Torah 20:4 כ׳:ד׳
1 א

ד וְזֶהוּ הַחִלּוּק בֵּין הַלּוֹמֵד מִתּוֹךְ הַסֵּפֶר וּבֵין הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הֶחָכָם עַצְמוֹ, כִּי הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הֶחָכָם עַצְמוֹ, בְּוַדַּאי נִתְקַשֵּׁר נִשְׁמָתוֹ עִם נִשְׁמַת הֶחָכָם בִּשְׁעַת תְּפִלָּתוֹ כַּנַּ"ל, וְיֵשׁ לְזֶה הָאָדָם חֵלֶק בַּבֵּאוּר הַזֶּה,

4. And this is the difference between someone who studies from a book and someone who hears [a teaching] directly from the sage himself. For the person who hears directly from the sage himself certainly has had his soul bound with the soul of the sage while he prays, as explained. Then this person has a share in this lesson.

2 ב

כִּי עַל־יְדֵי הַתְּפִלָּה נִתּוֹסֵף קְדֻשָּׁה לְמַעְלָה, וְכָל תְּפִלָּה הַיּוֹצֵאת מֵהַרְבֵּה נְשָׁמוֹת הִיא מוֹסֶפֶת קְדֻשָּׁה לְמַעְלָה וּמְעוֹרֶרֶת בְּיוֹתֵר לֵב הָעֶלְיוֹן כַּנַּ"ל, וְלֵב הָעֶלְיוֹן שׁוֹפֵךְ מֵימֵי הַבֵּאוּר בְּיוֹתֵר.

This is because through the prayer, holiness is added above. And every prayer that emanates from numerous souls adds holiness above and arouses the Supernal Heart all the more. And so, the Supernal Heart pours forth the waters of the lesson all the more.

3 ג

הַכֹּל לְפִי רֹב אֲנָשִׁים, כֵּן יוֹתֵר קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ, בִּבְחִינַת (תהילים כ״ב:ד׳): וְאַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ יוֹשֵׁב תְּהִלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל – עַל־יְדֵי תְּהִלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל נִתּוֹסֵף קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ.

<The amount of holiness added is commensurate with the size of the gathering>, as in (Psalms 22:4), “You are holy, enthroned upon the praises of the Jewish people.” Through the praises of the Jewish people, His holiness is increased.

4 ד

גַּם כָּל אֵלּוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָעוֹמְדִים בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּרוּשׁ, נִכְנָע רִשְׁעָתָם עַל־יְדֵי הַטּוֹב שֶׁבֶּחָכָם הַדּוֹרֵשׁ, וּלְפִי הַהַכְנָעָה, כֵּן נִכְנָעִים הָאוֹיְבִים, הַיְנוּ הַקְּלִפּוֹת הַשּׁוֹכְנִים סְבִיב לֵב הָעֶלְיוֹן, בִּבְחִינַת (יחזקאל ה׳:ה׳): זֹאת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שַׂמְתִּיהָ בְּתוֹךְ הַגּוֹיִם; וְהִיא לֵב, בִּבְחִינַת (ישעיהו מ׳:ב׳): דַּבְּרוּ עַל לֵב יְרוּשָׁלַיִם:

Likewise, all those people present at the time of the lesson have their evil subdued by the good of the sage expounding. And commensurate with the subduing [of this evil], so the enemies—i.e. the evil forces besieging the Supernal Heart—are subdued. This corresponds to (Ezekiel 5:5), “This is Yerushalayim. I have set it in the midst of the nations, <and countries surround her>.” <And Yerushalayim is synonymous with the Supernal Heart,> corresponding to (Isaiah 40:2), “Speak to the heart of Yerushalayim.”

5 ה

וְזֶה בְּחִינַת מַטֶּה, שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא לְמשֶׁה: קַח אֶת מַטְּךָ וְהַקְהֵל אֶת הָעֵדָה. מַטֶּה זֶה בְּחִינַת מֶמְשֶׁלֶת וְכֹחַ הַצַּדִּיק שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־יְדֵי עֲבוֹדָתוֹ, שֶׁעַל־יָדוֹ נִכְנָעִים כָּל הָאוֹיְבִים, הֵן לְמַטָּה הֵן לְמָעְלָה.

And this is the concept of the staff. God said to Moshe (Numbers 20:8), “Take <the staff> and gather the community.” The “staff” is synonymous with the authority and strength of the tzaddik made by means of his devotional service. Through it, all the enemies are subdued—both below and above.

6 ו

וְזֶהוּ (תהילים ק״י:ב׳): מַטֵּה עֻזְּךָ יִשְׁלַח ה' מִצִּיּוֹן; הַיְנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, שֶׁהֵן צִיּוּנִים לִדְבָרִים עֶלְיוֹנִים, שֶׁמֵּהֶם נַעֲשֶׂה מַטֵּה־עֹז לְהַכְנִיעַ אוֹיְבִים. וְזֶה: רְדֵה בְּקֶרֶב אֹיְבֶיךָ. נִמְצָא, מִי שֶׁהוּא אֵצֶל הֶחָכָם בִּשְׁעַת בֵּאוּר הַתּוֹרָה, נִמְצָא שֶׁנִּכְנָע הָרָע שֶׁלּוֹ כַּנַּ"ל:

{“The st aff of your st rength God will send from Zion; rule amid st your enemies” (Psalms 110:2).} And this is the meaning of, “The staff of your strength God will send”—namely, the mitzvot and good deeds, which are TZIuNim (signs) of exalted things. From them the “staff of strength” to subdue the enemies is made. And this is, “rule amidst your enemies.” From this we can conclude that someone who is in the company of the sage during the <discourse>, his evil is <subdued>, as above.

7 ז

וְזֶהוּ: שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ נֹכַח פְּנֵי ה' (איכה ב׳:י״ט). פְּנֵי ה' זֶה בְּחִינַת בֵּאוּרֵי וּדְרוּשֵׁי הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ (ויקרא י״ט:ל״ב): וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן; זָקֵן זֶה הַדְרַת פָּנִים, וְהֵם שְׁלשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה תִּקּוּנֵי דִּקְנָא, וְהֵם שְׁלשׁ־ עֶשְׂרֵה מִדּוֹת שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה נִדְרֶשֶׁת בָּהֶן, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ שִׂיחוֹ וּתְפִלָּתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּמְשִׁיךְ בֵּאוּרֵי הַתּוֹרָה כַּנַּ"ל.

And this is the meaning of (Lamentations 2:19), “Pour out your heart like water before the countenance of God.” “The countenance of God” corresponds to the lessons and interpretations of the Torah, as in (Leviticus 19:32), “Honor the countenance of the ZaKeN (the sage).” The ZaKaN (the beard) is the honor of the face. And they [the Torah lessons and explanations] are the Thirteen Rectifications of the Beard, the Thirteen Principles of Torah Interpretation. <And this is: “Pour out your heart….”> A person needs to pour out his words and prayer prior to drawing Torah lessons, as explained.

8 ח

וְזֶהוּ: וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל פְּנֵיהֶם – כְּשֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ הַמְּרִיבָה הֵבִינוּ, שֶׁעַל־יְדֵי בֵּאוּרֵי הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֵם בְּחִינַת פָּנִים כַּנַּ"ל, מֵחֲמַת הַנְּפִילָה הַנַּ"ל, מֵחֲמַת זֶה הִתְחִיל הַמְּרִיבָה:

And this is (Numbers 20:6), “[Moshe and Aharon moved away] … and fell on their faces”—when they heard the quarrel. They understood that because of the fall of the Torah lessons/the face, the quarrel began.