19י״ט
Kedoshimקדושים
1 א

וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר

The LORD spoke to Moses, saying:

2 ב

דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֥ אֲלֵהֶ֖ם קְדֹשִׁ֣ים תִּהְי֑וּ כִּ֣י קָד֔וֹשׁ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

Speak to the whole Israelite community and say to them: You shall be holy, for I, the LORD your God, am holy.

3 ג

אִ֣ישׁ אִמּ֤וֹ וְאָבִיו֙ תִּירָ֔אוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֖י תִּשְׁמֹ֑רוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

You shall each revere his mother and his father, and keep My sabbaths: I the LORD am your God.

4 ד

אַל־תִּפְנוּ֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֱלִילִ֔ים וֵֽאלֹהֵי֙ מַסֵּכָ֔ה לֹ֥א תַעֲשׂ֖וּ לָכֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

Do not turn to idols or make molten gods for yourselves: I the LORD am your God.

5 ה

וְכִ֧י תִזְבְּח֛וּ זֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים לַיהוָ֑ה לִֽרְצֹנְכֶ֖ם תִּזְבָּחֻֽהוּ׃

When you sacrifice an offering of well-being to the LORD, sacrifice it so that it may be accepted on your behalf.

6 ו

בְּי֧וֹם זִבְחֲכֶ֛ם יֵאָכֵ֖ל וּמִֽמָּחֳרָ֑ת וְהַנּוֹתָר֙ עַד־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵֽף׃

It shall be eaten on the day you sacrifice it, or on the day following; but what is left by the third day must be consumed in fire.

7 ז

וְאִ֛ם הֵאָכֹ֥ל יֵאָכֵ֖ל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י פִּגּ֥וּל ה֖וּא לֹ֥א יֵרָצֶֽה׃

If it should be eaten on the third day, it is an offensive thing, it will not be acceptable.

8 ח

וְאֹֽכְלָיו֙ עֲוֺנ֣וֹ יִשָּׂ֔א כִּֽי־אֶת־קֹ֥דֶשׁ יְהוָ֖ה חִלֵּ֑ל וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ׃

And he who eats of it shall bear his guilt, for he has profaned what is sacred to the LORD; that person shall be cut off from his kin.

9 ט

וּֽבְקֻצְרְכֶם֙ אֶת־קְצִ֣יר אַרְצְכֶ֔ם לֹ֧א תְכַלֶּ֛ה פְּאַ֥ת שָׂדְךָ֖ לִקְצֹ֑ר וְלֶ֥קֶט קְצִֽירְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תְלַקֵּֽט׃

When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap all the way to the edges of your field, or gather the gleanings of your harvest.

10 י

וְכַרְמְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תְעוֹלֵ֔ל וּפֶ֥רֶט כַּרְמְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְלַקֵּ֑ט לֶֽעָנִ֤י וְלַגֵּר֙ תַּעֲזֹ֣ב אֹתָ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

You shall not pick your vineyard bare, or gather the fallen fruit of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger: I the LORD am your God.

11 יא

לֹ֖א תִּגְנֹ֑בוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁ֥וּ וְלֹֽא־תְשַׁקְּר֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ בַּעֲמִיתֽוֹ׃

You shall not steal; you shall not deal deceitfully or falsely with one another.

12 יב

וְלֹֽא־תִשָּׁבְע֥וּ בִשְׁמִ֖י לַשָּׁ֑קֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ֛ אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה׃

You shall not swear falsely by My name, profaning the name of your God: I am the LORD.

13 יג

לֹֽא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק אֶת־רֵֽעֲךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א תִגְזֹ֑ל לֹֽא־תָלִ֞ין פְּעֻלַּ֥ת שָׂכִ֛יר אִתְּךָ֖ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר׃

You shall not defraud your fellow. You shall not commit robbery. The wages of a laborer shall not remain with you until morning.

14 יד

לֹא־תְקַלֵּ֣ל חֵרֵ֔שׁ וְלִפְנֵ֣י עִוֵּ֔ר לֹ֥א תִתֵּ֖ן מִכְשֹׁ֑ל וְיָרֵ֥אתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה׃

You shall not insult the deaf, or place a stumbling block before the blind. You shall fear your God: I am the LORD.

15 טו

לֹא־תַעֲשׂ֥וּ עָ֙וֶל֙ בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט לֹא־תִשָּׂ֣א פְנֵי־דָ֔ל וְלֹ֥א תֶהְדַּ֖ר פְּנֵ֣י גָד֑וֹל בְּצֶ֖דֶק תִּשְׁפֹּ֥ט עֲמִיתֶֽךָ׃

You shall not render an unfair decision: do not favor the poor or show deference to the rich; judge your kinsman fairly.

16 טז

לֹא־תֵלֵ֤ךְ רָכִיל֙ בְּעַמֶּ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תַעֲמֹ֖ד עַל־דַּ֣ם רֵעֶ֑ךָ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃

Do not deal basely with your countrymen. Do not profit by the blood of your fellow: I am the LORD.

17 יז

לֹֽא־תִשְׂנָ֥א אֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ הוֹכֵ֤חַ תּוֹכִ֙יחַ֙ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶ֔ךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂ֥א עָלָ֖יו חֵֽטְא׃

You shall not hate your kinsfolk in your heart. Reprove your kinsman but incur no guilt because of him.

18 יח

לֹֽא־תִקֹּ֤ם וְלֹֽא־תִטֹּר֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְאָֽהַבְתָּ֥ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ כָּמ֑וֹךָ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃

You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your countrymen. Love your fellow as yourself: I am the LORD.

19 יט

אֶֽת־חֻקֹּתַי֮ תִּשְׁמֹרוּ֒ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ֙ לֹא־תַרְבִּ֣יעַ כִּלְאַ֔יִם שָׂדְךָ֖ לֹא־תִזְרַ֣ע כִּלְאָ֑יִם וּבֶ֤גֶד כִּלְאַ֙יִם֙ שַֽׁעַטְנֵ֔ז לֹ֥א יַעֲלֶ֖ה עָלֶֽיךָ׃ (פ)

You shall observe My laws. You shall not let your cattle mate with a different kind; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed; you shall not put on cloth from a mixture of two kinds of material.

20 כ

וְ֠אִישׁ כִּֽי־יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אֶת־אִשָּׁ֜ה שִׁכְבַת־זֶ֗רַע וְהִ֤וא שִׁפְחָה֙ נֶחֱרֶ֣פֶת לְאִ֔ישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה֙ לֹ֣א נִפְדָּ֔תָה א֥וֹ חֻפְשָׁ֖ה לֹ֣א נִתַּן־לָ֑הּ בִּקֹּ֧רֶת תִּהְיֶ֛ה לֹ֥א יוּמְת֖וּ כִּי־לֹ֥א חֻפָּֽשָׁה׃

If a man has carnal relations with a woman who is a slave and has been designated for another man, but has not been redeemed or given her freedom, there shall be an indemnity; they shall not, however, be put to death, since she has not been freed.

21 כא

וְהֵבִ֤יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד אֵ֖יל אָשָֽׁם׃

But he must bring to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, as his guilt offering to the LORD, a ram of guilt offering.

22 כב

וְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן בְּאֵ֤יל הָֽאָשָׁם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה עַל־חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֑א וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֔וֹ מֵחַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָֽא׃ (פ)

With the ram of guilt offering the priest shall make expiation for him before the LORD for the sin that he committed; and the sin that he committed will be forgiven him.

23 כג

וְכִי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם֙ כָּל־עֵ֣ץ מַאֲכָ֔ל וַעֲרַלְתֶּ֥ם עָרְלָת֖וֹ אֶת־פִּרְי֑וֹ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם עֲרֵלִ֖ים לֹ֥א יֵאָכֵֽל׃

When you enter the land and plant any tree for food, you shall regard its fruit as forbidden. Three years it shall be forbidden for you, not to be eaten.

24 כד

וּבַשָּׁנָה֙ הָרְבִיעִ֔ת יִהְיֶ֖ה כָּל־פִּרְי֑וֹ קֹ֥דֶשׁ הִלּוּלִ֖ים לַיהוָֽה׃

In the fourth year all its fruit shall be set aside for jubilation before the LORD;

25 כה

וּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַחֲמִישִׁ֗ת תֹּֽאכְלוּ֙ אֶת־פִּרְי֔וֹ לְהוֹסִ֥יף לָכֶ֖ם תְּבוּאָת֑וֹ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

and only in the fifth year may you use its fruit—that its yield to you may be increased: I the LORD am your God.

26 כו

לֹ֥א תֹאכְל֖וּ עַל־הַדָּ֑ם לֹ֥א תְנַחֲשׁ֖וּ וְלֹ֥א תְעוֹנֵֽנוּ׃

You shall not eat anything with its blood. You shall not practice divination or soothsaying.

27 כז

לֹ֣א תַקִּ֔פוּ פְּאַ֖ת רֹאשְׁכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א תַשְׁחִ֔ית אֵ֖ת פְּאַ֥ת זְקָנֶֽךָ׃

You shall not round off the side-growth on your head, or destroy the side-growth of your beard.

28 כח

וְשֶׂ֣רֶט לָנֶ֗פֶשׁ לֹ֤א תִתְּנוּ֙ בִּבְשַׂרְכֶ֔ם וּכְתֹ֣בֶת קַֽעֲקַ֔ע לֹ֥א תִתְּנ֖וּ בָּכֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃

You shall not make gashes in your flesh for the dead, or incise any marks on yourselves: I am the LORD.

29 כט

אַל־תְּחַלֵּ֥ל אֶֽת־בִּתְּךָ֖ לְהַזְנוֹתָ֑הּ וְלֹא־תִזְנֶ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמָלְאָ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ זִמָּֽה׃

Do not degrade your daughter and make her a harlot, lest the land fall into harlotry and the land be filled with depravity.

30 ל

אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁ֖י תִּירָ֑אוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃

You shall keep My sabbaths and venerate My sanctuary: I am the LORD.

31 לא

אַל־תִּפְנ֤וּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁ֖וּ לְטָמְאָ֣ה בָהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

Do not turn to ghosts and do not inquire of familiar spirits, to be defiled by them: I the LORD am your God.

32 לב

מִפְּנֵ֤י שֵׂיבָה֙ תָּק֔וּם וְהָדַרְתָּ֖ פְּנֵ֣י זָקֵ֑ן וְיָרֵ֥אתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ (פ)

You shall rise before the aged and show deference to the old; you shall fear your God: I am the LORD.

33 לג

וְכִֽי־יָג֧וּר אִתְּךָ֛ גֵּ֖ר בְּאַרְצְכֶ֑ם לֹ֥א תוֹנ֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ׃

When a stranger resides with you in your land, you shall not wrong him.

34 לד

כְּאֶזְרָ֣ח מִכֶּם֩ יִהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם הַגֵּ֣ר ׀ הַגָּ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֗ם וְאָהַבְתָּ֥ לוֹ֙ כָּמ֔וֹךָ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃

The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I the LORD am your God.

35 לה

לֹא־תַעֲשׂ֥וּ עָ֖וֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט בַּמִּדָּ֕ה בַּמִּשְׁקָ֖ל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָֽה׃

You shall not falsify measures of length, weight, or capacity.

36 לו

מֹ֧אזְנֵי צֶ֣דֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶ֗דֶק אֵ֥יפַת צֶ֛דֶק וְהִ֥ין צֶ֖דֶק יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃

You shall have an honest balance, honest weights, an honest ephah, and an honest hin. I the LORD am your God who freed you from the land of Egypt.

37 לז

וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה׃ (פ)

You shall faithfully observe all My laws and all My rules: I am the LORD.

19:20י״ט:כ׳
1 א

נחרפת לאיש. מְיֻעֶדֶת וּמְיֻחֶדֶת לְאִישׁ, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ לוֹ דִמְיוֹן בַּמִּקְרָא; וּבְשִׁפְחָה כְנַעֲנִית חֶצְיָהּ שִׁפְחָה וְחֶצְיָהּ בַּת חֹרִין הַמְאֹרֶסֶת לְעֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֶׁמֻּתָּר בְּשִׁפְחָה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר:

נחרפת לאיש [AND WHOSOEVER LIETH CARNALLY WITH A WOMAN THAT IS A HANDMAID] GIVEN OVER TO A MAN — נחרפת signifies: destined and designated to a man. I do not know of any similar use of it (the root חרף) in Scripture. — And it is of a Canaanitish handmaid who is partly a שפחה and partly a free-woman and who is betrothed to a Hebrew servant who is permitted to marry a שפחה, that Scripture is here speaking (Sifra, Kedoshim, Chapter 5 2; Keritot 11a).

2 ב

והפדה לא נפדתה. פְּדוּיָה וְאֵינָהּ פְּדוּיָה, וּסְתָם פִּדְיוֹן בְּכֶסֶף:

והפדה לא נפדתה means, she is redeemed (הפדה) and not redeemed (לא נפדתה) (i. c. she is partly redeemed, but not fully redeemed; cf. Keritot 11a). An expression derived from the verb פדה, unless it be more closely defined, means redemption by money.

3 ג

או חפשה. בִּשְׁטָר (ספרא):

או חפשה NOR FREEDOM [WAS GIVEN HER] through a document of release (שטר שחרור) (Sifra, Kedoshim, Chapter 5 3).

4 ד

בקרת תהיה. הִיא לוֹקָה וְלֹא הוּא, יֵשׁ עַל בֵּית דִּין לְבַקֵּר אֶת הַדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא לְחַיְּבָהּ מִיתָה כי לא חפשה וְאֵין קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ קִדּוּשִׁין גְּמוּרִין: וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ לָמְדוּ מִכָּאן (מכות כ"ב), שֶׁמִּי שֶׁהוּא בְמַלְקוּת תְּהֵא בִקְרִיאָה — שֶׁהַדַּיָּנִים הַמַּלְקִין קוֹרִין עַל הַלּוֹקֶה "אִם לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת וְגוֹ' וְהִפְלָא ה' אֶת מַכֹּתְךָ וְגוֹ'" (דברים כ"ח):

בקרת תהיה INVESTIGATION SHALL BE MADE CONCERNING HER — she shall be punished with lashes but not he. It is for the court to investigate the matter (to discover that she is really not free) so that they should not make her liable to death (which would be the punishment of a free woman who committed adultery), כי לא חפשה BECAUSE SHE WAS NOT FREE and her marriage with the Hebrew slave was no marriage. Our Rabbis, however, (taking the word בקרת as though it were בקריאת “by reading”) learned from here that whoever is subject to lashes (the מלקות punishment) shall be subject to the recitation (קריאה) of Biblical verses — that the judges who pronounce the sentence of lashes shall recite, whilst standing by him who is lashed the verses (Deuteronomy 28:58, 59): "If thou wilt not observe to do [all the words of the law] etc… Then the Lord will distinguish thy plagues (מכותך which also implies thy "lashes") etc." (cf. Keritot 11a)

5 ה

כי לא חפשה. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מִיתָה, שֶׁאֵין קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ קִדּוּשִׁין, הָא אִם חֻפְּשָׁה קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ קִדּוּשִׁין וְחַיָּב מִיתָה (ספרא):

כי לא חופשה BECAUSE SHE WAS NOT FREE therefore he, also, is not liable to death because of her, since her marriage was no marriage. It follows therefore that if she were free her marriage would have been a marriage and he would be liable to the death penalty (Sifra, Kedoshim, Chapter 5 5).

Keritot 11aכריתות י״א א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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11aי״א א
1 א

שעשה בה את המזיד כשוגג

That the Torah established her status so that the one who engages in intercourse with her intentionally is like the one who does so unwittingly, as both are liable to bring a guilt offering, whereas one who engages in intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden is liable to bring a sin offering only when he does so unwittingly.

2 ב

איזו שפחה כל שחציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין שנאמר (ויקרא יט, כ) והפדה לא נפדתה דברי ר' יהודה ר' ישמעאל אומר זו היא שפחה ודאית ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר כל עריות מפורשות ושיור אין לנו אלא חציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין:

Who is the espoused maidservant in question? It is any woman who is half-maidservant half-free woman, i.e., a maidservant who belonged to two masters, one of whom liberated her, as it is stated: “And she was redeemed and not redeemed” (Leviticus 19:20), which means that she was partially but not completely redeemed. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yishmael says: An espoused maidservant is a full-fledged maidservant whose status is certain, as the language of the verse does not mean redeemed and not redeemed; it is simply a way of stating that she was not redeemed. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: All those with whom relations are forbidden are enumerated in the Torah, and we have no exception other than one who is half-maidservant half-free woman.

3 ג

גמ׳ מנלן דהיא לקי והוא לא לקי דתנו רבנן (ויקרא יט, כ) בקורת תהיה מלמד שהיא לוקה יכול שניהן לוקין תלמוד לומר תהיה היא לוקה והוא אינו לוקה

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that in the case of an espoused maidservant the Torah did not equate the man with the woman. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that she is flogged and that he is not flogged? As the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And if a man lies carnally with a woman, and she is a maidservant designated for a man…there shall be an inspection [bikkoret tihye]” (Leviticus 19:20). This teaches that she is flogged. And as one might have thought that both are flogged, the verse states: “There shall be [tihye],” in the feminine, to teach that she is flogged and he is not flogged.

4 ד

ומנין דהדין בקורת לישנא דמלקות הוא א"ר יצחק תהא בקראי כדתניא גדול הדיינין מקרא שני מונה שלישי אומר הכהו רב אשי אומר בביקור תהיה כדתנן אין אומדין אותו אלא מכות הראוין להשתלש

And from where is it derived that this word inspection [bikkoret] is a term for flogging? Rabbi Yitzḥak said: It indicates that she shall be subjected to the reciting of [bikra’ei] the verses, as it is taught in a baraita: The procedure for administering lashes is that before each lash is administered, the eldest or most prominent of the three judges recites the relevant verses in the Torah; the second-eldest one counts the lashes; and the third says to the attendant: Strike him. Rav Ashi says that it indicates that she shall be subject to an assessment [bikkur], as we learned in a mishna (Makkot 22a): One assesses the number of lashes that the one sentenced to be flogged is capable of withstanding, but only by a number of lashes fit to be divided by three. This teaches that the assessment is an essential part of the flogging procedure.

5 ה

ת"ר בזמן שהאשה לוקה האיש מביא קרבן אין האשה לוקה אין האיש מביא קרבן מנלן אמר רבא דכתיב (ויקרא יט, כ) ואיש כי ישכב את אשה שכבת זרע והיא שפחה נחרפת לאיש והפדה לא נפדתה או חופשה לא נתן לה

The Sages taught in a baraita: At the time that, i.e., in any case where, the woman is flogged, the man brings an offering. In a case where the woman is not flogged, the man does not bring an offering. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rava said that it is as it is written: “And if a man lies carnally with a woman, and she is a maidservant designated for a man, and not at all redeemed, nor was freedom given her; there shall be an inspection…He shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord” (Leviticus 19:20–21).

6 ו

מכדי עד הכא באיש קא משתעי קרא נכתוב והביא את אשמו לה' ולבסוף לכתוב בקורת תהיה אמאי כתב רחמנא ברישא בקורת תהיה ולבסוף כתב והביא את אשמו לה' ה"ק אם בקורת תהיה היא והביא את אשמו לה' ואם לא תהיה בקורת לא יביא הוא את אשמו

The Gemara explains: Since until here, the verse is dealing with a man, let it first write: “He shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord,” and at the end let it write: “There shall be an inspection.” Why did the Merciful One first write: “There shall be an inspection,” and at the end write: “He shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord”? The Gemara explains that this is what the verse is saying: If there will be an inspection, meaning that the woman is to be flogged, then “he shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord.” But if there will not be an inspection, then he shall not bring his guilt offering.

7 ז

אימא הוא מעטיה קרא אבל היא תילקי ותיתי קרבן והביא את אשמו לה' כתיב

The Gemara objects: You can say that the verse in fact excludes him from being flogged due to the use of the term “there shall be,” thereby limiting his liability to bring a guilt offering; but even so, she should be flogged and also bring an offering. The Gemara explains: “He shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord,” is written in the verse, instead of merely: He shall bring a guilt offering. This teaches that only he, and not she, brings a guilt offering.

8 ח

א"ר יצחק לעולם אינו חייב אלא על שפחה בעולה בלבד שנאמר והיא שפחה נחרפת לאיש ומאי משמע דהאי נחרפת לישנא דשנויי הוא דכתיב (שמואל ב יז, יט) ותשטח עליו הריפות ואב"א (משלי כז, כב) אם תכתוש האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Actually, he is liable only in a case where he engages in intercourse with a non-virgin maidservant, as it is stated: “And she is a maidservant designated [neḥerefet] for a man.” And from where may it be inferred that this word “designated [neḥerefet],” is a term of change, i.e., that she has already changed from her status as a virgin to that of a non-virgin? Rabbi Yitzḥak explains: As it is written: “And strewed groats [harifot] thereon” (II Samuel 17:19). Since groats are grains that have been crushed or otherwise changed from their original form, the linguistic correlation between harifot and neḥerefet indicates that both terms are referring to some form of change. And if you wish, say that it is inferred from the verse: “Though you should bray a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats [harifot]” (Proverbs 27:22).

9 ט

(עזרא י, יט) ויתנו ידם להוציא נשיהם ואשמים איל צאן על אשמתם אמר רב חסדא מלמד שכולן שפחות חרופות בעלו:

It is stated in another verse: “And among the sons of the priests there were found some that had married foreign women, namely: Of the sons of Jeshua, son of Jozadak, and his brethren, Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah. And they gave their hand that they would divorce their wives; and being guilty, a ram of the flock for their guilt” (Ezra 10:18–19). Rav Ḥisda said: This teaches that they had all engaged in intercourse with espoused maidservants, as guilt offerings are brought for engaging in intercourse only with an espoused maidservant.

10 י

איזוהי שפחה כו': ת"ר והפדה יכול כולה ת"ל לא נפדתה יכול לא נפדתה ת"ל והפדה

§ The mishna teaches: Which is the espoused maidservant? According to Rabbi Yehuda, it is any woman who is half-maidservant and half-free woman, whereas Rabbi Yishmael maintains that it is referring to a full-fledged maidservant. In relation to this dispute, the Sages taught in a baraita that deals with the verse: “And she was redeemed” (Leviticus 19:20): One might have thought that this means she was entirely redeemed. Therefore, the verse states: “And she was redeemed and not redeemed,” to teach that she was not entirely redeemed. If so, one might have thought that she was not redeemed at all. Therefore, the verse states: “And she was redeemed,” to teach that it is discussing a maidservant who was partially redeemed.

11 יא

הא כיצד פדויה ואינה פדויה חציה שפחה וחצייה בת חורין ומאורסת לעבד עברי דברי ר"ע רבי ישמעאל אומר בשפחה כנענית הכתוב מדבר ומאורסת לעבד עברי א"כ מה ת"ל והפדה לא נפדתה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם

The baraita asks: How so? The baraita answers: The verse is referring to a maidservant who was both redeemed and not redeemed, as half of her is a maidservant owned by one master who did not redeem her, and half of her is a free woman, as the partner who previously owned the other half of her has freed her, and she is betrothed to a Hebrew slave. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael says that the verse is speaking of a Canaanite maidservant who was not redeemed at all and who is engaged to a Hebrew slave. If so, why must the verse state: “And she was redeemed and not redeemed”? The repetition is not halakhically significant; it is there because the Torah spoke in the language of people, and the phrase simply means: And she was not at all redeemed.

12 יב

ר' אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כל עריות מפורשות לנו משוייר לנו חציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין ומאורסת לעבד עברי אחרים אומרים (ויקרא יט, כ) לא יומתו כי לא חופשה בשפחה כנענית הכתוב מדבר ומאורסת לעבד כנעני

Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: All those with whom relations are forbidden are enumerated for us explicitly in the Torah. The only case which is excluded for us from that generalization is a half-maidservant half-free woman who is betrothed to a Hebrew slave. And Aḥerim say that when it states: “They shall not be put to death because she was not free,” the verse is speaking about a Canaanite maidservant who is betrothed to a Canaanite slave.

13 יג

לר' ישמעאל בשלמא והפדה לא נפדתה כדקתני דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם אלא דקתני מאורסת לעבד עברי מנלן דכתיב כי לא חופשה מכלל דהוא חופש

The Gemara objects: According to Rabbi Yishmael, granted that the phrase “and she was redeemed and not redeemed” is referring simply to a Canaanite maidservant, as it is taught in the baraita: The Torah spoke in the language of people. But from where do we derive that which is taught, i.e., that she is betrothed specifically to a Hebrew slave? The Gemara explains that it is as it is written: “They shall not be put to death, because she was not free” (Leviticus 19:20). By inference, it may be concluded that he, the man to whom she is betrothed, is free. A Hebrew slave is not the property of his owner, but is merely obligated to serve him for a period of time.

14 יד

ר' אלעזר בן עזריה היינו ר"ע לר' ישמעאל קאמר לדידי בעלמא כוותיך סבירא ליה דדברה תורה כלשון בני אדם והכא שאני מכדי כתיב ליה קרא כי לא חופשה והפדה לא נפדתה ל"ל ש"מ להכי אתא לחציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין

The Gemara raises an objection: The opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya is identical to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Why was it stated separately in the baraita? The Gemara explains: It is because Rabbi Elazar is saying to Rabbi Yishmael: According to me, in general I hold in accordance with your opinion, that the Torah spoke in the language of people. But here it is different, since it is also written in the verse: “Because she was not free.” If so, why do I need the phrase “and she is redeemed and not redeemed”? Conclude from it that it comes for this purpose, to teach that the verse is referring to a woman who is half-maidservant half-free woman.

15 טו

לאחרים בשלמא והפדה לא נפדתה קסבר דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם אלא הא דעבד כנעני מנלן אמר קרא כי לא חופשה אם אינו ענין לדידה תנהו ענין לדידיה:

The Gemara further objects: According to Aḥerim, granted that the phrase “and she was redeemed and not redeemed” is referring to a Canaanite maidservant, as they too maintain that the Torah spoke in the language of people. But from where do we derive that she is betrothed to a Canaanite slave? The Gemara explains that the verse states: “Because she was not free,” and if it is not needed for the matter of her status as a maidservant, as it is already established that she is not free, apply it to the matter of his status as a slave.

16 טז

מתני׳ כל עריות אחד גדול ואחד קטן קטן פטור אחד ער ואחד ישן ישן פטור אחד שוגג ואחד מזיד שוגג בחטאת ומזיד בהכרת:

MISHNA: This mishna cites an additional difference between the status of an espoused maidservant and the status of forbidden relatives. In all cases of intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, if one is an adult and one is a minor, the minor is exempt; if one is awake and one is sleeping, the sleeping one is exempt; if one commits the act unwittingly and one does so intentionally, the one who did so unwittingly is liable to bring a sin offering and the one who did so intentionally is liable to be punished with karet. By contrast, in a case of intercourse with an espoused maidservant, the man is liable to bring a guilt offering only if the woman is flogged, and that is the case only if she was an adult, awake, and committed the sin intentionally.

17 יז

גמ׳ והכא חייב קטן א"ר יהודה הכי קתני כל עריות אחד גדול ואחד קטן קטן פטור וגדול חייב והכא גדול נמי פטור מ"ט דהא מקשיין אהדדי

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that in all instances of intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, a minor is exempt. The Gemara asks: And is that to say that here, in the case of an espoused maidservant, a minor is liable? But a minor is exempt from all liabilities in the Torah. Rav Yehuda said: This is what the mishna is teaching: In all cases of intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, if one is an adult and one is a minor, the minor is exempt and the adult is liable. But here, in the case of an espoused maidservant, the adult is also exempt. What is the reason? Their punishments are linked, as they are juxtaposed to each other in the verse: “There shall be an inspection…and he shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord” (Leviticus 19:20–21).

18 יח

כל עריות אחד ניעור ואחד ישן ישן פטור וכאן ישן נמי חייב א"ר יהודה אמר רב הכי קתני כל עריות אחד ניעור ואחד ישן ישן פטור וניעור חייב וכאן אפילו ניעור פטור מ"ט דמקשיין אהדדי

The mishna teaches: In all cases of intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, if one is awake and one is sleeping, the one who is sleeping is exempt. The Gemara asks: And is that to say that here the one who is sleeping is liable? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: This is what the mishna is teaching: In all cases of intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden, if one is awake and one is sleeping, the one who is sleeping is exempt and the one who is awake is liable. But here, even the one who is awake is exempt. What is the reason? Their punishments are linked, as they are juxtaposed to each other in the verse: “There shall be an inspection…and he shall bring his guilt offering unto the Lord” (Leviticus 19:20–21).

19 יט

תני תנא קמיה דרב ששת עשו גומר כמערה מתכוין כשאין מתכוין כדרכה כשלא כדרכה ניעור כישן

A tanna taught a baraita before Rav Sheshet: The Sages rendered one who completes the act of intercourse like one who engages in the initial stage of intercourse; one who commits the act intentionally like one who does so unintentionally; one who engages in intercourse in a typical manner like one who engages in intercourse in an atypical manner, i.e., anal intercourse; and one who is awake like one who is sleeping.

20 כ

א"ל מאי קאמרת אי בשפחה חרופה קתני אמאי עשו גומר כמערה גומר בשפחה חרופה מיחייב מערה לא מיחייב ותו מתכוין כשאינו מתכוין אי מכוונה מיחייבא אי לא לא מיחייבא

Rav Sheshet said to him: What are you saying? If you are teaching this with regard to an espoused maidservant, why would you say that they rendered one who completes the act like one who engages in the initial stage of intercourse? This is not the case, as one who completes the act with an espoused maidservant is liable, but one who engages in the initial stage of intercourse is not liable. And furthermore, they did not make one who commits the act intentionally like one who does so unintentionally: If she intended it, she is liable to receive lashes; if she did not intend it, she is not liable.

21 כא

וכדרכה כשלא כדרכה נמי כדרכה בשפחה חרופה מיחייב ושלא כדרכה לא מיחייב מאי טעמא (ויקרא יט, כ) שכבת זרע כתיב ומאי ניעור כישן

And they also did not render engaging in intercourse in a typical manner like doing so in an atypical manner: One who engages in intercourse in a typical manner with an espoused maidservant is liable, and one who does so in an atypical manner is not liable. What is the reason? It is written: “Lies carnally [shikhvat zera],” and the literal meaning of this term is referring to intercourse that can lead to procreation, as zera means seed. And finally, in what way can it be said that they rendered one who is awake like one who is sleeping? One who is sleeping is always exempt, as the circumstances are beyond his control. Consequently, it seems that the baraita cannot be referring to intercourse with an espoused maidservant.

22 כב

ואי בשאר עריות קא תני עשו גומר כמערה

And if you teach this baraita in relation to intercourse with all those others with whom relations are forbidden, how is it that they rendered one who completes the act like one who engages in the initial stage of intercourse?