוּ לֹא תְטַאטְאֵֽנוּ: אִם חָבַֽלְנוּ לֹא תַחְבֹּל. אִם זַֽדְנוּ לֹא תִזְכֹּר: אִם וִכַּֽחְנוּ לֹא תוֹכִֽיחַ. אִם הִרְשַֽׁעְנוּ לֹא תֶהְדֹּף: אִם דָּפַֽקְנוּ לֹא תִדְחֶה. אִם גָּעַֽלְנוּ לֹא תִגְעָל: אִם בָּֽאנוּ לֹא תִמְאַס. אִם אָשַֽׁמְנוּ לֹא תְאַבֵּד:

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: תַּאֲוַת לֵב לֹא הִשַּֽׂגְנוּ. שֶֽׁקֶט קִוִּֽינוּ וַיָּֽבוֹא רֹֽגֶז: רוּם קֶֽרֶן וְהִנֵּה שְׁפָלָה. קָרְבָה יְשׁוּעָה אָמַֽרְנוּ וְנִתְרַחֲקָה: צִפִּֽינוּ לְטוֹבָה וּבָרְחָה מִמֶּֽנּוּ. פַּח נֶֽפֶשׁ בָּא בַאֲסָמֵֽינוּ: עִצָּבוֹן בְּמִשְׁלַח יָדֵֽינוּ. שִׂמְחָה עָרְבָה מֵאֳֽרֶץ: נֶאֶרְרוּ יְבוּלֵי שָׂדֶה (בִּרְכוֹתֶֽיהָ). מְעַט מֵהַרְבֵּה נָבִֽיא: לַחְמָהּ לְרָזוֹן וְלֹא לָשֽׂבַע. כֹּחָהּ לֹא תוֹסִיף תֵּת: יְדֵי עֲמָלֶֽיהָ מוֹטָֽטוּ. טַרְפָּם לֹא יִמְצְאוּ בָהּ: חֵֽלֶב מִשְׁמַנֶּֽיהָ לְזָרִים. זְמוֹרוֹת עֲדָנֶֽיהָ לְנָכְרִים: וְנִמְכְּרָה אֶֽרֶץ בְּיַד רָעִים. הוֹן בֶּֽצַע לֹא מָֽצְאוּ בָהּ: דִּמִּֽינוּ גַּם מִמְּצוֹא יָד. גָּלָה שְׂכַר הַיְּצוּרִים: בַּעֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ בֵּית מִקְדַּשׁ אֵל חָרֵב. אֻסַּף חֶֽסֶד מִכָּל אֱנוֹשׁ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: תֹּאמַר לִמְחוֹת אֲשָׁמֵֽינוּ. תָּבוֹא לְחַדֵּשׁ יָמֵֽינוּ: תְּגַלֶּה שְׁנַת שְׁלוֹמֵֽנוּ. תַּגְדִּיל לְגַדֵּל אֶת שְׁמֵֽנוּ: תַּהֲדֹף מֵהֲדוֹם מִתְקוֹמְמֵֽינוּ. תּוֹפִֽיעַ מִמָּרוֹם לְרוֹמְמֵֽנוּ: תִּזְכֹּר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ לְרַחֲמֵֽנוּ. תָּחִישׁ מְנַחֵם לְנַחֲמֵֽנוּ: תְּטַהֵר שִׁמְצַת גֶּוְיֵֽנוּ. תְּיַדַּע כִּי אַתָּה הוּא אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ: תְּכַפֵּר עֲו‍ֹן זְדוֹנֵֽינוּ. תְּלוּי רֹאשׁ תִּתֵּן לְהַחֲיֵֽנוּ: תִּמְחֹל עִקְשׁוּת מֶרְיֵֽנוּ. תִּנְאֹם לְהַעֲצִים פִּרְיֵֽנוּ: תַּסְכִּית שְׁפִיכַת שִׂיחֵֽנוּ. תַּעֲנֶה עֶֽתֶר פִּצְחֵֽנוּ: תִּפְנֶה לְקוֹמֵם מִזְבְּחֵֽנוּ. תַּצְדִּיק נִיב שְׂפָתֵֽינוּ: תְּקָרֵב קֵץ מְשִׁיחֵֽנוּ. תִּרְצֶה רֵֽיחַ נִיחוֹחֵֽנוּ: תְּשׁוֹבֵב מִקְּצָווֹת נִדָּחֵֽינוּ. תִּתְמְכֵֽנוּ וְכָאֵזוֹר תַּדְבִּיקֵֽנוּ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: אוֹרְךָ תַּזְרִֽיחַ לַחֲשֵׁכָה. בְּרַחֲמִים גְּדוֹלִים תָּשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ: גַּלֵּה לָהּ יוֹם נָקָם בַלֵב. דְּבָרְךָ תִּשְׁלַח וְתִרְפָּאֵֽנוּ: הָאֵר פָּנֶֽיךָ אֵלֵֽינוּ. וְאַל תִּשְׁכָּחֵֽנוּ לָנֶֽצַח: זְכוּת הַרְרֵי קֶֽדֶם זְכֹר. חַטֹּאת נְעוּרִים אַל תִּזְכֹּר: טֻמְאָה מֵעָלֵֽינוּ תָּסִיר. יְדִידוּת נַפְשְׁךָ אַל תִּשְׁכַּח: כְּלוּלוֹת אַהֲבָתֵֽנוּ תִּזְכֹּר. לֶכְתֵּֽנוּ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר: מָשְׁכֵֽנוּ וְנָרוּץ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ. נְחֵֽנוּ וַהֲבִיאֵֽנוּ אֶל חֲדָרֶֽיךָ: סְעָדֵֽנוּ וְסָמְכֵֽנוּ וְנִחְיֶה. עֵת כִּי תַשְׁמִיעֵֽנוּ קוֹלֶֽךָ: פְּצֵֽנוּ מִשְּׁאוֹן גַּלִּים. צוּלָה תַחֲרִיב בְּאַפֶּֽךָ: קֽוּמָה בַחֲרוֹנְךָ עַל גֵּאִים. רֽוּמָה עֻזֶּֽךָ וְרוֹמֵם שְׁפָלִים: שְׁבֹר זְרֽוֹעַ רֶֽשַׁע. תִּמְלֹךְ לְבַדְּךָ בְּקוֹרְאֵי שְׁמֶֽךָ: תּוֹדִֽיעַ לְעֵין כָּל אֻמִּים. כִּי אֵין אֱלֽוֹהַּ מִבַּלְעָדֶֽיךָ: כִּי תְבִיאֵֽנוּ לְהַר קָדְשֶֽׁךָ. וּתְשַׂמְּחֵֽנוּ בְּבֵית מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: אֹֽפֶל אַלְמָנָה תָּאִיר. בֹּֽהוּ בוֹכִיָּה תַּבְהִיק: גִּיל גַּלְמוּדָה תַּגִּישׁ. דֶּֽלֶף דִּמְעָתָהּ תַּדְמִים: הַר הַשָּׁמֵם תְּהַדֵּר. וְתָשׁוּב וְאֵלָיו תּוֹפִֽיעַ: זֹֽהַר זְבוּלְךָ תַּזְרִֽיחַ. חֲדַר חֻפָּתְךָ תְּחַדֵּשׁ: טֶֽנֶף טֻמְאָתָהּ תְּטַהֵר. יֹֽפִי יִקְרַת תְּיַסְּדָהּ: כַּדְכֹד כְּבוֹדָהּ תְּכוֹנְנָהּ. לְאוֹרָהּ לְאֻמִּים תְּלַוֶּה: מֶֽלֶךְ מִכְּבוֹדְךָ תְּמַלְּאָהּ. נֵֽצַח נְצָחִים תְּנוֹסְסָהּ: שֹֽׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת תַּשְׂבִּיעֶֽנָּה. עֲנַן עָשָׁן תְּעַטְּרֶֽנָּה: פִּנַּת פְּתָחֶֽיהָ תְּפָאֵר. צֶֽדֶק צְנוּעִים תַּצְמִיחַ: קָמֵי קְהָלֶֽיהָ תָּקִיא. רֶֽגֶשׁ רְגָלִים תָּרִיץ: חזן שְׁבָטִים שָׁכַֽחְתָּ תְּשׁוֹבֵב. תִּקְרָא תִּשְׁרֹק וְתִתְקַע: כִּי תְבִיאֵם לְהַר קָדְשֶֽׁךָ. וּתְשַׂמְּחֵם בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתֶֽךָ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ: תִּתֵּן אַחֲרִית לְעַמֶּֽךָ. תָּשִׁיב מִקְדָּשׁ לְתוֹכֵֽנוּ: תְּרוֹמֵם הַר מְרוֹם הָרִים. תְּקוֹמֵם קֶֽרֶן גְּדוּעָה: תַּצְהִיר מַחֲשַׁכֵּי אִוּוּי. תְּפָאֵר יוֹשֶֽׁבֶת בָּדָד: תַּעֲטֶה בָּהּ מְלוּכָה לְבַדֶּֽךָ. תָּסִיר חֶרְפָּה מֵעִיר: תְּנַעֵר זֵדִים מִזְּבוּלֶֽךָ. תַּמְצִיא צְדָקָה לַעֲדָתֶֽךָ: תְּלַבֵּב אֶת רַעְיָתֶֽךָ. תִּכְרֹת לָהּ בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה: תִּיקַר נַפְשָׁהּ בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ. תְּטַהֲרֶֽנָּה בְּמַֽיִם טְהוֹרִים: תַּחֲנֶה בְּעִיר חָנָה דָוִד. תִּזְקֹף קוֹמַת תְּמָרָהּ: תּוֹדִֽיעַ לַכֹּל אַהֲבָתֵֽנוּ. תְּהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶֽרֶב מַחֲנוֹתֵֽינוּ: תִּדְרשׁ גְּאֻלָּה לְגָלוּתֵֽנוּ. תְּגַלֶּה קֵץ לִקְנוֹתֵֽנוּ: תָּבוֹא מְהֵרָה לְרַחֲמֵֽנוּ. תַּאֲמִירֵֽנוּ לְךָ וְנַאֲמִירְךָ לָֽנוּ:

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: תָּעִֽינוּ מֵאַחֲרֶֽיךָ. שָׁגַגְנוּ מִמִּצְוֹתֶֽיךָ: רֻחַֽקְנוּ מִבֵּית חַיֵּֽינוּ. קִלְקַֽלְנוּ אָרְחוֹת עוֹלָם: צְעָדֵֽנוּ לֹא יִשַּֽׁרְנוּ. פָּשַֽׁעְנוּ לְשֵׁם קָדְשֶֽׁךָ: עָזַֽבְנוּ תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ. סַֽרְנוּ מֵאִמְרֵי פִֽיךָ: נִאַצְנֽוּךָ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֵֽינוּ. מָרִֽינוּ וּמָרַֽדְנוּ בָךְ: לֹא הִקְשַֽׁבְנוּ לְדִבְרֵי נְבִיאֶֽיךָ. כִּעַסְנֽוּךָ וְלֹא בִקַּשְׁנֽוּךָ: יִרְאָתְךָ מִלֵּב שָׁכַֽחְנוּ. טָהֳרָתְךָ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֵֽינוּ טִמֵּֽאנוּ: חָטָֽאנוּ לְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ. זְעַמְנֽוּךָ בְּרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: וְאִמַּֽצְנוּ אֶת לְבָבֵֽנוּ. הִקְשִֽׁינוּ אֶת עָרְפֵּֽנוּ: דְּבָרְךָ אָחוֹר הִשְׁלַֽכְנוּ. גְּדֻלָּתְךָ לֹא הִגַּֽדְנוּ: בֵּיתְךָ נֶהֱרַס בַּעֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ. אִוּוּיָךְ נֻתַּץ בַּחֲטָאֵֽינוּ:

מַה נְדַבֵּר פְּנֵי מֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵר. וּמַה נַּעֲנֶה לְמִמֶּֽנּוּ מַעֲנֶה. וּמַה נִּצְטַדָּק פְּנֵי לוֹבֵשׁ צְדָקָה. גְּמָלָֽנוּ טוֹבוֹת וְשִׁלַּֽמְנֽוּהוּ רָעוֹת. וּמַה יֶּשׁ לָֽנוּ עוֹד צְדָקָה וְלִזְעֹק עוֹד אֶל פְּנֵי הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:

זְכֹר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יְהֹוָה וַחֲסָדֶֽיךָ כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵֽמָּה: אַל תִּזְכָּר לָנוּ עֲו‍ֹנוֹת רִאשׁוֹנִים. מַהֵר יְקַדְּמוּנוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ כִּי דַלּוֹנוּ מְאֹד: זָכְרֵֽנוּ יְהֹוָה בִּרְצוֹן עַמֶּֽךָ פָּקְדֵֽנוּ בִּישׁוּעָתֶֽךָ: זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִֽיתָ קֶּֽדֶם גָּאַֽלְתָּ שֵֽׁבֶט נַחֲלָתֶֽךָ הַר צִיּוֹן זֶה שָׁכַנְתָּ בּוֹ: זְכוֹר יְהֹוָה חִבַּת יְרוּשָׁלָֽםִ אַהֲבַת צִיּוֹן אַל תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶֽצַח: זְכֹר יְהֹוָה לִבְנֵי אֱדוֹם אֵת יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלָֽםִ הָאֹמְרִים עָֽרוּ עָֽרוּ עַד הַיְסוֹד בָּהּ: אַתָּה תָקוּם תְּרַחֵם צִיּוֹן. כִּי עֵת לְחֶנְנָהּ כִּי בָא מוֹעֵד: זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶֽיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּֽעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם אַרְבֶּה אֶת זַרְעֲכֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָֽיִם. וְכָל הָאָֽרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַֽרְתִּי אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם וְנָחֲלוּ לְעוֹלָם: זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶֽיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב. אַל תֵּֽפֶן אֶל קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל חַטָּאתוֹ:

Remember Your mercies, Adonoy and Your kindnesses, for they are from the beginning of the world. Remember not the sins of our ancestors; let Your compassion come swiftly toward us, for we have been brought very low. Remember us Adonoy with favor for Your people recall us with Your deliverance. Remember Your congregation which You have acquired of old, You have redeemed the tribe of Your inheritance, this mountain of Tziyon where You have dwelled. Remember, Adonoy, the affection of Yerushalayim, the love of Tziyon, forget not until eternity. Remember, Adonoy, to the sons of Edom, the day of Yerushalayim, [it was they] who said, “Raze it, raze it to its very foundations.” You will arise and have compassion on Tziyon, for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has come. Remember Avraham, Yitzchak, Yisrael, Your servants, to whom You swore by Your very Self, and You said to them: “I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens; and all this land that I have promised, I will give to your descendants, and they will inherit it forever.” Remember Your servants, Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov; do not regard the stubborness of this people, or their wickedness, or their sin

Chazzan and congregation:

אַל נָא תָשֵׁת עָלֵֽינוּ חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָֽאנוּ: חָטָֽאנוּ צוּרֵֽנוּ סְלַח לָֽנוּ יוֹצְרֵֽנוּ:

Do not, we beseech You place upon us the sin, wherein we have acted foolishly and sinned. We have sinned, our Rock; Pardon us our Creator.

גֹּֽפֶר

an ark of gopher-wood,

נוֹשַׁע

was delivered

כְּסָגַֽרְתָּ בַּעֲדוֹ.

when You enclosed him within.45Bereishis 6:14, Bereishis 7:16. The Torah says that Hashem closed the door of the ark after Noach entered.

טְפוּלָיו הִפְרֵֽיתָ

His sons, You made fruitful

וּמָלְאוּ פְנֵי צִיָּה:

and they filled the face of the earth.

יָעֲצוּ נֶאֱחָדִים

A united people conspired

לָרוּם עַד לַשַּֽׁחַק.

to build a tower unto the heavens.46This refers to the Dor Hahaphlaga the “generation of division” which built the Migdal Bavel, the “Tower of Bavel.” Being of one language, they were united in speech and hence, subsequently, in conspiracy (Bereishis 11:1).

יֻקָּֽשׁוּ

They were entrapped by their evil action,

נֻפָּֽצוּ

and were scattered about the earth47Bereishis 11:8.

בְּרֽוּחַ סוֹעָה וָסָֽעַר.

as if by a violent wind.

יְדִיד

Your loved one [Avraham]48Yeshaya 41:8.

אֲתוּי עֵֽבֶר

who came “across the river,”49The word עִבְרִי “Ivri” refers to the fact that Avraham came from the other side of the river.

יִדַּעֲךָ

made famous Your Name

בָּעוֹלָם.

in the world.50See Bereishis 12:8 and the commentary of Ibn Ezra (ibid).

יִחוּם זְקוּנָיו

The son of his old age, [Yitzchak]

הֶעֱלָה לְךָ לְכָלִיל:

he offered to You in sacrifice.

כְּשֶׂה תָּמִים

Like a perfect, unblemished lamb

בֻּחַר אִישׁ

Yaakov was chosen;

תָּם.

he who was without blemish.51In Bereishis 25:27, Yaakov is called תָּם “Tam” which Rashi interprets as denoting “equal in tongue and heart.”

כְּחָשַׁק יְשִׁיבַת אֹהָלִים

He desired to sit in tents52This refers to the period when Yaakov studied in the Yeshivos of Shem and Aver (See Rashi ibid.).

וְנִמְשַׁךְ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ.

and followed you.

כּֽשֶׁר חֲנִיטֵי יוֹף

Righteous children

הוֹצֵֽאתָה מֵחֲלָצָיו.

You brought forth from him,

כֻּלּוֹ זֶֽרַע אֱמֶת

all of whom stayed true to their heritage,

וְאֵין דֹּֽפִי:

none ever deviating.

לְשָׁרֶתְךָ

To serve You,

אִוִּֽיתָה לֵוִי אִישׁ חֲסִידֶֽךָ.

You desired Levi, Your pious one.53Devorim 33:8. After the sin of the golden calf, Hashem chose the tribe of Levi to serve inthe Tabernacle because they did not participate in the sin.

לְהַבְדִּיל מִגִּזְעוֹ

From his tribe, You chose one [Aharon]

מֻקְדָּשׁ קֹֽדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים.

to be Your holiest;54This refers to Aharon and his sons who came from the tribe of Levi and were chosen to become the priests.

לִקְשֹׁר נֶֽזֶר קֹֽדֶשׁ

to wear the holy mitre

וְלַעֲטוֹת אוּרִים.

and the Urim VeTumim,55Vayikra 8:8—9. These were worn by the High Priest during his service.

לֵישֵׁב כִּכְבֻדָּה פְּנִֽימָה

and to dwell inside the Tabernacle

יָמִים שִׁבְעָה:

for seven days.56Before the final consecration of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, the priests were confined to the Tabernacle for seven days during which time they offered sacrifices each day to become initiated into the priesthood.

מַחֲזִיקֵי אֲמָנָה

Upholders of the Jewish faith, [The Sanhedrin],

שָׁבֽוּעַ קֹדֶם לֶעָשׂוֹר.

a week before the tenth day [of Tishrei],

מַפְרִישִׁים כֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ

secluded the High Priest

כְּדָת הַמִּלֻּאִים:

as was done in the seven days after the completion of the Mishkan.57Maseches Yoma, Mishnah 1:1; This law is derived from the seven days of consecration of the Mishkan during which time Aharon and his sons stayed inside of the Mishkan, see Talmud 2:9,b. The High Priest was confined to a special chamber called ‘lishkas phalhedrin’ (ibid. 2a).

מַזִּים עָלָיו

They sprinkled upon him

מֵי חַטָּאת

water mixed with the ashes of red heifers58Maseches Yoma, 4a, 8a. According to the Mishnah (in Para ch. 3:11), from each red heifer which was burnt, from the time of Moshe, one third of its ashes were stored away, and some of the ashes from each were used to sprinkle over the High Priest. The Rambam (1:4) states that the sprinkling took place on the third and seventh day of confinement as a precaution lest the priest had been made impure upon contact with a dead body.

לְטַהֲרוֹ.

in order to purify him.

זוֹרֵק

[Each of the seven days] he sprinkled the blood of the daily sacrifices,

מַקְטִיר

burned the incense59Maseches Yoma Mishnah 14a. The incense was burned twice daily, in the morning and in the afternoon. According to the Rambam the order was: sprinkling, cleaning out five wicks, burning the morning incense, then cleaning out the remaining two wicks. [upon the golden altar in the Sanctuary,]

וּמֵטִיב

and cleaned away the ashes, [from the wicks of the Menorah],

לְהִתְרַגֵּל בָּעֲבוֹדָה:

[he did these things] to acquaint himself with the daily service.60This was because the entire service on Yom Kippur was performed exclusively by the High Priest. See Rambam (Ch. 1:2,5).

כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרָתֶֽךָ:

As it was written in Your Torah:

כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה

As it was done on this day,

צִוָּה יְהֹוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת

Adonoy commanded that it be done

לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם:

to atone for you.

נִלְוִים אֵלָיו נְבוֹנִים

Each day he was visited by wise men,

יְשִׁישֵׁי שַֽׁעַר.

the elders of the Sanhedrin61Mishnah Yoma Ch. 1:3.

נוֹאֲמִים לוֹ

who said to him,

קְרָא נָא בְּפִיךָ.

“Please study [the order of the Daily Service.]”62Ibid. The Mishnah continues, “Perhaps you have forgotten (the service), or perhaps you never learned it.” Tiferes Yisroel explains that he himself was asked to read since this would help him best to remember.

נֹֽגַהּ תְּשִׁיעִי

On the morning of the ninth day of Tishrei,

יַעֲמִידֽוּהוּ בְּשַֽׁעַר קָדִים.

he was placed at the eastern gate [of the Temple courtyard].

נוֹי

The choice [animals]

זִבְחֵי יוֹם

which would be sacrificed,

לְפָנָיו יַעֲבִֽירוּ:

were brought before him.63Ibid. This was done in order to acquaint him with the animals that he would sacrifice the next day. The goats, however, were not shown to him, for being that they would be an atonement for sin, he might become frightened and shaken.

סֶֽמֶךְ בִּיאַת שֶֽׁמֶשׁ

Before sunset [of the Day of Atonement]

צֵידוֹ יַמְעִֽיטוּ.

his food intake was diminished,

סַֽאַב לֹֽבֶן

for fear he might become impure

פֶּן בְּרֶֽדֶם יִקְרֵֽהוּ.

during the sleep brought on by excess food.64Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:4. During the first six days, he was permitted to eat and drink as much as he wanted. The Mishnah states that too much food and drink could bring about sleep, during which time an emission could occur. He was instructed how to take the handful of spices used for the incense offering of the Day of Atonement.

סָבֵי שִׁבְטוֹ

[Before] the elders of his tribe

לְלַמֵּד חֵֽפֶן יוֹלִיכֽוּהוּ.

taught him how to perform chafina (ִחֲפִינָה),65Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:5. The ritual of taking a handful of incense and bringing it in the Holy of Holies was a special service done only on the Day of Atonement and was one of the most difficult of all temple services. Consequently, it was important to instruct him how to perform it.

סַמִּים לְתַמֵּר

and burn the incense

בִּפְנִים

inside [the Holy of Holies,]

אוֹתוֹ יַשְׁבִּֽיעוּ:

the elders of Sanhedrin gave him an oath.66Ibid. It is a tradition of the oral law that the incense should be placed on the pan of coals inside the Holy of Holies and not outside, as the Sadducees contended. The oath was administered because there were priests who were suspected of being Sadducees (see Rambam 1:7). They made him swear in the Name of Hashem, that he would not change anything of what he was instructed.

סָמַר בְּשָׂרוֹ

His flesh crept [with fear];

וְהִדְמִֽיעַ כִּי נֶחֱשַׁד.

and he cried because he was suspected.

סָֽרוּ גַם הֵם

The elders of Sanhedrin turned aside

וּבֶֽכֶה הִגִּֽירוּ.

and also wept for having suspected him.67Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:5. The Rambam writes that it is forbidden by our Torah to suspect someone or to think ill of someone when the matter is in doubt, except if absolutely necessary.

שִֽׂיחַ מִדְרָשׁ בְּפֶה

They lectured to him

וּבִכְתַב הִגָּיוֹן.

and read from Scriptures.

סְבִיבָיו יְשַׁנְּנוּ

They gathered around him to study,68Mishnah Yoma ch. 1:6. Since it was necessary that he not fall asleep lest he have an impure emission while sleeping, those around him kept him up all night.

לְעוֹרְרוֹ עַד חֲצוֹת:

to keep him awake until midnight.69Ibid. For at midnight, the service of Yom Kippur begins with the Terumas HaDeshen, which consisted of removing some of the burnt coals and placing them on the floor next to the Altar. It should be noted that according to the Talmud Maseches Yoma, 19:6 it seems that he did not commence until dawn and that it was therefore necessary to keep him awake until then.

עָלְצוּ

Joyously they chose70Each day in the Temple there were four lots to determine which kohanim would do the various services. There is a dispute among the commentaries whether lots were drawn also on Yom Kippur or whether these services too (in addition to the main services of sacrifice, sprinkling blood etc.) had to be performed by the High Priest (See Rambam 4:1, Ramban, Tosafos Yeshonim Yoma 20b, Ba’al Meor).

תְּרֹם דֶּֽשֶׁן

for the Terumas Hadeshen,71Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:1. The Terumas Hadeshen was the first service of the day and consisted of the priest going up to the center of the Altar, collecting some burnt coals, and placing them on the floor next to the Altar.

בְּפַֽיִּס רִאשׁוֹן.

the first choosing of the day.

עוֹד יָפִֽיסוּ לְדִּשּׁוּן פְּנִימִי

They chose again72Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:3. According to the Talmud, Yoma 24b, the four choosing’s were not held at one time because they wanted to summon a crowd four times during the day. It is considered an honor to the King to assemble a great multitude in the Temple (בְּרוֹב עָם הַדְרַת מֶלֶךְ). to clean the inner Altar

וּמְנוֹרָה.

and five wicks of the meonrah.73The second lot was for picking two priests: one to clean the inner Altar (upon which incense was barred), and a second after him to clean five wicks from the Menorah (Yoma 25:1).

עֵֽקֶב קְטֹֽרֶת פַּיֵּס

However, the choosing to burn the incense

חֲדָשִׁים יְשַׁלֵּֽשׁוּ.

was limited to those who had never done so.74Mishnah Yoma Ch. 2:4. The third lot to determine who would burn the incense on the inner Altar was drawn just among the new priests who had not yet performed that service. The reason for this, explains the Talmud, is that this service increases the wealth of the priest who performed it. Therefore, care was taken to give every priest an opportunity to partake of the blessing. It should be noted that all commentaries agree that on Yom Kippur, only the High Priest could burn incense on the inner Altar.

עֲרֹךְ נְתָחִים יַֽחַד

Bringing up the limbs to the Altar,

פַּיִּס הָרְבִיעִי:

was the fourth choosing.

עָלָה בְּרַק הַשַּֽׁחַר

The break of dawn

כְּנָם הַצּוֹפֶה.

was announced by the watchman.75Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:1. A watchman was stationed on a high place in the courtyard (Tifferes Yisroel) to watch for the break of dawn, which signaled the time to proceed with the sacrifice of the daily morning offering, i.e. the Tamid Shel Shachar.

עָלָיו פֵּרְשְׂזוּ מָסָךְ בּוּץ

A sheet of linen was placed before the mikvah76Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. Before putting on the eight garments, he immersed himself in the ritual bath, the Mikvah, since whoever enters the Temple Courtyard (Azarah) is required to immerse himself. The opening to the chamber of the mikvah was covered with a linen cloth to symbolize the fact that the special Yom Kippur services would be performed in linen clothes.

לְהֶצְנֵֽעַ.

for his modesty.

עֵרָה סוּתוֹ טָבַל

He took off his clothes,77Ibid. That is to say, he took off his daily everyday clothes. immersed himself

וְעָט זְהָבִים.

and put on the eight golden garments.78Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. The High Priest performed his service during the entire year with eight garments, four which were worn by regular priests, and four additional ones. On Yom Kippur he wore two types of clothing. For those services which were not specially performed for Yom Kippur, he wore his usual eight garments. For those services, however, which were performed especially in the Holy of Holies for Yom Kippur, he wore only four white garments (shirt, pants, belt, and hat). Before commencing service, he wore “everyday” clothes, and put on the eight garments of “gold” for the opening service which was the slaughtering of the daily morning sacrifice.

עָמַד וְקִדֵּשׁ

He washed his hands and feet79Ibid. It is a positive commandment in the Torah for a priest to wash his hands and feet from a special laver. The initial dressing requires only one washing (afterwards), but the subsequent changes in clothing require one washing before taking off the initial set of clothes and another when dressing in the next set (Rambam 2:2, 4:1).

וְקֵרַץ

and made the incision80Ibid. The High Priest performed the minimal cut; the major part of each of the two “signs” which characterize the slaughter of an animal according to the Torah: the gullet and trachea (Rambam 4:1). The reason for this was so that he could quickly receive the blood coming out of the neck of the animal. The slaughter was completed by another priest.

תְּמִיד הַשַּֽׁחַר:

in the Daily morning Sacrifice.

פִּקֵּד

Another priest was appointed

לְמָרְקוֹ

to complete the slaughter,81Mishnah Yoma Ch. 3:4. Since only the High Priest could receive the blood of the animal, it was necessary to give him time to do so. Consequently, he only performed the minimal cut, leaving the rest to another priest. (Rambam 4:1, Rashi Yoma 31b).

וְהוּא קִבֵּל

permitting the High Priest to receive [the blood]

וְזָרַק.

and sprinkle it [on the outer Altar.]

פֵּרַשׁ

He withdrew, [entered the Sanctuary,]

הִקְטִיר

and burned incense82Ibid. This was the daily burning of incense upon the smaller Golden Altar that is inside the Sanctuary. [upon the inner altar;]

וְהֵטִיב

then he cleaned the wicks of the Menorah.

הִקְרִיב

Then he burnt the Daily Morning Offering,83After cleaning the Menorah, the High Priest left the Sanctuary and offered the daily morning sacrifice upon the outer Altar.

וְנִסֵּךְ.

and poured a libation of wine upon the Altar.

פְּעֻלַּת כָּלִיל

The Daily Morning Offering

פְּעֻלַּת כָּלִיל הִשְׁלִים

he thus completed

וְעָשׂ כַּסֵּדֶר.

and proceeded in order with the next services.

פֵּרְשׂוּ סָדִין לָבָן עוֹד

A white sheet was set before him

כְּבָרִאשׁוֹנָה.

as before.84The white sheet afforded him privacy for his immersion. This immersion, the second, proceeded the change of clothes from the “eight golden garments” to the “white garments.” The white garments were worn for those parts of the service which were special to Yom Kippur.

פַּרְוָה

He was brought to the Parve chamber85The first immersion was in a mikvah adjacent to his personal chamber but was not considered to be part of the Temple courtyard, as indeed it was forbidden for him to enter the courtyard until he immersed himself. Subsequent immersions took place in the Parve chamber which was considered part of the courtyard (Rambam 2:3).

בַּקֹּֽדֶשׁ

[which was located] within the Temple courtyard.

שָׁם קִדֵּשׁ

There he washed his hands and feet,

וּפָשַׁט.

and took off the eight golden garments.

פָּסַע

He stepped [into the Mikvah]

וְטָבַל

and immersed himself,

לְבָנִים עָט

and after which he put on white garments;

וְקִדֵּשׁ.

then washed his hands and feet.86It was incumbent upon him to wash before taking off his clothes and then once again after putting on new ones.

פְּלוּסִים

The white garments were of linen from Pallus

עֶרְכָּם מָנִים שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר.

worth eighteen measures,

פְּאוּרִים

the finest linen

לְשָׁרֵת בָּם לְמֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד.

with which to serve the King of Glory.

פָּרוֹ מֻצָּב

His ox stood87Mishnah Yoma 3:8. The High Priest would sacrifice two oxen on Yom Kippur. One he brought for himself, from his own funds, and one for the Jewish people, from public funds.

בֵּין אוּלָם

between the antechamber

לַמִּזְבֵּחַ.

and the outer Altar;88The ox stood in the northern sector of the area between the outer Altar and the Sanctuary. It was positioned there in order to minimize the distance the High Priest would have to walk in carrying its blood to the outer Altar.

פָּנָיו יָֽמָּה

its face to the West,

וְרֹאשׁוֹ נֶֽגְבָּה מְעֻקָּם:

its head to the South.89The head of the ox faced south and its body to the north. The reason it was not placed from east to west was in order that it should not emit waste in the direction of the Altar (Yoma 35b, 36a).

פָּגַשׁ וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ.

He leaned his hands upon its head,

פְּשָׁעָיו הוֹדָה

and confessed his sins,

וּבְחֻבּוֹ לֹא טָמָן:

not hiding even one.

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר.

And this was his confession:

אָֽנָּא הַשֵּׁם,

I beg of You Hashem;90Mishnah 3:8.There is a dispute among commentaries whether the explicit Name was uttered at this point or not.

חָטָֽאתִי. עָוִֽיתִי.

I have sinned, acted wickedly

פָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ

and rebelled against You,91Our Sages distinguish three forms of sin: a. חֵטְא unintentional sin b. עָווֹן intentional sin, [iniquity] that is to say, a sin committed intentionally but material motiovated. c. פֶּשַׁע—a rebellion, that is to say, an intentionally committed sin without material motive, thus with the sole purpose of defying Hashem (Rashi, Yoma 36b).

אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי:

I and my household.

אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא.

I beg of You, with Your Name, atone

לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וּלַפְּשָׁעִים.

the sins, iniquities, and rebellions

שֶׁחָטָֽאתִי. וְשֶׁעָוִֽיתִי.

that I have sinned, acted wickedly,

וְשֶׁפָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ

and rebelled against You,

אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי.

I and my household;

כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה

as is written in the Torah of Moshe,

עַבְדֶּךָ

Your servant,

מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ.

from the mouth of Your glory:

כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה

“For on this day

יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם

He will make atonement for you,

לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם

to cleanse you

מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

from all your sins, before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם

And the priests and the people

הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה.

who were standing in the Temple Courtyard

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים

when they heard

אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא

the glorious and awesome Name [of God]

מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא

explicitly pronounced

מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל

from the mouth of the High Priest92The Talmud says that the explicit Name of Hashem was uttered by the High Priest ten times on the Day of Atonement, and each time the people fell to the floor and pronounced “Blessed [is His] Name” etc.

בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה.

with holiness and with purity,

הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים

they bowed, prostrated themselves,

וּמוֹדִים

offered thanks,

וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם.

and fell upon their faces

וְאוֹמְרִים

and said,

בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ

“Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom

לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵן

And he prolonged

לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם

the intoning of the Name93This refers to the Name of Hashem uttered in the pervious verse, ’‘before Adonoy.”

כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים

until the worshippers completed [the response].

וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם

And, [completing the verse,] said to them:

תִּטְהָֽרוּ:

“You will be cleansed.”

וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל

And [now] with your great goodness

מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ

arouse Your mercy,

וְסוֹלֵֽחַ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶֽךָ:

and pardon Your faithful servant.

צָעַד לֵילֵךְ לוֹ

The High Priest then walked

לְמִזְרַח עֲזָרָה.

to the eastern part of the Temple Courtyard

צֶֽמֶד שְׂעִירִים שָׁם

where stood a pair of goats

מֵהוֹן עֵדָה.

bought with communal funds.

צְמוּדִים אֲחוּיִים

They stood next to each other like twins,

שָׁוִים בְּתֹֽאַר וּבְקוֹמָה.

identical in color and height,94The Mishnah stipulates four categories of similarity: looks (color), height, value, and simultaneous purchase.

צָגִים לְכַפֵּר

ready to atone

עֲו‍ֹן בַּת הַשּׁוֹבֵבָה.

for the sins of a rebellious daughter [Yisrael].95Yirmiyahu 31:21.

צֵהוּב חֲלָשִׁים טָרַף

Two golden lots were mixed,96Mishnah Yoma 3:9, 4:1.

וְהֶעֱלָה מִקַּלְפִּי.

then lifted out of the box,97The High Priest placed both hands into the box, then mixed the lots inside, and lifted them out, one in his right hand and one in his left (Rambam ch. 3).

צָנַח וְהִגְרִיל לְשֵׁם גָּבֹֽהַּ

one lot for God,

וְלַצּוּק.

the other for “Azazel.”98Mishnah Yoma 4:1. On one lot was written “For Hashem” and on the other was written “For Azazel.” The two goats stood in front of him facing west. The goat to his right received the lot in his right hand, and the goat on the left was allotted that in his left.

צָעַק בְּקוֹל רָם

He shouted aloud

לַיהֹוָה חַטָּאת.

“A sin offering for Adonoy.”99Ibid. This was shouted when he placed the lot “for Adonoy” on the appropriate goat.

צוֹתְתָיו עָנוּ לוֹ

Those who heard him responded,

וּבֵרְכוּ אֶת הַשֵּׁם.

blessing ‘the Name of God.'100They actually responded saying: “Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom is forever and ever”; as was the procedure each time the Name of Hashem was explicitly pronounced (see note 92). In addition, as before, the people prostrated themselves (see Rambam ch. 2). The goat receiving the lot “for Hashem” would later be sacrificed as a sin offering, while the goat receiving the lot “for Azazel” would be sent out to the Judean hills.

צֶֽבַע זְהוֹרִית

A thread of red wool

קָשַׁר בְּרֹאשׁ הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּֽחַ.

he tied on the head of the Azazel goat101Mishnah Yoma 4:2. This was done so that the scapegoat should not be confused with the other goat, to be sacrificed.

צִגָּתוֹ אִמֵּן

which was placed at the eastern gate102Ibid. This was the “gate of Niknor.”

נֶֽגֶד בֵּית שִׁלּֽוּחַ:

from whence it would be sent away.

צָלַח

He completed this service,

וּבָא אֵֽצֶל פָּרוֹ שֵׁנִית.

approached his ox a second time,103Ibid. This was the ox upon which he had previously confessed his and his household’s sins. Thus, the two confessions were interspersed by the drawing of the lots for the two goats.

צַֽחַן מַטֵּֽהוּ פְּנֵי צוּר הִתְוַדָּה:

and made confession.104This confession was for himself and his fellow priests.

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר.

And this was his confession:

אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם.

I beg of You, Hashem:

חָטָֽאתִי. עָוִֽיתִי.

I have sinned, acted wickedly,

פָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ

and rebelled against You,

אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי

I and my household,

וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶֽׁךָ:

and the sons of Aharon, Your holy people.

אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא.

I beg of You Hashem, atone

לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וְלַפְּשָׁעִים.

the sins, iniquities and rebellions,

שֶׁחָטָֽאתִי. וְשֶׁעָוִֽיתִי.

that I have sinned, acted wickedly,

וְשֶׁפָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ

and rebelled against You,

אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי

I and my household,

וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶֽׁךָ:

and the sons of Aharon, Your holy people.

כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה

As it is written in the Torah of Moshe,

עַבְדֶּךָ

Your servant,

מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ.

from the mouth of Your glory:

כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה

“For on this day,

יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם

He will make atonement for you,

לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם

to cleanse you,

מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

from all your sins, before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם

And the priests and the people

הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה.

who were standing in the Temple Courtyard;

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים

when they heard

אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא

the glorious and awesome Name [of God]

מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא

explicitly pronounced

מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל

from the mouth of the High Priest,

בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה.

with holiness and with purity,

הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים

they bowed, prostrated themselves,

וּמוֹדִים

offered thanks,

וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם.

and fell upon their faces,

וְאוֹמְרִים

and said:

בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ

“Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious Kingdom

לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן

And he [the High Priest] prolonged

לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם

the intoning of the Divine Name

כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים

until the worshippers completed [the response];

וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם

and [completing the verse] said to them:

תִּטְהָֽרוּ:

“You will be cleansed.”

וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ

And [now] with Your goodness,

מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ

arouse Your mercy,

וְסוֹלֵֽחַ לְשֵֽׁבֶט מְשָׁרְתֶֽיךָ:

and pardon the tribe that serves You.

קָח מַאֲכֶֽלֶת חַדָּה

He then took a sharp knife

וּשְׁחָטוֹ

and slaughtered the ox

כַּסֵּֽדֶר.

in the usual manner.105Mishnah Yoma 4:3. The phraseology “in the usual manner” seems to indicate the opinion of the Peitan, that unlike the morning sacrifice in which only a minimal cut was made, here the High Priest completed the cut. Tiferes Yisroel, in his commentary to the Mishnah, explains that because the slaughter of the ox was part of the special service of Yom Kippur, it was certain that the High Priest would be extra diligent to make sure he received its blood. Other commentaries however (see, e.g. Tosefos Yom Tov to Mishnah 4:3) maintain that the same minimal incision was made for all sacrifices of the day.

קִבֵּל דָּם בְּמִזְרָק

He received the blood in a holy vessel

וּנְתָנוֹ לַמְמָרֵס.

and gave it to a priest who would stir it;106Ibid. Since the blood was not sprinkled until later, it was necessary to keep it from coagulating.

קְרִישָׁתוֹ יִמַּס

thus keeping it liquid-like

עַד עֵת הַזָּיָה.

until the time came to sprinkle it.

קָפוּי פֶּן יְהִי

For if it became too hard to sprinkle,

וְתָעֳדַר סְלִיחָה.

there could be no atonement.

קֽוֹחַ לוֹחֲשׁוֹת

He107Mishnah Yoma 4:3. The Peitan now describes the burning of incense in the Kodesh HaKodashim, the Holy of Holies, a service which was performed only once a year, on Yom Kippur. stirred the coals on the outer Altar,

חָת

scooped up some of the innermost coals

בְּמַחְתַּת פַּרְוַֽיִם.

with a reddish-gold shovel.108The Talmud, Maseches Yoma (43b) states that the shovel used to stir and carry coals was made of “reddish” gold, similar in color to the blood of an ox.

קַלָּה

The shovel was especially light,

וְגֶֽלֶד רַךְ

of very thin metal,

וַאֲרֻכַּת יָד.

and had an especially long handle.109Mishnah Yoma 4:4. Since the burning of incense in the Kodesh HaKodashim on Yom Kippur was a totally different procedure than the usual incense burning (even for that very day), the High Priest used a specially designed shovel to facilitate his work. Unlike the usual twice-daily incense service, this special burning required that the High Priest himself stir the coals, and carry them in the shovel into the Sanctuary and finally into the Kodesh HaKodashim. Thus the shovel was made especially light. It had an extra long handle so that the High Priest could rest the handle under his arm as he carried it, taking some of its weight off his hands (see Rambam 2:5).

קָדַר לְתוֹכָהּ

The shovel held

שְׁלֽשֶׁת קַבִּין גֶּחָלִים.

three kavim of coals.

קֵרְבוּ לוֹ בָזָךְ

He was then brought a ladle110After taking some coals in the shovel, the High Priest laid the shovel on the floor, temporarily, while he proceeded with the taking of incense. He would later come back, and bring the shovel of coals into the Sanctuary (Rambam ibid.).

וּגְדוּשַׁת דַּקָּה.

and a brimming vessel filled with incense.111Mishnah Yoma 5:1.

קָלַט וְחָפַן

He took two handfuls of incense from the vessel

וְהֵרִיק לְתוֹךְ בָּזָךְ.

and emptied them into the ladle.112Mishnah 5:1

קָפַץ מַחְתָּה

He quickly took the shovel of coals

בִּימִין

in his right hand

וּבָזָךְ בִּשְׂמֹאל.

and the ladle with incense in his left.113Ibid.

קִישׁ צְעָדָיו

His footsteps were heard

לְפַרְכוֹת

as he walked between the curtains114These curtains separated between the Kodesh, Holy and the Kodesh HaKodashim, Holy of Holies. There was a space of one cubit, between the curtains, through which he walked to gain entrance to the area referred to as “between the poles.”

וְקֵרַב

and approached

לַבַּדִּים.

[between] the poles of the Ark.115He placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark. In the Holy of Holies of the first Temple, the Ark containing the Tablets of Law, rested upon the Evan Shesiya, the Foundation Stone. On each side of the Ark there extended a long handle which reached practically until the wall at the entrance to the Holy of Holies. The High Priest, as he entered, would be standing between the two long handles, and would place the shovel upon the Foundation Stone which protruded a bit from under the Ark. Since there was no Ark in the Second Temple, the Peitan describes the High Priest’s location only by correspondence.

קְטֹֽרֶת שָׂם בֵּינֵֽימוֹ

The incense he placed between the poles116After placing the shovel with the coals in the area corresponding to “between the poles,” he heaped the incense upon the coals which caused tremendous smoke.

וְעִשֵּׁן

and caused them to rise in smoke117From the burning incense.

וְיָצָא:

and he left.118The service of burning the incense in the Holy of Holies was completed.

רוֹבֶה

From the young boy priest

מְמָרֵס

who had been stirring the blood,

מֶֽנּוּ נָטַל דָּם.

he now took the vessel of blood.

רִצֵּף וְנִכְנַס

He quickly reentered the Holy of Holies119Carrying the vessel with the blood.

וְקָם

and stood

בֵּין שָׁדַֽיִם.

between the “two handles of the Ark.”

רִצּוּי הַזָּיוֹת טָבַל

He dipped his finger into the blood,120Ibid. Each sprinkling was proceeded by its own dipping (Rambam 3:6).

וְהִצְלִיף בְמִנְיָן.

and sprinkled the blood, with a count—

רוּם מַֽעְלָה אַחַת

one upper sprinkling

וּמַֽטָּה שֶֽׁבַע:

and seven lower ones.121Ibid. The word מַצְלִיף indicates the fact that the blood was not sprinkled on the Ark itself but rather on the floor in front of it. The terms “upper” and “lower” refers to the direction of the movement of the hand in sprinkling the blood. The “upper” sprinkling was done by moving the hand up, whereby the blood would rise in an arcwise motion and fall to the floor. The seven “lower” sprinklings were done by a downward movement of the hand; in each case the movement originating at a lower level, with the blood falling straight down to the floor (Rambam 3:5). During the first Bais Hamikdash when there was an Ark, the sprinkling was performed one cubit in front of the Kapores (the Cover of the Ark) (Rambam ibid.). In the Second Temple, the sprinkling was performed in the corresponding area.

וְכַךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה.

Each time he sprinkled, he counted aloud.122Mishnah 5:3. The High Priest counted the sprinklings out loud so as not to make a mistake in the proper numbers (Rambam 3:5).

אַחַת.

One123This was the first (and only “upper” sprinkling).

אַחַת וְאַחַת. אַחַת וּשְׁתַּֽיִם.

One and one;124This was the first “lower” sprinkling. The counting procedure was “one and one” so that he should not count the upper sprinkling as the first lower sprinkling. The six remaining are “lower” sprinklings. One and two;

אַחַת וְשָׁלשׁ. אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע.

One and three; One and four;

אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ. אַחַת וָשֵׁשׁ.

One and five; One and six;

אַחַת וָשֶֽׁבַע:

One and seven.

רָץ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּכָּן

He hurried to place the vessel on a stand,125Mishnah Yoma 5:3. The vessel filled with the remaining blood was placed on a golden stand, specially designated, in the outer Sanctuary. There were two stands in the Sanctuary, one for the vesel of ox blood and one for the vessel of goat blood (Rambam 4:2).

וְשָׁחַט שָׂעִיר.

and slaughtered the goat.126Mishnah Yoma 5:4. This was the goat that had previously drawn the lot “for Hashem.”

רִצָּה וְקִבֵּל דָּמוֹ בַּאֲגַן קֹדֶשׁ.

He quickly received its blood in a holy vessel,

רִגֵּל וְעָמַד מְקוֹם וִעוּד אָרוֹן.

and returned to the place of the Ark.127That is to say, in front of where the Ark would be located between its two handles.

רִצָּה הַזָּיוֹת

He sprinkled the blood [of the goat],

כְּמַעֲשֵׂה דַּם פָּר:

in the same manner as with the blood of the ox.

וְכַךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה.

Each time he sprinkled, he counted aloud:

אַחַת.

One;

אַחַת וְאַחַת. אַחַת וּשְׁתַּֽיִם.

One and one; One and two;

אַחַת וְשָׁלשׁ. אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע.

One and three; One and four;

אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ. אַחַת וָשֵׁשׁ.

One and five; One and six;

אַחַת וָשֶֽׁבַע:

One and seven.

רָהַט וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְדַם פָּר נָטַל.

He swiftly exited, placing it128The vessel with the remaining blood of the goat. on its stand129According to the first opinion in the Mishnah, each vessel had its own designated stand. See Mishnah 5:4.

רַגְלָיו הֵרִיץ

and took the vessel of ox blood.

וְצָג חוּץ לְבוֹדָֽלֶת.

He ran back and stood outside the curtain

רִקְמֵי פָרֹֽכֶת יַז

and sprinkled blood before the curtain

כְּמִשְׁפַּט

the same way he had sprinkled the blood

כַּפֹּֽרֶת.

in front of the Ark Cover.130Ibid. That is to say, he sprinkled one “upper” sprinkling and seven lower sprinklings (Rambam 3:35), and counted them in the same manner.

רָגַשׁ וְשָׁנָה וְהִזָּה מִדַּם שָׂעִיר:

He then sprinkled the blood of the goat.

שָׁב וּבְלָלָם

He mixed the blood of the ox and goat,131Mishnah Yoma 5:4. He poured the blood of the ox into the blood of the goat, then spilled the mixture into an empty vessel so that it should become homogenous (Rambam 4:2).

וְחִטֵּא

sprinkling the mixture

מִזְבֵּֽחַ סָגוּר.

upon the Golden Altar132This was the smaller Altar inside the Sanctuary that was used for the burning of incense. It is called the “Golden Altar” because it was made of gold.

שֶֽׁבַע עַל טָהָרוֹ

seven sprinklings on the surface of the Altar,

וּבִקְרָנָיו אַרְבַּע.

and four sprinklings on the corners.

שָׁקַד וּבָא אֵֽצֶל הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי.

He then approached the live goat.133Mishnah Yoma 6:2. This was the goat which received the lot “for Azazel,” which had been left standing in the courtyard (Rambam 4:2).

שִׁגְיוֹן

The intentional

עַם וּזְדוֹנוֹ

and unintentional sins of the people,

יוֹדֶה לָאֵל:

he confessed to the Almighty.134The first two confessions were for the sins of the High Priest, his household, and then the entire priestly clan. The third confession was for the sins of the entire nation (Rambam 2:6).

וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר.

And this was his confession:

אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם.

I beg of You, Hashem;

חָטְאוּ. עָווּ.

they have sinned, acted wickedly,

פָּשְׁעוּ. לְפָנֶֽיךָ

rebelled against You—

עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל.

Your people, the House of Yisrael—

אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא.

I beg of You, Hashem, atone

לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וְלַפְּשָׁעִים.

the sins, iniquities, and rebellions

שֶׁחָטְאוּ. וְשֶׁעָֽווּ. וְשֶׁפָּשְׁעוּ

that were committed

לְפָנֶֽיךָ

against You,

עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל.

by Your people, the House of Yisrael.

כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה

As it is written in the Torah of Moshe,

עַבְדֶּךָ

Your servant,

מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ.

from the mouth of Your glory:

כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה

“For on this day

יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם

He will make atonement for you,

לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם

to cleanse you,

מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:

from all your sins before Adonoy.”

וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם

And the priests and the people

הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה.

who were standing in the Temple Courtyard;

כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים

when they heard

אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא

the glorious and awesome Name [of God]

מְפֹרָשׁ יוֹצֵא

explicitly pronounced

מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל

from the mouth of the High Priest,

בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וּבְטָהֳרָה.

with holiness and with purity,

הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים

they bowed, prostrated themselves,

וּמוֹדִים

offered thanks,

וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם.

and fell upon their faces,

וְאוֹמְרִים

and said:

בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ

“Blessed [is His] Name, His glorious kingdom

לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

is forever and ever.”

וְאַף הוּא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן

And He [the High Priest] prolonged

לִגְמֹר אֶת הַשֵּׁם

the intoning of the Divine Name

כְּנֶֽגֶד הַמְבָרְכִים

until the worshippers completed [the response];

וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם

and [completing the verse] said to them:

תִּטְהָֽרוּ:

“You will be cleansed.”

וְאַתָּה בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל

And [now] with Your great goodness,

מְעוֹרֵר רַחֲמֶיךָ

arouse Your mercy,

וְסוֹלֵחַ לַעֲדַת יְשֻׁרוּן:

and pardon the community of Yeshurun.

שִׁגְּרוֹ בְּיַד אִישׁ עִתִּי

He handed the goat to one appointed,135Mishnah Yoma 6:3. After the confession, the High Priest handed the scapegoat over to someone who would in turn send it to its death. This person was usually another priest although it was not necessary that he be one (See Yoma 66a).

לְמִדְבַּר עָז.

to lead it out to the harsh desert.

שֶׁמֶץ כִּתְמֵי זוּ

The spiritual blemishes of the people

שְׂאֵת לִגְזֵרָה

it carried to the desert.

שֵׁן סֶלַע הֲדָפוֹ

He pushed it off the rocky cliff

וְגֻלְגַּל וְיָרַד

and it tumbled down,

שֻׁבְּרוּ עֲצָמָיו

breaking its bones

כְּנֶפֶץ כְּלִי יוֹצֵר

like shattered potter's ware.136Mishnah Yoma 6:6. The goat’s bones were broken before it even reached the bottom of the cliff (Yoma 67a, Rambam 3:7).

שְׁחוּזָה אָחַז

With a sharp knife

פָּר וְשָׂעִיר קָרַע.

he cut open the [slaughtered] ox and goat.137Mishnah Yoma 6:7.

שָׁלַף אֵמוּרִים

He removed the sacrificial parts,138These parts include the kidneys, part of the liver and certain fats which were offered on the Altar.

וּגְוִיּוֹת קָלַע

and intertwined their limbs onto poles;

לִשְׂרוֹף

and removed them to a place of burning.139Ibid. The carcasses, their limbs now removed, were placed upon poles and would be carried outside of Yerushalayim where they would be burnt in the “burning house” (Rambam 3:7, 4:2).

שָׁאַג

He read aloud from the Sefer Torah

סִדְרֵי יוֹם

pertaining to the service of the day,

קִדֵּשׁ

then washed his hands and feet,

וּפָשַׁט

and took off his (white) garments.140Mishnah 7:3. Until now the High Priest had performed the special services for Yom Kippur, and thus wore the appropriate white garments.

שִׁלֵּשׁ

For the third time that day,

וְטָבַל

he immersed himself in a mikvah.

פַּזִים עַט

He then put on the golden garments

וְקִדֵּשׁ.

and again washed his hands and feet.

תָּכַף וְעָשׂ

He immediately proceeded to sacrifice

אֵילוֹ

his ram,

וְאֵיל עָם.

and the ram of the people.141Mishnah Yoma 7:3. In addition to the goat and ox which were burned outside the city, the High Priest brought two “olah” offerings, which were completely consumed upon the Altar. They consisted of two rams, one for himself (meaning that he paid for it) and one for the nation (i.e. that was brought with public funds). The entire sacrificial service of these two rams was performed at this point including the slaughter, the sprinkling of blood upon the outer Altar, the pouring of a wine libation on the Altar, and the burning of the entire animal.

תְּרַב חַטָּאת

He burned the fats of the sin-offering,142This refers to the fats of the goat and ox which were burnt outside Yerushalayim. The fats are the only parts which are burnt upon the Altar (Rambam 4:2). Though the Peitan only mentions the fats of the goat (which is technically considered a “sin-offering”), the fats of the ox were also burnt at this time.

וּמוּסָפִין הִקְרִיב כַּחוֹק.

and sacrificed the Musaf offering.143The Musaf-offering of Yom Kippur consisted of the following animals which are brought specially for Yom Kippur: 1) one ox 2) one ram 3) seven ewes 4) one goat “sin-offering”. The ox and ram of the High Priest are not included in this group.

תָּר

He dipped his hands and feet in water,

וְקִדֵּשׁ

then he washed them,

פָּשַׁט

he took off the golden garments,

טָבַל

immersed himself;

וְקִדֵּשׁ.

and again washed his hands and feet.

תַּכְרִיךְ בַּדִּים עָט

He put on the white garments

וְנִכְנַס לַדְּבִיר.

and entered the Holy of Holies.

תְּכוּנַת כְּלֵי קְטֹרֶת

The vessels used for the incense offering,144Ibid. The pan of coals and incense which was earlier placed in the Holy of Holies was now removed.

הוֹצִיא

he removed from the Holy of Holies;

וְקִדֵּשׁ.

and again washed his hands and feet.

תִּלְבּוֹשֶׁת מַדָּיו הִפְשִׁיט

He then took off his white garments

וְגָנַז נֶצַח.

and placed them away forever.145The white garments were used only once, and then they were put away forever.

תִּרְגַּל וְטָבַל

He immersed himself,

חֲרוּצִים עָט וְקִדֵּשׁ.

put on the golden garments, and washed.146Mishnah Yoma 7:4.

תָּמִיד הִסְדִּיר

He offered up the Daily Afternoon Sacrifice,

וְתִמֵּר

burned the Daily Afternoon Incense,

וְנֵרוֹת הֶעֶלָה

and lit the candles of the Menorah.147Ibid. The daily afternoon sacrifice, the Talmid shel Ben Haarbaim was the last sacrifice offered each day. The incense burned at this point was the second incense burning of the day. The final service of the day consisted of the lighting of the Menorah.

תֶּכֶל עֲבוֹדוֹת

The Service now completed,

יָד וְרֶגֶל קִדֵּשׁ.

he washed his hands and feet.148Ibid. After this, the High Priest put on his own clothes, the service of the day now having been completed.

תִּמֵּם טְבִילוֹת חָמֵשׁ

Thus performing for the day, five immersions

וְקִדּוּשִׁים עֲשָׂרָה.

and ten washings.

תֹּאַר מְגַמָּתוֹ

The appearance of his face

כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבוּרָה,

was like the brilliance of a sunrise.149When the Divine Presence, the “Shechina” is upon a person, his face radiates like a burning fire.—Mateh Levi, from Midrash Rabbah, Yalkut Shimoni, Acharei Mos

תָּקַף וְדָץ

With great joy,

וְעָטָה בִּגְדֵי הוֹנוֹ.

he put on his own clothes.150Mishnah Yoma 7:4

תַּמָּה

The perfect ones [Yisrael] accompanied

תְּלַוֶּה צִיר נֶאֱמָן לַבַּיִת

its faithful messenger home.151Mishnah Yoma, ibid. “Messenger” refers to the High Priest.

תָּגֵל בְּהִתְבַּשֵּׂר

They rejoiced in the news

הַשְׁלַג אֹדֶם תּוֹלָע.

that the red thread had turned white.152Yoma 67a. The red string was attached to a rock at the opening of the sanctuary as well as to the horns of the scapegoat so that one could see it turn white when the goat was pushed over the jagged cliffs. This was a symbol that the sins of the Jewish nation had been atoned for, and was the cause for rejoicing. (See Mishnah 6:6)

תַּעְדֶה יֶשַׁע

The Redeemer had been faithful,

תַּעֲטֶה

and enwrapped Himself

מְעִיל צְדָקָה.

in a cloak of righteousness.

תָּפִיק צָהֳלָה

A great joy burst forth,

תַּבִּיעַ דִיץ וְחֶדְוָה

happiness and rejoicing rang out.

תְּלוּלֵי הִרְעִיפוּ

The clouds above dripped,

זַרְזִיף טַלָּם.

and showered forth their dew.

תַּלְמֵי שָׂדַי

The furrowed fields

רָווּ תֵּת יְבוּלָם.

brought forth their produce.

תּוֹדָה נָתְנוּ

Thanks was given

אוֹסְפֵי זֶרַע שָׁלוֹם.

by those who harvested their crop in peace.

תְּהִלָּה בִּשְּׂרוּ

Praise was recited

נוֹשְּׂאֵי אֲלֻמּוֹת בְּרֶנֶן.

by those who carried the sheaves joyously.

תַּחְתִּיּוֹת אֶרֶץ צְבִי

The lowliest places of the beautiful land

זֶמֶר שִׁמֵּעוּ.

rang out with song.

תִּנּוּ צִדְקוֹתָיו חֲצַץ

God's goodness was told

הוֹלְכֵי נְתִיבוֹת.

by all who traveled through byways.

תִּקְוַת שׁוֹלְחָיו

He was the hope of those who sent him,

אֵמוּן לֹא אַכְזָב

their faith was not misfounded.153This refers to the Jewish people whose messenger was the Kohein Gadol.

תּוֹחַלְתָּם

Their hope to him

כְּצִנַּת שֶׁלֶג

was like the coolness of snow

בְּיוֹם קָצִיר.

on a hot harvest day.

מִצּוֹאָתָם רֻחָצוּ

From their filth they were washed,

מִטֶּנֶף צַחֲנָתָם זַכּוּ.

from their offensive dirt they were purified.

שְׁלֵמִים תְּמִימִים

The complete and perfect ones,

בְּבוֹר כַּפֵּימוֹ זֻכְזָכוּ.

from a well—had cleansed their hands.

לְהַגִּיד כִּי מְטַהֲרָם

To tell all, that their Purifier [God]

מְקוֹר מַיִם חַיִּים.

is a source of living water.

מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל

The purifying waters of Yisrael154See Maseches Yoma, Mishnah, 8:9, Rabbi Akiva likens Hashem to a “mikvah”—i.e., purifying waters—of Yisrael.

מְנַקָּם

had cleansed them

מַיִם נֶאֱמָנוּ.

with [His] faithful waters.

בְּטֹהַר וּבְנִקָּיוֹן

With purity and cleanliness,

יִנָּקוּ וְיֻטְהָרוּ.

they will be cleaned and purified.

יְחֻדְּשׁוּ

They will be renewed,

כַּחֲדָשֵׁי בְקָרִים

like the renewal of morning;

מִכֶּתֶם

from their stain,

יְצֻחְצָחוּ.

they will be polished clean.

רוֹמְמוֹת אֵל

The praises of the Almighty

יֶהְגוּ בִגְרוֹנָם

will be spoken in their throats,

בִּלְשׁוֹנָם רוֹן

on their tongues will be singing,

בְּפִימוֹ שִׁיר חָדָשׁ.

from their mouths will come a new song.

יָגִילוּ בְרַעַד

They will rejoice, with trembling

יַעַבְדוּ בְּיִרְאָה.

and will worship with awe.

קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל

The Holy One of Yisrael,

מְקַדֵּשׁ קְדוֹשִׁים.

Who sanctifies His holy people.

לְשַׁנֵּן לְרַנֵּן

To cheer, to sing,

לְתוֹפֵף וּלְצַלְצֵל.

to beat the drum, and beat the cymbal;

וּלְנַצֵּחַ בִּנְגִינוֹת וּלְהַנְעִים זֶמֶר.

to sing songs, and to play music.

נֶחֱבָקִים בְעוֹז

Embraced, with the strength

יָמִין רוֹמֵמָה.

of the glorious Right Hand of God.

יַחַד נִתְמָכִים בִּמְלֵאָה צֶדֶק.

Supported in unity, filled with righteousness,

מְשׁוּכִים לָבֹא שְׁעָרָיו

they will be drawn to enter His gates,

בִּרְנָנָה.

with joy.

וְשָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ נֶצַח

Joy and happiness will be theirs forever.

שָׂשִׂים וְגָלִים בִּשְׁמוֹ

Rejoicing and celebrating in His Name

כָּל הַיּוֹם

the entire day,

חָדִים בְּשִׂמְחָה אֶת פָּנָיו

together in joy in His Presence.

זִיו אוֹרָם

The splendor of their light

כַּשַּׁחַר יִבָּקַע.

will be like the break of dawn.

קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ

They will lift their voices

וְיָרֹנּוּ בִּגְאוֹן

and sing of the greatness

צוּר עוֹלָמִים:

of Him Who is the strength of the world.

אַשְׁרֵי הָעָם שֶׁכָּכָה לּוֹ.

Fortunate is the people whose lot is thus.

אַשְׁרֵי הָעָם

Fortunate is the people

שֶׁיְהֹוָה אֱלֹהָיו:

for whom Adonoy is their God.

וְיוֹם טוֹב

And a celebration

הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל

was made by the High Priest

לְכָל אוֹהֲבָיו

for all his loved ones,

כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּשָׁלוֹם

after entering the [Holy of Holies] in peace,

וְיָצָא בְשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶּֽגַע:

and leaving peacefully, unharmed.

וְכַךְ הָיְתָה תְפִלָּתוֹ

And this was the prayer155This prayer of the High Priest appears in three places: the Babylonian Talmud, Yoma (53b), Talmud Yerushalmi Yoma (5:2), and Midrash Rabba, (Vayikra 20). The prayer as recorded in the Machzor is without reference in certain passages, but does contain references in others, mainly based on Talmud Yerushalmi and the Midrash.

שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים

of the High Priest on Yom Kippur

בְּצֵאתוֹ מִבֵּית קֹֽדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים

as he left the Holy of Holies

בְּשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶֽגַע:

in peace, unharmed:

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ

May it be Your Will

יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ

Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers,

שֶׁתְּהֵא הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת

that this year

הַבָּאָה עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמְּךָ

approaching us and all Your people,

בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל:

the House of Yisrael,

שְׁנַת אוֹצָרְךָ הַטּוֹב

be a year in which Your good treasure

תִּפְתַּח לָֽנוּ.

will be opened for us,

שְׁנַת אֹֽסֶם. שְׁנַת בְּרָכָה.

a year of plenty, a year of blessing,

שְׁנַת גְּזֵרוֹת טוֹבוֹת מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ.

a year of good decrees declared by You,

שְׁנַת דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר.

a year of grain, wine and oil,

שְׁנַת הַרְוָחָה וְהַצְלָחָה וְקַיָּמִים.

a year of profit and success,

שְׁנַת וִעוּד

a year of Your Divine Presence

בֵּית מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ.

in Your Temple,

שְׁנַת זוֹל.

a year of economic stability,

שְׁנַת חַיִּים טוֹבִים מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ.

a year of good life, in Your presence,

שְׁנַת

a year of

טְלוּלָה וּגְשׁוּמָה אִם שְׁחוּנָה.

dew and rain, and warmth,

שְׁנַת

a year of

יַמְתִּֽיקוּ מְגָדִים אֶת תְּנוּבָתָם.

deliciously sweet fruits,

שְׁנַת כַּפָּרָה עַל כָּל עֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ.

a year of atonement for all our iniquity,

שְׁנַת לַחְמֵֽנוּ וּמֵימֵֽינוּ

a year in which our food and drink

תְּבָרֵךְ.

will be blessed,

שְׁנַת מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן.

a year of [prosperity in] business,

שְׁנַת נָבוֹא לְבֵית מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ.

a year of attending our Holy Temple,

שְׁנַת שֽׂבַע. שְׁנַת עֹֽנֶג.

a year of abundance, a year of delight,

שְׁנַת פְּרִי בִטְנֵֽנוּ

a year in which our offspring

וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֵֽנוּ תְּבָרֵךְ.

and the fruit of our land will be blessed,

שְׁנַת צֵאתֵֽנוּ וּבוֹאֵֽנוּ

a year in which our going and coming

תְּבָרֵךְ.

will be blessed,

שְׁנַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ

a year in which our community

תוֹשִֽׁיעַ.

will be delivered,

שְׁנַת רַחֲמֶֽיךָ

a year in which Your mercy

יִכְמְרוּ עָלֵֽינוּ.

will be aroused upon us,

שְׁנַת שָׁלוֹם וְשַׁלְוָה.

a year of peace and tranquility,

שָׁנָה שֶׁתּוֹלִיכֵֽנוּ קוֹמְמִיּוּת

a year in which You lead us upright

לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ.

to our land,

שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא תַפִּיל אִשָּׁה

a year in which no woman

אֶת פְּרִי בִטְנָהּ.

will suffer a miscarriage,

שְׁנַת תַּעֲלֵֽנוּ

a year in which You bring us [all]

שְׂמֵחִים לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ:

joyfully to our land,

שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרְכוּ

a year in which Your people Yisrael

עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה לָזֶה

will not be in need of one another's [help],

וְלֹא לְעַם אַחֵר

nor the help of any other people,

בְּתִתְּךָ בְּרָכָה בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם:

for You will bless the work of their hands.

וְעַל אַנְשֵׁי הַשָּׁרוֹן הָיָה אוֹמֵר

And for the people of Sharon, he would pray:

יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ

May it be Your will,

יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיּנוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ

Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers,

שֶׁלֹּא יֵעָשׂוּ בָתֵּיהֶם

that their homes shall not become

קִבְרֵיהֶם:

their graves.156The land in the Sharon valley was not sufficiently firm for lasting construction, and the houses built there often fell in. Thus the High Priest prayed that there be no loss of life, when this occurred.

אֱמֶת מַה נֶּהְדָּר

How truly glorious

הָיָה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל

was the High Priest

בְּצֵאתוֹ מִבֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים

as he left the Holy of Holies,

בְּשָׁלוֹם בְּלִי פֶגַע:

peacefully, unharmed.

כְּאֹהֶל הַנִּמְתַּח

As the canopy of the heavens

בְּדָרֵי מַעְלָה.

stretched out on high,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּבְרָקִים הַיּוֹצְאִים

As the glitter of light

מִזִּיו הַחַיּוֹת.

emanating from the brilliance of the Chayos,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּגֹדֶל גְּדִילִים

As the beautiful [blue] thread in the fringes

בְּאַרְבַּע קְצָווֹת.

of the four corners of a garment,157This refers to the color of תְּכֵלֶת which is to be part of the צִיצִית fringes, worn at each corner of a four-cornered garment. According to the Talmud, Menachos 43b, the color of techailes resembles the color of the sea, which in turn resembles the color of the sky, which in turn resembles the color of Hashem’s heavenly throne.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּדְמוּת הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן.

As the rainbow in the clouds,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּהוֹד

As the garment of majestic splendor

אֲשֶׁר הִלְבִּישׁ צוּר לִיצוּרִים.

with which the Creator attired His creatures,158This refers to the כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר, the garment of skin, with which Hashem clothed Adam and Chavoh, after they sinned and realized their nakedness. See Bereishis 3:21.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּוֶרֶד הַנָּתוּן בְּתוֹךְ גִּנַּת חֶמֶד.

As a rose planted in a beautiful garden,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּזֵר הַנָּתוּן עַל מֵצַח מֶלֶךְ.

As a crown set upon a king's forehead,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּחֶסֶד הַנִּתַּן עַל פְּנֵי חָתָן.

As the grace reflected in the face of a groom,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּטֹהַר הַנָּתוּן בְּצָנִיף טָהוֹר.

As the purity of the pure mitre,159The mitre was one of the priestly garments.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּיוֹשֵׁב בְּסֵתֶר

As he [Moshe] who was concealed,160When the Jews sinned with the golden-calf, Moshe was on the mountain, concealed by Hashem’s Divine Presence, and from there he pleaded to Hashem to forgive them.

לְחַלּוֹת פְּנֵי מֶלֶךְ.

pleading before God,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּכוֹכָב הַנֹּגַהּ בִּגְבוּל מִזְרָח.

As the bright star shining in the east,161This might refer to the morning star.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּלְבוּשׁ

As one enwrapped

מְעִיל

in a cloak

וּכְשִׁרְיוֹן צְדָקָה.

and breastplate of righteousness,162See Yeshaya 61:10.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּמַלְאָךְ

As the angel

הַנִּצָּב עַל רֹאשׁ דֶּרֶךְ.

that stood at the head of the path,163This refers to the angel which appeared to Bilaam. (See Bamidbar 22:22.)

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּנֵר הַמֵּצִיץ מִבֵּין הַחַלּוֹנוֹת.

As the candle that shines in the windows,164See Shir Hashirim 2:8

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּשָׂרֵי צְבָאוֹת

As the officers

בְּרֹאשׁ עַם קֹדֶשׁ.

as the head of the [army of] holy people,165See Devorim 20:9

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּעוֹז

As the [garments of spiritual] might166This refers to the priestly garments with which Moshe dressed Aharon. (See Vayikra 9:6.)

אֲשֶׁר הִלְבִּישׁ טָהוֹר

with which the pure one [Moshe]

לַמִּטַּהֵר

dressed him, [Aharon] who purified others,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּפַעֲמוֹנֵי זָהָב

As the [brilliance of the] golden bells

בְּשׁוּלֵי הַמְּעִיל.

along the bottom of the [priestly] cloak,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּצוּרַת הַבַּיִת

As the beautifully decorated Temple,

וּפָרֹכֶת הָעֵדוּת.

and the colorful curtain,167This was the curtain in front of the Holy of Holies.

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כִּקְהִלָּה מְכֻסָּה

As a chamber hung with tapestries

תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן.

of blue and purple,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּרוֹאֶה זְרִיחַת שֶׁמֶשׁ

As the sight of the rising sun

עַל הָאָרֶץ.

on the earth,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּשׁוֹשַׁנַּת גַּן בֵּין הַחוֹחִים.

As a rose garden between the thorns,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כְּתַבְנִית כְּסִיל

As the likeness of Arcturus,

עָשׁ וְכִימָה

Orion and Pleiades,168These are names of heavenly constellations. (See Job 9:9.)

מִתֵּימָן.

from the [heavenly chambers] of the south,

מַרְאֵה כֹהֵן:

was the appearance of the High Priest.

כָּל אֵֽלֶּה

All this took place

בִּהְיוֹת הַהֵיכָל עַל יְסוֹדוֹתָיו.

when the Temple was on its foundation,

וּמִקְדַּשׁ הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ עַל מְכוֹנוֹתָיו.

and the Holy Sanctuary was on its site,

וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹמֵד וּמְשָׁרֵת.

and the High Priest stood and served.

דּוֹרוֹ רָאוּ וְשָׂמָֽחוּ:

His generation saw and rejoiced.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה כָל אֵֽלֶּה.

Fortunate is the eye that saw all of this.

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

For to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה אָהֳלֵֽנוּ.

Happy is the eye that saw our Temple

בְּשִׂמְחַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ.

amidst the joy of our people;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה גִילֵֽנוּ.

Happy is the eye that saw our exultation,

דִּיצַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ.

the happiness of our people;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה הַמְּשׁוֹרְרִים.

Happy is the eye that saw the singers

וְכָל מִינֵי שִׁירִים.

singing the various songs169This refers to the Levites who were both musicians and singers; they would sing various portions of Tehillim during the service in the Bais Hamikdash.

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw

זְבוּל הַמְתֻכָּן.

the established Habitation,

חַי בּוֹ שָׁכָן.

where the source of all our life dwelled;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw

שִׂמְחַת בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה.

the rejoicing at the drawing of water,170The “Festival of drawing water” took place during the holiday of Succos. The Talmud says, “anyone who did not see the joy of the festival of drawing the water never saw joy in his life” (Mishnah Succah 5:1).

עַם שׁוֹאֶֽבֶת

and the people which drew from it

רֽוּחַ הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ רֽוּחַ נְדִיבָה.

the spirit of holiness and generosity;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw the High Priest

פְּרִישַׁת כֹּהֵן בְּרֶֽשֶׁם.

uttering the explicit Name of God171In his confessions on Yom Kippur, the High Priest uttered the explicit Name of Hashem.

צוֹעֵק אָֽנָּא הַשֵּׁם.

crying out, “We plead with You, Hashem;”

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw

קְהַל קְדוֹשִׁים.

the holy people

רוֹגְשִׁים בְּבֵית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים.

converging upon the Holy Temple;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw

שָׁנִי

the red thread tied to the scapegoat,172A red thread of wool was tied to the horn of the goat sent to die in the wilderness (Mishnah Yoma 4:2)

הַמְלֻבָּן.

turn white

מִשְּׂעִיר הַקָּרְבָּן.

unlike the goat sacrificed to Hashem;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אַשְׁרֵי עַֽיִן רָאֲתָה

Happy is the eye that saw

תְּמִידִים קְרֵבִים.

the daily sacrifices offered

בְּשַֽׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים.

in the gate of the sanctuary;

הֲלֹא לְמִשְׁמַע אֹֽזֶן

for to mention it

דָּאֲבָה נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ:

makes our souls grieve.

אֲבָל עֲו‍ֹנוֹת אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ

But the iniquities of our fathers

הֶחֱרִֽיבוּ נָוֶה.

destroyed our home,

וְחַטֹּאתֵֽנוּ

and our sins

הֶאֱרִֽיכוּ קִצּוֹ.

have prolonged its period of captivity;

אֲבָל זִכְרוֹן דְּבָרִים

yet may the mention of these things

תְּהֵא סְלִיחָתֵֽנוּ.

bring us pardon,

וְעִנּוּי נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ

and the affliction of our souls

תְּהֵא כַפָּרָתֵֽנוּ:

be our atonement.

עַל כֵּן בְּרַחֲמֶֽיךָ הָרַבִּים

Therefore, with Your great mercy

נָתַֽתָּ לָּֽנוּ

You have given us

אֶת יוֹם צוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים הַזֶּה.

this Day of Atonement

וְאֶת יוֹם מְחִילַת הֶעָו‍ֹן הַזֶּה.

and this Day of forgiveness of iniquity

לִסְלִיחַת עָו‍ֹן וּלְכַפָּֽרַת פָּֽשַׁע.

to pardon inquity and to atone rebellion;

יוֹם אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה.

a day on which it is forbidden to eat,

יוֹם אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה.

a day on which it is forbidden to drink,

יוֹם אָסוּר בִּרְחִיצָה.

a day on which it is forbidden to wash

יוֹם אָסוּר

a day on which it is forbidden

בְּסִיכָה.

to apply ointments,

יוֹם אָסוּר

a day on which it is forbidden

בְּתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה.

to engage in marital relations,

יוֹם אָסוּר

a day on which it is forbidden

בִּנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל.

to wear leather shoes.

יוֹם שִׂימַת אַהֲבָה וְרֵעוּת.

A day for restoring love and brotherhood,

יוֹם עֲזִיבַת קִנְאָה וְתַחֲרוּת.

a day of abandoning envy and strife,

יוֹם שֶׁתִּמְחֹל

a day which You

לְכָל עֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ.

will forgive all our iniquities.

וּבָעֵת וּבָעוֹנָה הַזֹּאת

At this time of year, at this moment,

גָּלוּי וְיָדֽוּעַ לְפָנֶֽיךָ

it is known and revealed before You

וְלִפְנֵי כִסֵּא כְבוֹדֶֽךָ.

and before Your glorious throne

שֶׁאֵין לָֽנוּ לֹא מְנַהֵל

that we have none to guide us

כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים.

as we had in earlier times,

לֹא כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן.

no High Priest to offer sacrifices,

וְלֹא מִזְבֵּֽחַ לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו כָּלִיל:

no Altar on which to offer burnt-offerings;

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: אֵין לָֽנוּ

and because of our many iniquities we have:

לֹא אִשִּֽׁים. וְלֹא אָשָׁם:

neither sacrifices nor guilt-offerings,

לֹא בַדִּים.

neither the handles of the holy ark,

וְלֹא בְלוּלוֹת:

nor the mixtures of grain offerings,

לֹא גוֹרָל.

neither the lottery173This might either refer to the lottery used to choose between the scapegoat and the goat for Hashem on Yom Kippur, or the daily choosing used to assign priests their specific duties for the day.

וְלֹא גַחֲלֵי אֵשׁ:

nor the burning coals,174This denotes the coals used for burning incense in the Temple.

לֹא דְבִיר.

neither the Holy of Holies,175This was the innermost chamber of the Holy Temple which in the Mishkan and first Temple contained the Holy Ark with the Tablets. The High Priest entered this chamber once each year on Yom Kippur to burn the incense.

וְלֹא דַקָּה:

nor the thin-powdered incense,176This refers to the thin powdered incense that was burnt twice each day on the Golden Altar in the Temple.

לֹא הֵיכָל.

neither the Sanctuary

וְלֹא הַזָּיָה:

nor the sprinkling of blood,

לֹא וִדּוּי.

neither the confession177This was the confession which the High Priest performed several times on Yom Kippur over the sacrificial animals.

וְלֹא פַר חַטָּאת:

nor the ox for a sin-offering,

לֹא זֶֽבַח

neither the slaughter of sacrifices

וְלֹא זְרִיקָה:

nor the sprinkling of blood,178All sacrifices which were slaughtered had their blood received in a holy vessel which was then “sprinkled” upon the altar in various ways corresponding to the respective types of offerings.

לֹא חַטָּאת. וְלֹא חֲלָבִים:

neither the sin offering179The “chatos” or “sin-offering” was brought at any time for an unintentional sin that, had it been committed intentionally, would carry the penalty of excision (an early death). nor the fats,

לֹא טְבִילָה. וְלֹא טָהֳרָה:

neither immersion180The High Priest immersed himself in a mikveh five times on Yom Kippur, (ritual bath), each time changing from the “golden garments” to the “white garments” and vice versa. nor purification,

לֹא יְרוּשָׁלַֽיִם.

neither Yerushalayim

וְלֹא יַֽעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן:

nor the forests of Lebanon,

לֹא כִיּוֹר. וְלֹא כַנּוֹ:

neither the wash basin181The wash basin contained the water with which the priests washed their hands and feet before serving in the Temple. nor its stand,

לֹא לְבוֹנָה.

neither Levona182“Levonah” is commonly translated as frankincense, an incense which was burnt daily in the Temple.

וְלֹא לֶֽחֶם הַפָּנִים:

nor the bread of the sanctuary,183Twelve loaves of bread were arranged upon the Table in the Sanctuary each Sabbath and were replaced the following Sabbath with twelve new loaves.

לֹא מִזְבֵּֽחַ. וְלֹא מִנְחָה:

neither Altar nor grain offerings,

לֹא נִיחֽוֹחַ.

neither pleasing odor of sacrifices184This refers to Hashem’s acceptance of all that was offered in fire to Him in the Temple.

וְלֹא נְסָכִים:

nor libations,185There were two types of libations poured upon the Altar: water and wine.

לֹא סֹֽלֶת. וְלֹא סַמִּים:

neither flour nor herbs,

לֹא עֵֽרֶךְ.

neither the arrangement of logs

וְלֹא עוֹלָה:

nor the totally consumed offering,

לֹא פָרֹֽכֶת. וְלֹא כַפֹּֽרֶת:

neither the curtain nor the Ark-covering,

לֹא צִיּוֹן. וְלֹא צִיץ הַזָּהָב:

neither Tziyon nor the golden head-band,186This was a golden band worn on the High Priest’s forehead which served, among other things, to “atone any” impurities in sacrifices and service.

לֹא קְטֹֽרֶת. וְלֹא קָרְבָּן:

neither incense187Incense was burnt on the inner Altar of gold twice daily: in the morning and in the afternoon. nor sacrifices,

לֹא רוֹקֵֽחַ. וְלֹא רֵֽיחַ נִיחֽוֹחַ:

neither spices nor the pleasing smell,

לֹא שַׁי, וְלֹא שְׁלָמִים:

neither gift188The term “שַׁי” literally means gift. Here, it can refer to anything donated to the Temple, including non-obligatory sacrifices. nor peace-sacrifices,189Peace-offerings were a large class of offerings brought not because of sin, but rather as some sort of obligations, e.g. festive sacrifice, or non-obligatory donations. Their distinguishing characterr was that they were eaten by the “owners,” those who brought the sacrifices.

לֹא תוֹדָה.

neither the offering of thanksgiving,

וְלֹא תְמִידִים:

nor the daily sacrifices.190There were two daily sacrifices: one in the morning, and one in the afternoon. These two sacrifices commenced and completed respectively, all other sacrifices brought in the Temple (with the exception of the Pascal Lamb).

כִּי בַעֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ

For because of our many inquities,

וּבַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ

and the iniquities of our fathers,

חָסַֽרְנוּ כָּל אֵֽלֶּה:

we are lacking all these things.

וּמֵעֵת חָסַֽרְנוּ כָּל אֵֽלֶּה:

תָּכְפוּ (נ"א תָּקְפוּ) עָלֵֽינוּ צָרוֹת. תְּלָאוֹת עָבְרוּ רֹאשֵֽׁנוּ: שִׁחַֽרְנוּ יְשׁוּעָה וָאָֽיִן. שָׁלוֹם וְהִנֵּה קְפָדָה: רַֽבּוּ הַקָּמִים עָלֵֽינוּ. רָֽמוּ וְגַם נָֽשְׂאוּ רֹאשׁ: קַֽצְנוּ בְּעֹל עַלִּיזִים. קָשֶׁה עָלֵֽינוּ סִבְלָם: צְבִי אֶֽרֶץ חָנְפָה עָלֵֽינוּ. צָמְחָה וְלֹא לִבְרָכָה: פָּנִֽינוּ לְהַרְבֵּה וְהִנֵּה מְעָט. פַּח נֶֽפֶשׁ בָּא בַאֲסָמֵֽינוּ: עָשְׁקוּ זֵיתִים שַׁמְנָם. עֲשׂוֹתָם וְלֹא מָֽלְאוּ סֶֽפֶק: סְמָדַר אִם יַרְבֶּה כֶֽרֶם. סָבְאוֹ לֹא יַשְׁפִּֽיעַ יֶֽקֶב: נֶאֶרְרוּ אִבֵּי שָׂדֶה. נִלְקְחוּ מַטְעַמֵּי אֹֽכֶל: מִמִּכְלְאוֹת צֹאן עֲדָרִים דָּלְלוּ. מִגֵּז וּמִמִּיץ וּמֵהֵרָיוֹן: לְזָנָב וְלֹא לְרֹאשׁ הוּשַֽׁתְנוּ. לַעֲבֹט וְלֹא הָעֳבַט לָֽנוּ: כֹּחֵֽנוּ לָרִיק וּבֶהָלָה. כָּלָה מִבְּלִי שָׂכָר: יַד כָּל עָמָל בְּכִשְׁרוֹן. יָרְדָה וְאֵין מִי יַחֲזִיק: טֻלְטַֽלְנוּ מִיָּם וְעַד יָם. טַרְפָּם לֹא מָֽצְאוּ סֶֽפֶק (נ"א טַרְפָּם לֹא סֻפַּק לָֽמוֹ): חֲשֵׁכָה לְעֵין מִשְׂתַּכֵּר. חֻשַּׁב שְׂכָרוֹ לְמַפָּח: זֹעֲמוּ מַלְוֶה וְלֹוֶה. זֶה בָּזֶה שֻׁלְּחוּ מֵעַתָּה: וְנִלְאוּ יְדֵי מַמְצִֽיאֵי יָד. וְעָשִׁיר לֹא חוֹנֵן רָשׁ: הֵן אֶֽרֶץ נִמְכְּרָה בְּיַד רָעִים. הֲמוֹן בָּהּ לֹא מָֽצְאוּ רֶֽוַח: דְּבִיר בֵּית אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ שָׁמֵם. דְּרָכֵֽינוּ מֵאֲנוּ לְהַצְלִֽיחַ: גִּיל נָוֶה שָׁבַת. גִּילָה לִלְבָבֵֽנוּ מַה נַּֽעַל: בְּאֵין אֲרֻחַת אָב תָּמִיד. בְּכֵן בֶּֽטֶן בָּנִים תֶּחְסָר: אֲדוֹן בַּֽיִת כְּאוֹרֵֽחַ בַּמָּלוֹן. אֵיפֹה נִמְצָא מָנֽוֹחַ:

וּמִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ:

תַּנּוֹת צָרוֹת לֹא נוּכַל. שֶֽׁבֶר בְּכָל יוֹם וַאֲנָחָה: רָֽבְתָה בָֽנוּ חַלְחָלָה. קֶֽרֶן יָרְדָה עַד עָפָר: צָֽרֵי עַֽיִן מָֽצְאוּ יָד. פּֽוֹעֲלֵי שֶֽׁקֶר חַֽיִל עָשׂוּ: עוֹשֵׂי צְדָקָה לֹא נִרְאוּ. שֽׂוֹנְאֵי בֶֽצַע לֹא עָמָֽדוּ: נִדְמִֽינוּ כִּכְלִי רֵק. מִכֹּל נִשְׁאַֽרְנוּ עֲרוּמִים: לֹא נָבִיא וְלֹא חָזוֹן בָּֽנוּ. כְּעִוְרִים נְגַשֵּׁשׁ וְנֵלֵךְ: יוֹם יוֹם נֹאמַר מַה בְּסוֹפֵֽנוּ. טוֹב מָֽוֶת מֵחַיִּים אָמָֽרְנוּ: חַיֵּֽינוּ תְּלוּיִים מִנֶּֽגֶד. זָרִים לְרֹאשׁ וַאֲנַֽחְנוּ לְזָנָב: וּמַה נַּעֲשֶׂה וַחֲטָאֵֽינוּ עָֽשׂוּ. הֵן אָֽנוּ כְּלֹא הָיִֽינוּ: דַּלִּים נִבְזִים וּשְׁפָלִים. גְּעוּלִים מְאוּסִים וּבְזוּיִים: בְּנֵי נֵכָר מָֽשְׁלוּ בָֽנוּ. אָמַֽרְנוּ נִגְזַֽרְנוּ אָבָֽדְנוּ: אָדוֹן הָקֵל עֻלֵּֽנוּ. וּשְׁלַח יֶֽשַׁע לְגָאֳלֵֽנוּ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

אַל תַּֽעַשׂ עִמָּֽנוּ כָּלָה. תֹּאחֵז יָדְךָ בַּמִּשְׁפָּט: בְּבוֹא תוֹכֵחָה לְנֶגְדֶּֽךָ. שְׁמֵֽנוּ מִסִּפְרְךָ אַל תִּמָּח: גִּשְׁתְּךָ לַחֲתֹם מוּסָר. רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יְקַדְּמוּ רָגְזֶֽךָ: דַּלּוּת מַעֲשִׂים בְּשׁוּרֶֽךָ. קָרֵב צֶֽדֶק מֵאֵלֶֽיךָ: הוֹרֵֽנוּ מַה שֶּׁנִּצְעַק לְפָנֶֽיךָ. צַוֵּה יְשׁוּעָתֵֽנוּ בְּמַפְגִּֽיעַ: וְתָשִׁיב שְׁבוּת אָֽהֳלֵי תָם. פְּתָחָיו רְאֵה כִּי שָׁמֵֽמוּ: זְכֹר שַֽׂחְתָּ. לֹא תִשָּׁכַח עֵדוּת מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ: חוֹתָם תְּעוּדָה תַּתִּיר. סוֹדְךָ שִׂים בְּלִמּוּדָהּ: טַבּוּר אַגַּן הַסַּֽהַר. נָא אַל יֶחְסַר הַמָּֽזֶג: יָהּ דַּע אֶת אֲשֶׁר יְדָֽעוּךָ. מַגֵּר עַם לֹא יְדָעֽוּךָ: כִּי תָשִׁיב לְבִצָּרוֹן. לְכוּדִים אֲסִירֵי הַתִּקְוָה:

וְהֵן אָֽנוּ עַתָּה:

כְּתוֹעִים וְאֵין לְבַקֵּשׁ. כִּשְׁבוּיִים וְאֵין לְשׁוֹבֵב: כִּרְעֵבִים וְאֵין לְהַאֲכִיל. כִּקְנוּיִים וְאֵין לִקְנוֹת: כִּצְמֵאִים וְאֵין לְהַשְׁקוֹת. כִּפְתָאִים וְאֵין לְלַמֵּד: כַּעֲיֵפִים וְאֵין לְהָשִׁיב. כִּשְׂנוּאִים וְאֵין לֶאֱהֹב: כְּנֶהְדָּפִים וְאֵין לְקָרֵב. כִּמְנֻדִּים וְאֵין לְהַתִּיר: כִּלְקוּחִים וְאֵין אֲדוֹנִים. כְּפוּפִים וְאֵין לִזְקֹף: כִּיתוֹמִים וְאֵין לָהֶם אָב. כִּטְמֵאִים וְאֵין לְטַהֵר: כַּחֲסֵרִים וְאֵין לְמַלֹּאת. כִּזְנוּחִים וְאֵין לִזְכֹּר: כְּהוֹמִים וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנוּחָה. כְּדַלִּים וְאֵין לְחָנְּנָם: כְּגֵרִים וְאֵין לְקַבֵּל. כִּבְזוּיִים וְאֵין לְכַבֵּד: כַּאֲבֵלִים וְאֵין לְנַחֵם. כַּאֲנוּסִים וְאֵין מָנוֹס:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

אִם תָּעִֽינוּ לֹא תַתְעֵֽנוּ. אִם שָׁגַֽגְנוּ לֹא תַשְׁלֵֽנוּ: אִם רָחַֽקְנוּ קָרֵב נָא. אִם קָרַֽבְנוּ לֹא תִרְחָק: אִם צָעַֽקְנוּ לֹא תַעְלִים. אִם פָּשַֽׁעְנוּ לֹא תִפְרָע: אִם עָוִֽינוּ לֹא תִטֹּר. אִם סַֽרְנוּ לֹא תָסוּר: אִם נָקַֽמְנוּ לֹא תִלְחָם. אִם מָרִֽינוּ לֹא תַמְרֵֽנוּ: אִם לַֽצְנוּ לֹא תִלְחָץ. אִם כִּחַֽשְׁנוּ לֹא תְכַלֶּה: אִם יָרַֽדְנוּ לֹא תַטְבִּֽיעַ. אִם טָעִֽינוּ לֹא תְטַאטְאֵֽנוּ: אִם חָבַֽלְנוּ לֹא תַחְבֹּל. אִם זַֽדְנוּ לֹא תִזְכֹּר: אִם וִכַּֽחְנוּ לֹא תוֹכִֽיחַ. אִם הִרְשַֽׁעְנוּ לֹא תֶהְדֹּף: אִם דָּפַֽקְנוּ לֹא תִדְחֶה. אִם גָּעַֽלְנוּ לֹא תִגְעָל: אִם בָּֽאנוּ לֹא תִמְאַס. אִם אָשַֽׁמְנוּ לֹא תְאַבֵּד:

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ:

תַּאֲוַת לֵב לֹא הִשַּֽׂגְנוּ. שֶֽׁקֶט קִוִּֽינוּ וַיָּֽבוֹא רֹֽגֶז: רוּם קֶֽרֶן וְהִנֵּה שְׁפָלָה. קָרְבָה יְשׁוּעָה אָמַֽרְנוּ וְנִתְרַחֲקָה: צִפִּֽינוּ לְטוֹבָה וּבָרְחָה מִמֶּֽנּוּ. פַּח נֶֽפֶשׁ בָּא בַאֲסָמֵֽינוּ: עִצָּבוֹן בְּמִשְׁלַח יָדֵֽינוּ. שִׂמְחָה עָרְבָה מֵאֳֽרֶץ: נֶאֶרְרוּ יְבוּלֵי שָׂדֶה (בִּרְכוֹתֶֽיהָ). מְעַט מֵהַרְבֵּה נָבִֽיא: לַחְמָהּ לְרָזוֹן וְלֹא לָשֽׂבַע. כֹּחָהּ לֹא תוֹסִיף תֵּת: יְדֵי עֲמָלֶֽיהָ מוֹטָֽטוּ. טַרְפָּם לֹא יִמְצְאוּ בָהּ: חֵֽלֶב מִשְׁמַנֶּֽיהָ לְזָרִים. זְמוֹרוֹת עֲדָנֶֽיהָ לְנָכְרִים: וְנִמְכְּרָה אֶֽרֶץ בְּיַד רָעִים. הוֹן בֶּֽצַע לֹא מָֽצְאוּ בָהּ: דִּמִּֽינוּ גַּם מִמְּצוֹא יָד. גָּלָה שְׂכַר הַיְּצוּרִים: בַּעֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ בֵּית מִקְדַּשׁ אֵל חָרֵב. אֻסַּף חֶֽסֶד מִכָּל אֱנוֹשׁ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

תֹּאמַר לִמְחוֹת אֲשָׁמֵֽינוּ. תָּבוֹא לְחַדֵּשׁ יָמֵֽינוּ: תְּגַלֶּה שְׁנַת שְׁלוֹמֵֽנוּ. תַּגְדִּיל לְגַדֵּל אֶת שְׁמֵֽנוּ: תַּהֲדֹף מֵהֲדוֹם מִתְקוֹמְמֵֽינוּ. תּוֹפִֽיעַ מִמָּרוֹם לְרוֹמְמֵֽנוּ: תִּזְכֹּר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ לְרַחֲמֵֽנוּ. תָּחִישׁ מְנַחֵם לְנַחֲמֵֽנוּ: תְּטַהֵר שִׁמְצַת גֶּוְיֵֽנוּ. תְּיַדַּע כִּי אַתָּה הוּא אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ: תְּכַפֵּר עֲו‍ֹן זְדוֹנֵֽינוּ. תְּלוּי רֹאשׁ תִּתֵּן לְהַחֲיֵֽנוּ: תִּמְחֹל עִקְשׁוּת מֶרְיֵֽנוּ. תִּנְאֹם לְהַעֲצִים פִּרְיֵֽנוּ: תַּסְכִּית שְׁפִיכַת שִׂיחֵֽנוּ. תַּעֲנֶה עֶֽתֶר פִּצְחֵֽנוּ: תִּפְנֶה לְקוֹמֵם מִזְבְּחֵֽנוּ. תַּצְדִּיק נִיב שְׂפָתֵֽינוּ: תְּקָרֵב קֵץ מְשִׁיחֵֽנוּ. תִּרְצֶה רֵֽיחַ נִיחוֹחֵֽנוּ: תְּשׁוֹבֵב מִקְּצָווֹת נִדָּחֵֽינוּ. תִּתְמְכֵֽנוּ וְכָאֵזוֹר תַּדְבִּיקֵֽנוּ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

אוֹרְךָ תַּזְרִֽיחַ לַחֲשֵׁכָה. בְּרַחֲמִים גְּדוֹלִים תָּשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ: גַּלֵּה לָהּ יוֹם נָקָם בַלֵב. דְּבָרְךָ תִּשְׁלַח וְתִרְפָּאֵֽנוּ: הָאֵר פָּנֶֽיךָ אֵלֵֽינוּ. וְאַל תִּשְׁכָּחֵֽנוּ לָנֶֽצַח: זְכוּת הַרְרֵי קֶֽדֶם זְכֹר. חַטֹּאת נְעוּרִים אַל תִּזְכֹּר: טֻמְאָה מֵעָלֵֽינוּ תָּסִיר. יְדִידוּת נַפְשְׁךָ אַל תִּשְׁכַּח: כְּלוּלוֹת אַהֲבָתֵֽנוּ תִּזְכֹּר. לֶכְתֵּֽנוּ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר: מָשְׁכֵֽנוּ וְנָרוּץ אַחֲרֶֽיךָ. נְחֵֽנוּ וַהֲבִיאֵֽנוּ אֶל חֲדָרֶֽיךָ: סְעָדֵֽנוּ וְסָמְכֵֽנוּ וְנִחְיֶה. עֵת כִּי תַשְׁמִיעֵֽנוּ קוֹלֶֽךָ: פְּצֵֽנוּ מִשְּׁאוֹן גַּלִּים. צוּלָה תַחֲרִיב בְּאַפֶּֽךָ: קֽוּמָה בַחֲרוֹנְךָ עַל גֵּאִים. רֽוּמָה עֻזֶּֽךָ וְרוֹמֵם שְׁפָלִים: שְׁבֹר זְרֽוֹעַ רֶֽשַׁע. תִּמְלֹךְ לְבַדְּךָ בְּקוֹרְאֵי שְׁמֶֽךָ: תּוֹדִֽיעַ לְעֵין כָּל אֻמִּים. כִּי אֵין אֱלֽוֹהַּ מִבַּלְעָדֶֽיךָ: כִּי תְבִיאֵֽנוּ לְהַר קָדְשֶֽׁךָ. וּתְשַׂמְּחֵֽנוּ בְּבֵית מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

אֹֽפֶל אַלְמָנָה תָּאִיר. בֹּֽהוּ בוֹכִיָּה תַּבְהִיק: גִּיל גַּלְמוּדָה תַּגִּישׁ. דֶּֽלֶף דִּמְעָתָהּ תַּדְמִים: הַר הַשָּׁמֵם תְּהַדֵּר. וְתָשׁוּב וְאֵלָיו תּוֹפִֽיעַ: זֹֽהַר זְבוּלְךָ תַּזְרִֽיחַ. חֲדַר חֻפָּתְךָ תְּחַדֵּשׁ: טֶֽנֶף טֻמְאָתָהּ תְּטַהֵר. יֹֽפִי יִקְרַת תְּיַסְּדָהּ: כַּדְכֹד כְּבוֹדָהּ תְּכוֹנְנָהּ. לְאוֹרָהּ לְאֻמִּים תְּלַוֶּה: מֶֽלֶךְ מִכְּבוֹדְךָ תְּמַלְּאָהּ. נֵֽצַח נְצָחִים תְּנוֹסְסָהּ: שֹֽׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת תַּשְׂבִּיעֶֽנָּה. עֲנַן עָשָׁן תְּעַטְּרֶֽנָּה: פִּנַּת פְּתָחֶֽיהָ תְּפָאֵר. צֶֽדֶק צְנוּעִים תַּצְמִיחַ: קָמֵי קְהָלֶֽיהָ תָּקִיא. רֶֽגֶשׁ רְגָלִים תָּרִיץ: חזן שְׁבָטִים שָׁכַֽחְתָּ תְּשׁוֹבֵב. תִּקְרָא תִּשְׁרֹק וְתִתְקַע: כִּי תְבִיאֵם לְהַר קָדְשֶֽׁךָ. וּתְשַׂמְּחֵם בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתֶֽךָ:

אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ:

תִּתֵּן אַחֲרִית לְעַמֶּֽךָ. תָּשִׁיב מִקְדָּשׁ לְתוֹכֵֽנוּ: תְּרוֹמֵם הַר מְרוֹם הָרִים. תְּקוֹמֵם קֶֽרֶן גְּדוּעָה: תַּצְהִיר מַחֲשַׁכֵּי אִוּוּי. תְּפָאֵר יוֹשֶֽׁבֶת בָּדָד: תַּעֲטֶה בָּהּ מְלוּכָה לְבַדֶּֽךָ. תָּסִיר חֶרְפָּה מֵעִיר: תְּנַעֵר זֵדִים מִזְּבוּלֶֽךָ. תַּמְצִיא צְדָקָה לַעֲדָתֶֽךָ: תְּלַבֵּב אֶת רַעְיָתֶֽךָ. תִּכְרֹת לָהּ בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה: תִּיקַר נַפְשָׁהּ בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ. תְּטַהֲרֶֽנָּה בְּמַֽיִם טְהוֹרִים: תַּחֲנֶה בְּעִיר חָנָה דָוִד. תִּזְקֹף קוֹמַת תְּמָרָהּ: תּוֹדִֽיעַ לַכֹּל אַהֲבָתֵֽנוּ. תְּהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶֽרֶב מַחֲנוֹתֵֽינוּ: תִּדְרשׁ גְּאֻלָּה לְגָלוּתֵֽנוּ. תְּגַלֶּה קֵץ לִקְנוֹתֵֽנוּ: תָּבוֹא מְהֵרָה לְרַחֲמֵֽנוּ. תַּאֲמִירֵֽנוּ לְךָ וְנַאֲמִירְךָ לָֽנוּ:

וּמֵרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ:

תָּעִֽינוּ מֵאַחֲרֶֽיךָ. שָׁגַגְנוּ מִמִּצְוֹתֶֽיךָ: רֻחַֽקְנוּ מִבֵּית חַיֵּֽינוּ. קִלְקַֽלְנוּ אָרְחוֹת עוֹלָם: צְעָדֵֽנוּ לֹא יִשַּֽׁרְנוּ. פָּשַֽׁעְנוּ לְשֵׁם קָדְשֶֽׁךָ: עָזַֽבְנוּ תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ. סַֽרְנוּ מֵאִמְרֵי פִֽיךָ: נִאַצְנֽוּךָ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֵֽינוּ. מָרִֽינוּ וּמָרַֽדְנוּ בָךְ: לֹא הִקְשַֽׁבְנוּ לְדִבְרֵי נְבִיאֶֽיךָ. כִּעַסְנֽוּךָ וְלֹא בִקַּשְׁנֽוּךָ: יִרְאָתְךָ מִלֵּב שָׁכַֽחְנוּ. טָהֳרָתְךָ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֵֽינוּ טִמֵּֽאנוּ: חָטָֽאנוּ לְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ. זְעַמְנֽוּךָ בְּרוֹב עֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ: וְאִמַּֽצְנוּ אֶת לְבָבֵֽנוּ. הִקְשִֽׁינוּ אֶת עָרְפֵּֽנוּ: דְּבָרְךָ אָחוֹר הִשְׁלַֽכְנוּ. גְּדֻלָּתְךָ לֹא הִגַּֽדְנוּ: בֵּיתְךָ נֶהֱרַס בַּעֲו‍ֹנֵֽינוּ. אִוּוּיָךְ נֻתַּץ בַּחֲטָאֵֽינוּ:

מַה נְדַבֵּר פְּנֵי מֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵר. וּמַה נַּעֲנֶה לְמִמֶּֽנּוּ מַעֲנֶה. וּמַה נִּצְטַדָּק פְּנֵי לוֹבֵשׁ צְדָקָה. גְּמָלָֽנוּ טוֹבוֹת וְשִׁלַּֽמְנֽוּהוּ רָעוֹת. וּמַה יֶּשׁ לָֽנוּ עוֹד צְדָקָה וְלִזְעֹק עוֹד אֶל פְּנֵי הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:

זְכֹר רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יְהֹוָה

Remember Your mercies, Adonoy

וַחֲסָדֶֽיךָ

and Your kindnesses,

כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵֽמָּה:

for they are from the beginning of the world.

אַל תִּזְכָּר לָנוּ עֲו‍ֹנוֹת רִאשׁוֹנִים.

Remember not the sins of our ancestors;

מַהֵר יְקַדְּמוּנוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ

let Your compassion come swiftly toward us,

כִּי דַלּוֹנוּ מְאֹד:

for we have been brought very low.

זָכְרֵֽנוּ יְהֹוָה

Remember us Adonoy

בִּרְצוֹן עַמֶּֽךָ

with favor for Your people

פָּקְדֵֽנוּ בִּישׁוּעָתֶֽךָ:

recall us with Your deliverance.

זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ

Remember Your congregation

קָנִֽיתָ קֶּֽדֶם

which You have acquired of old,

גָּאַֽלְתָּ שֵֽׁבֶט

You have redeemed the tribe

נַחֲלָתֶֽךָ

of Your inheritance,

הַר צִיּוֹן זֶה

this mountain of Tziyon

שָׁכַנְתָּ בּוֹ:

where You have dwelled.

זְכוֹר יְהֹוָה

Remember, Adonoy,

חִבַּת יְרוּשָׁלָֽםִ

the affection of Yerushalayim,

אַהֲבַת צִיּוֹן אַל תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶֽצַח:

the love of Tziyon, forget not until eternity.

זְכֹר יְהֹוָה

Remember, Adonoy,

לִבְנֵי אֱדוֹם אֵת יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלָֽםִ

to the sons of Edom, the day of Yerushalayim,

הָאֹמְרִים

[it was they] who said,

עָֽרוּ עָֽרוּ עַד הַיְסוֹד בָּהּ:

“Raze it, raze it to its very foundations.”

אַתָּה תָקוּם

You will arise

תְּרַחֵם צִיּוֹן.

and have compassion on Tziyon,

כִּי עֵת לְחֶנְנָהּ

for it is time to be gracious to her,

כִּי בָא מוֹעֵד:

for the appointed time has come.

זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל

Remember Avraham, Yitzchak, Yisrael,

עֲבָדֶֽיךָ

Your servants,

אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּֽעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ

to whom You swore by Your very Self,

וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם

and You said to them:

אַרְבֶּה אֶת זַרְעֲכֶם

“I will multiply your seed

כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָֽיִם.

as the stars of the heavens;

וְכָל הָאָֽרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַֽרְתִּי

and all this land that I have promised,

אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם

I will give to your descendants,

וְנָחֲלוּ לְעוֹלָם:

and they will inherit it forever.”

זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶֽיךָ

Remember Your servants,

לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב.

Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov;

אַל תֵּֽפֶן אֶל קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה

do not regard the stubborness of this people,

וְאֶל רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל חַטָּאתוֹ:

or their wickedness, or their sin


Chazzan and congregation:

אַל נָא

Do not, we beseech You

תָשֵׁת עָלֵֽינוּ חַטָּאת

place upon us the sin,

אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָֽאנוּ:

wherein we have acted foolishly and sinned.

חָטָֽאנוּ צוּרֵֽנוּ

We have sinned, our Rock;

סְלַח לָֽנוּ יוֹצְרֵֽנוּ:

Pardon us our Creator.