Siman 129קכ״ט
1 א

בְּכָל הַקַּדִּישִׁים שֶׁאוֹמְרִים מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עַד יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, כּוֹפְלִין תֵּבַת לְעֵלָּא, הַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לְעֵלָּא לְעֵלָּא (וְלֹא בְּוָא"ו וּלְעֵלָּא) וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּקַדִּישׁ צְרִיכוֹת לִהְיוֹת שְׁמֹנֶה וְעֶשְׂרִים תֵּבוֹת וּבְכָל הַשָּׁנָה אוֹמְרִים, לְעֵלָא מִן כָּל בִּרְכָּתָא, אוֹמְרִים עַתָּה, לְעֵלָא מִכָּל בִּרְכָּתָא (שע"ת סִימָן נו).

In all the kaddish prayers recited from Rosh Hashanah through Yom Kippur, you should repeat the word le'eila [He is higher]; thus you should say le'eila le'eila, [He is exceedingly higher], (without adding the vav, ule'eila). Since the kaddish must contain twenty-eight words [from yehei shemei rabba until be'alema] and the entire year you say le'eila min kol birchasa [He is beyond any blessing], you say now le'eila le'eila mikol birchasa.

2 ב

יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כָּל תְּפִלּוֹת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בִּכְרִיעָה וּבִכְפִיפַת הָרֹאשׁ. וְאָמְנָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לִכְרוֹעַ בְּבִרְכַּת מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם וּבְמוֹדִים בִּתְחִלָּה וּבַסּוֹף, עַל כֵּן קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ צָרִיךְ לִזְקֹף אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְרַע בְּמִצְוַת חֲכָמֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה. גַּם אָסוּר לִכְרוֹעַ בִּתְחִלַּת בְּרָכָה וּבְסוֹף בְּרָכָה בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא תִקְּנוּ חֲכָמֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה. וטוֹב יוֹתֵר לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בָּאֵבָרִים זְקוּפִים וּבְלֵב כָּפוּף וּבִדְמָעוֹת. וּמַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּקוֹל רָם, יֵשׁ לְבַטֵּל, כִּי יֵשׁ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלַחַשׁ כְּמוֹ בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה. וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין לְהַגְבִּיהַּ קוֹלוֹ מְעַט, אֲבָל לֹא הַרְבֵּה. יִזָּהֵר לְדַקְדֵּק בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ הֵיטֵב, שֶׁלֹּא יְשַׁנֶּה שׁוּם נְקֻדָּה. וִיהַדֵּר אַחַר סִדּוּר אוֹ מַחֲזוֹר שֶׁהוּא מְדֻיָּק הֵיטֵב, לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מִתּוֹכוֹ.

Some people have the custom when praying on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur [to pray] every Shemoneh esrei with their bodies bent and their heads bowed. However, since you must bow at the berachah, Magein Avraham [Shield of Abraham] and Modim [we give thanks], at the beginning and at the end, therefore, before reaching these berachos it is necessary to straighten up in order to bow as required by our Sages of blessed memory. It is also forbidden to bow at the beginning and at the end of any berachah that was not instituted by our Sages of blessed memory. It is best [therefore] to pray while standing erect,1This halachah is not mentioned in Mishnah Berurah. but with a humble heart and with tears. The practice of praying in a loud voice should be abolished, because you should pray quietly as you do the entire year. Some authorities permit to raise the voice slightly, but not too much. You should be careful to pronounce your prayers correctly; not to change even one vowel. You should try to obtain a Siddur or Machzor that is carefully edited, from which to pray.

3 ג

כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, אוֹמְרִים בַּתְּפִלָּה, הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ, מֶלֶךְ אוֹהֵב צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט, חוּץ מִן רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה עַד לְאַחַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לוֹמַר, הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹש, הַמֶלֶךְ הַמִֹּשְפָט. לְפִי שֶׁבְּיָמִים הָאֵלּוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַרְאֶה מַלְכוּתוֹ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אִם טָעָה וְאָמַר הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְסֻפָּק אִם אָמַר הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ אוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹש, אִם נִזְכַּר תּוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר, אוֹמֵר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר לְרֹאשׁ, וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּהַמֶּלֶךְ הַמִּשְׁפָּט. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר, אֲזַי בְּהַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר לְרֹאשׁ הַתְּפִלָּה, (אֲפִלּוּ מִסְּפֵקָא), מִפְּנֵי שֶֹׁשָׁלֹשׁ הַבְּרָכוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת נֶחְשָׁבוֹת כְּאֶחָת (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּסִימָן יט סָעִיף ב). וַאֲפִלּוּ שְּׁלִיחַ הַצִבּוּר בַּחֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר לָרֹאֹשׁ, וּצְרִיכִין לוֹמַר קְדֻשָּׁה שֵׁנִית. אֲבָל בְּהַמֶּלֶךְ הַמִּשְׁפָּט, אֲפִלּוּ יָחִיד, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר אֲפִלּוּ לְאוֹתָהּ בְּרָכָה, כֵּיוַן שֶׁהִזְכִּיר תֵּבַת מֶלֶךְ בִּבְרָכָה זֹאת. בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה אִם טָעָה וְאָמַר, הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ, הַמֶּלֶךְ הַמִּשְׁפָּט, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר (קיח תקפב).

All through the year you say in the Shemoneh Esrei, hakeil hakadosh [the Almighty, the Holy One], and melech oheiv tzedakah umishpat [King Lover of righteousness and justice] except from Rosh Hashanah until after Yom Kippur, when you must say instead Hamelech hakadosh (the King, the Holy One) and Hamelech hamishpat (the King of Justice), because on these days the Holy One blessed is He manifests His dominion by judging the world. If, by mistake, you said Hakeil hakadosh, or if you are in doubt whether you said Hakeil hakadosh or Hamelech hakadosh; if you become aware of the error within the time needed to utter a short greeting, [Shalom Alecha Rebbe] you should say Hamelech hakadosh2This is so only if you did not yet begin the next berachah, but if you began the next berachah, even if it is still within toch kedei dibur, you must start from the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei. (Mishnah Berurah 582:7) and you need not start again from the beginning. The same law applies to Hamelech hamishpat. But, if you only became aware of it after the time needed for a short greeting, then, at Hamelech hakadosh you must repeat Shemoneh Esrei from the beginning, (even if in doubt),3However, if you are certain that you intended to say Hamelech hakadosh, and then much later you became doubtful if you actually said it or not, you need not repeat the Shemoneh Esrei. If, however, the doubt came into mind immediately after you completed Shemoneh Esrei, you must repeat the Shemoneh Esrei. (Ibid 114:38) If on Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur there is a doubt if you said Hamelech hakadosh, you need not repeat the Amidah, since you can assume that you said it as part of the special prayers of Yom Tov. (Ibid 582:4) because the first three berachos are considered as one (as is written in Chapter 19:2). Even the Chazzan during the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei, must repeat from the beginning [if he did not say Hamelech hakadosh], and the kedusha must be said again. But at Hamelech hamishpat, even an individual need not repeat, even that berachah, since he mentioned the word melech "King" in that berachah. During the entire year, if you said, by mistake, Hamelech hakadosh or Hamelech hamishpat, you need not repeat the Shemoneh Esrei.

4 ד

בְּשַׁבָּת עַרְבִית, בְּבִרְכַּת מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע מָגֵן אָבוֹת וְכוּ', אוֹמְרִים גַּם כֵּן בִּמְקוֹם הָאֵל הָקָּדוֹשׁ, הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ. וְאִם טָעָה שְּׁלִיחַ הַצִבּוּר וְאָמַר הָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ, אִם נִזְכַּר מִיָּד תּוֹךְ כְּדֵי דִּבּוּר, חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹש וְכוּ', אֲבָל לְאַחַר כָּךְ, אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר (פרי חדש ופרי מגדים).

In the Maariv service on Friday night, in the abridged form of the seven berachos, in Magein avos (Shield of our forefathers etc.) you also say, instead of Hakeil hakadosh the words Hamelech hakadosh. If the Chazzan made an error and said Hakeil hakadosh, then, if he becomes aware of it immediately, within the time span needed for a short greeting, he should say Hamelech hakadosh etc.; but if he becomes aware of it later he need not repeat the berachah.

5 ה

אִם שָׁכַח זָכְרֵנוּ, אוֹ מִי כָּמוֹךָ, וּכְתֹב, בְּסֵפֶר חַיִּים, וְלֹא נִזְכַּר עַד שֶׁאָמַר בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר אֶת הַשֵּׁם, גּוֹמֵר אֶת הַבְּרָכָה וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כַּסֵּדֶר, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר. וְכֵן אִם שָׁכַח לוֹמַר וּבְכֵן תֵּן פַּחְדְּךָ וְחָתַם הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ, וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָמַר עֲדַיִן רַק בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה', חוֹתֵם הַמֶּלֶךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ וְאוֹמֵר אַתָּה בְּחַרְתָּנוּ וְכוּ'.

If you forgot to say Zochreinu [Remember us], or Mi chamocha [Who is like You], or Uchsov [And inscribe], or Beseifer chayim [In the book of life] and you do not become aware of it until you said Baruch ata Hashem, [Blessed are You, Hashem], since you mentioned Hashem, you should conclude the berachah,4However, if you did not yet say the Hashem of the berachah, you may go back and say whatever you omitted. (Ibid 582:15) and continue the Shemoneh Esrei, and you need not repeat it. Similarly, if you forgot to say [the entire section beginning with] Uvechein tein pachdecha [And so, grant that Your awe] and you concluded the berachah, Hamelech hakadosh, even if you only said Baruch ata Hashem, you should conclude Hamelech hakadosh, and then say Ata vechartanu [You have chosen us] etc.

6 ו

בְּסִיּוּם הַשְּׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, יֵשׁ מְסַיְמִים עוֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁלוֹם, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָם מְשַׁנִּין אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים הַמְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ יִשְֹרָאֵל בַּשָּׁלוֹם. וְאַךְ בְּקַדִּישִׁים אוֹמְרִים עוֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו וְכוּ' (מטה אפרים).

At the conclusion of the Shemoneh esrei, some are accustomed to say Oseh ha shalom [He Who makes the peace], while others do not change, and say [the usual text], Hamevareich es amo Yisrael ba shalom, [Who blesses His people Israel with peace]. But in the kaddish, we say Ose ha shalom bimeromav [He Who makes the peace in His high heavens.]

7 ז

אִם חָל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה בְּשַׁבָּת, יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לְכוּ נְרַנְּנָה, כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר שַׁבָּת. וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּתְחִילִין, מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד. וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּתְחִילִין, מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַׁבָּת. וְכָל מָקוֹם יַחְזִיק מִנְהָגָיו.

If Rosh Hashanah occurs on Shabbos, in some communities they say Lechu neranenah [Come, let us sing], the same as on any other Shabbos; in other communities they begin with Mizmor leDovid [A psalm of David]; still in other communities they begin with Mizmor shir leyom haShabbos [A Psalm, a song for the Shabbos day]. Every community should follow its custom.

8 ח

לְאַחַר גְּמָר תְּפִלַּת מַעֲרִיב בְּלֵיל רִאשׁוֹן, נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר כָּל אֶחָד לַחֲבֵרוֹ, לְשָׁנָה טוֹבָה תִּכָּתֵב וְתֵחָתֵם. וְלִנְקֵבָה אוֹמְרִים, תִּכָּתֵבִי וְתֵחָתֵמִי. אֲבָל בַּיּוֹם, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר נִגְמְרָה הַכְּתִיבָה קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם, וּבְלֵיל שֵׁנִי, יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְאָמְרוֹ, כִּי לִפְעָמִים נִדּוֹנִין בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי (תקפב).

After the Maariv service on the first night of Rosh Hashanah, it is customary for people to wish each other Leshanah tovah tikaseiv veseichaseim [May you be inscribed and sealed for a good year], and to a woman [you use the feminine form] tikaseivi veseichaseimi. But you do not extend these wishes in the daytime,5Magein Avrohom says these wishes may be extended until midday. (Mishnah Berurah 582:25) because the writing has been finished before midday. On the second night, some have the custom of saying [Leshanah tovah] because sometimes we are judged on the second day.6This is the opinion of Taz, however, Eliyahu Rabbah argues against this and maintains that this blessing is not said on the second day. (Ibid)

9 ט

בִּסְעוּדַת הַלַּיְלָה, נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת סִימָנִים לְשָׁנָה טוֹבָה. טוֹבְלִין פְּרוּסַת הַמּוֹצִיא בִּדְבָשׁ. וְאַחַר שֶׁאָכַל כַּזַּיִת, אוֹמֵר, יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתְּחַדֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ שָׁנָה טוֹבָה וּמְתוּקָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ טוֹבֵל קְצָת תַּפּוּחַ מָתוֹק בִּדְבַשׁ וּמְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ וְאוֹכְלוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר גַּם כֵּן יְהִי רָצוֹן וְכוּ', וְנוֹהֲגִין לֶאֱכֹל רֹאשׁ שֶׁל בַּעַל חַי וְאוֹמְרִים, יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁנִּהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ. וְיֵשׁ לְהַדֵּר אַחַר רֹאשׁ כֶּבֶשׂ, שֶׁיִּהְיֶה גַּם כֵּן זֵכֶר לְאֵילוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק. וְגַם יְרָקוֹת אוֹכְלִים אוֹתָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן בַּמְּדִינָה הַהוּא שֵׁם הַמּוֹרֶה לְטוֹבָה. כְּמוֹ זֵכֶר לְאֵילוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק. גַם אוֹכְלִים אוֹתָן הַיְרָקוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם בַּמְּדִינָה הַהִיא שֵׁם הַמּוֹרֶה לְטוֹבָה, כְּמוֹ בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ מֶעהרֶען (גֶּזֶר), וְאוֹמְרִים יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁיִּרְבּוּ זְכֻיּוֹתֵינוּ. וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין גַּם כֵּן לְהַדֵּר לֶאֱכֹל דָּגִים, שֶׁיֵּשׁ רֶמֶז לִפְרוֹת וְלִרְבּוֹת כְּמוֹ הַדָגִים. וְאֵין לְבַשֵּׁל אוֹתָם בְּחֹמֶץ, כִּי אֵין אוֹכְלִים דְּבָרִים חֲמוּצִים אוֹ מְרִירִים בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. וְאוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר שָׁמֵן וְכָל מִינֵי מְתִיקָה. גַּם נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל אֱגוֹזִים וְלוּזִים, כִּי אֱגוֹז בְּגִמַטְרִיָּא ח"ט, וְגַם מַרְבִּים כִּיחָה וְנִיעָה הַמְבַטְּלִים אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה (תקפג). וְיֵשׁ לִלְמֹד עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן תּוֹרָה. וְנוֹהֲגִין קְצָת לִלְמֹד מִשְׁנָיוֹת מַסֶּכֶת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה (חיי"א).

At the evening meal it is customary to prepare symbolic dishes [as auspicious omens] for a good year: you dip the piece of challah of Hamotzi in honey, and after eating a kazayis of challah7Mishnah Berurah does not mention kazayas, but only that the prayer should be said after you eat some of the bread. (Ibid 583:4) He does rule however that you should not speak until you have eaten a kazayis. you should say: Yehi ratzon shetechadeish aleinu8You should say: יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְפָנֶיךָ ה׳ אֱלֹּקַי וֵאלֹּקֵי אֲבוֹתַי שֶׁתְּחַדֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ שָׁנָה טוֹבָה וּמְתוּקָה “May it be Your will Almighty, my G-d, and G-d of my fathers” etc. (Ibid 583:21) shanah tovah umesukah [May it be Your will to renew for us a good and sweet year]. After this you should dip a piece of apple in honey, say the berachah, Borei peri ha'eitz, and eat it. Then you say again Yehi ratzon etc. It is customary to eat the head of an animal and say Yehi ratzon shenih'yeh lerosh [May it be Your will] that we will be heads (leaders). You should try to obtain the head of a sheep, which will also serve as a remembrance of the ram of Isaac. You should also eat vegetables the names of which, in the language of your country, allude to good things,9You should certainly avoid any semblance of anger during these days. You should be of good cheer and have full confidence in the Almighty’s acceptance of your repentance and good deeds. (Ibid 583:5) such as in our country, carrots (mehren) [mehren means to increase] and you should say Yehi ratzon sheyirbu zechuyoseinu [May it be Your will that our merits increase.] Some people have the custom to eat an elaborate fish course, symbolizing the blessing of fertility like the fish. The fish should not be cooked in vinegar because we must not eat sour or bitter foods on Rosh Hashanah. You should eat choice meats and all kinds of sweets. It is also customary not to eat nuts and almonds,10Mishnah Berurah quotes form Maaseh Rav that the Vilna Gaon did not eat grapes on Rosh Hashanah. (Ibid 600:4) because the numerical value of אֶגוֹז egoz (nut) is 17, the same as חֵט cheit, which means sin. Also, nuts increase phlegm and mucus which interferes with praying. It is proper to study Torah during the meal. Some have the custom of studying the Mishnah, Maseches Rosh Hashanah.

10 י

נָכוֹן שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי לֵילוֹת דְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת. אַךְ אִם הוּא לֵיל טְבִילָתָהּ, אַל יְבַטֵּל עוֹנָתָהּ. וְיִטְבֹּל אֶת עַצְמוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ (תקפא).

It is proper to abstain from marital relations during the two nights of Rosh Hashanah even if [the first night] occurs on Shabbos. But if it is the night of her immersion in the mikvah, you should not withold her conjugal rights, and you should immerse yourself in the mikvah, in the morning.

11 יא

בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ חָטָאנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, אֵין לְהַכּוֹת בְּאֶגְרוֹף עַל הֶחָזֶה כְּמוֹ בַּחֹל וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, כִּי אֵין אוֹמְרִים וִדּוּי בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב. אֶלָּא יְכַוֵּן הַפֵּרוּשׁ, אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ חָטָאנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, כְּלוֹמַר, אֲבוֹתֵינוּ חָטְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ שֶׁעָבְדוּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אֲבָל אֲנַחְנוּ אֵין לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּא אָתָּה. לָכֵן אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ, עֲשֵׂה עִמָּנוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ (תקפד).

On Rosh Hashanah, when you say Avinu malkeinu chatanu lefanecha [Our Father, our King, we have sinned before You] you should not beat your breast as on weekdays and on Yom Kippur, because we do not say vidui —confession, on Rosh Hashanah, which is a Yom Tov. You should have this interpretation in mind [when saying Avinu malkeinu]: Our Father, our King, we have sinned before You, meaning, our forefathers sinned before You, because they worshiped idols, but as for us, we have no King but You. Therefore, our Father, our King, deal [kindly] with us for Your Name's sake.

12 יב

בִּשְׁעַת הוֹצָאַת סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, נוֹהֲגִין לוֹמַר שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מִדּוֹת, וְיֵשׁ לְהַתְחִיל מִן וַיַּעֲבֹר. וְיֹּאמַר, וַיַּעֲבֹר ה' עַל פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא, ה', ה' וְגוֹ' (עַיֵּן מ"א סִימָן תכב וְעַיֵּן בנ"א כלל ה סִימָן ב). וּבְשַׁבָּת, יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מִדּוֹת, וְלֹא רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם.

When the Seifer Torah is removed from the Ark, it is customary to recite the Thirteen Attributes. You should begin with Vaya'avor [and He passed by], and say Vaya'avor Hashem al panav vayikra11This is not mentioned in Mishnah Berurah nor is it the custom in many communities. [Hashem passed by before him and He proclaimed] Hashem, Hashem, etc. On Shabbos, in some communities they say neither the Thirteen Attributes nor Ribbono shel olam [Master of the Universe].

13 יג

שִׁעוּר הַתְּקִיעוֹת, לְכַתְּחִלָּה צְרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת כָּךְ, הַתְּרוּעָה הִיא ט' כֹּחוֹת קְצָרִים. וְהַשְׁבָרִים יַעֲשֶׂה גּ' שְׁבָרִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְכָל שֶׁבֶר יְהֵא אָרוֹךְ כְּמוֹ גּ' כֹּחוֹת קְצָרִים מִן הַתְּרוּעָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁגַּם הַשְּׁבָרִים הֵם כְּמוֹ ט' כֹּחוֹת. וְיִזָּהֵר מְאֹד שֶׁלֹּא לְהַאֲרִיךְ בִּשְּׁבָרִים עַד שֶׁיְהֵא כָּל שֶׁבֶר כְּמוֹ ט' כֹּחוֹת. כִּי בָזֶה, אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא. וְהַתְּקִיעוֹת הֵמָּה הֲבָרוֹת פְּשׁוּטוֹת. וּבְסֵדֶר תְּקִיעָה שְׁבָרִים תְּרוּעָה תְּקִיעָה, תְּהֵא כָּל תְּקִיעָה, אֲרֻכָּה כְּמוֹ הַשְּׁבָרִים עִם הַתְּרוּעָה, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּמוֹ ח"י כֹּחוֹת. וּבְסֵדֶר תְּקִיעָה שְׁבָרִים תְּקִיעָה, תְּהֵא כָּל תְּקִיעָה, אֲרֻכָּה כְּמוֹ הַשְּׁבָרִים, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּמוֹ ט' כֹּחוֹת. וְכֵן בְּסֵדֶר תְּקִיעָה תְּרוּעָה תְּקִיעָה. בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁקֹּדֶם תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף, יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַשְּׁבָרִים עִם הַתְּרוּעָה בִּנְשִׁימָה אֶחָת. וְלָכֵן הַמַּקְרֶא יַקְרֶא בְּפַעַם אַחַת שְׁבָרִים תְּרוּעָה. וּבַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ חֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹתָם בִּשְׁתֵּי נְשִׁימוֹת. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם אֶלָּא יִהְיוּ תְּכוּפִים זֶה לָזֶה, וְהַמַקְרֶא יַקְרֶא גַּם כֵּן שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּפַעַם אֶחָת (תקצ).

The lengths of the various shofar tones, initially must be as follows: the Teruah consists of nine short sounds. The Shevarim should be blown as three consecutive sounds, each to be as long as three short Teruah sounds, so that the Shevarim is also equal to nine sounds. You should be very careful not to draw out the Shevarim until each [of the three] Shevarim sounds equals nine Teruah sounds, for in that case, even ex post facto, after it is already done, you have not fulfilled your duty. The Tekios are simple blasts. In the order of Tekiah, Shevarim, Teruah, Tekiah, each Tekiah should be as long as the Shevarim and the Teruah, combined, which is as long as eighteen sounds.12Mishnah Berurah says that it should be a bit longer than eighteen sounds. (Ibid 590:14) In the order of Tekiah, Shevarim, Tekiah, the sound of each Tekiah should be as long as the Shevarim, which is as long as nine sounds;13Mishnah Berurah says that it should be a bit longer than nine sounds. (Ibid 590:13) this is also true for the order of Tekiah, Teruah, Tekiah. In the sounding of the shofar before the Musaf service the Shevarim and the Teruah should be blown in one breath. Therefore, the prompter should call them at the same time, Shevarim-Teruah. In the blowing of the shofar during the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei, they should be sounded in two breaths. Nevertheless, there should be no pause between them, but they should be sounded in immediate succession, and the prompter should also call them at the same time.

14 יד

כְּשֶׁהַתּוֹקֵעַ אוֹמֵר אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת, אַל יֹאמְרוּ הַקָּהָל, בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ו סָעִיף ה), אַךְ יִשְׁמְעוּ הֵיטֵב אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּל בְּרָכָה יֹאמְרוּ בְּכַוָּנָה אָמֵן. וְאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק מִכָּאן עַד לְאַחַר כָּל הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבַּחֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה (קכד תקצב). וְעַל כֵּן אֵין לַשַּׁמָּשׁ לְהַכְרִיז, שְׁתִיקָה יָפָה בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה, אַף שֶׁהוּא נוֹהֵג כֵּן בְּפַעַם אַחֶרֶת (מטה אפרים).

When the one blowing the shofar recites the berachos, the congregation should not respond Baruch hu uvaruch shemo [Blessed is He and blessed is His Name] (see chapter 6:8, above), but they should listen attentively to the berachos and after each berachah they should respond Amein, with concentration. It is forbidden to make any interruption from that point until after all the Tekios that are blown during the repetition of the Shemoneh Eesrei.14Between the tekios blown before Shemoneh Esrei, and those blown during the repetition of Shemoneh Esrei, it is permitted to interrupt if it concerns either the prayers or the tekios. (Ibid 592:12) Therefore, the Shammos should not announce: "Silence please during the services!" even if he usually does so at other times.

15 טו

נוֹהֲגִין הָעוֹלָם לוֹמַר בֵּין הַסְּדָרִים יְהִי רָצוֹן וְכוּ', כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּדְפַּס בַּמַּחֲזוֹרִים. וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר מְאֹד, שֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹצִיא בַּפֶּה שְׁמוֹת הַמַּלְאָכִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים שָׁם. וּבְהַרְבֵּה קְהִלּוֹת אֵין אוֹמְרִים כְּלָל אֶת הַיְהִי רָצוֹן, וְכֵן נָכוֹן יוֹתֵר. וְהָעִקָּר הוּא לְהִתְעוֹרֵר אָז בִּתְשׁוּבָה בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם (תקצב תקפד ובסד"ה) וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב הָרַמְבַּ"ם זִכְרוֹנוֹ לִבְרָכָה (בְּהִלְכוֹת תְּשׁוּבָה פֶּרֶק ג הֲלָכָה ד), וְזֶה לְשׁוֹנוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב, רֶמֶז יֵשׁ בָּהּ, כְּלוֹמַר, עוּרוּ יְשֵׁנִים מִשְּׁנַתְכֶם, וְנִרְדָּמִים הָקִיצוּ מִתַּרְדֵּמַתְכֶם, וְחַפְּשׂוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיכֶם, וְחִזְרוּ בִּתְשׁוּבָה, וְזִכְרוּ בּוֹרְאֲכֶם אֵלּוּ הַשּׁוֹכְחִים אֶת הָאֱמֶת בְהַבְלֵי הַזְּמָן וְשׁוֹגִים כָּל שְׁנָתָם בְּהֶבֶל וָרִיק אֲשֶׁר לֹא יוֹעִיל וְלֹא יַצִּיל, הַבִּיטוּ לְנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, וְהֵטִיבוּ דַּרְכְּיכֶם וּמַעַלְלֵיכֶם. יַעֲזֹב כָּל אֶחָד מִכֶּם דַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא טוֹבָה וְכוּ', עַד כָּאן לְשׁוֹנוֹ.

People have the custom to recite Yehi ratzon [May it be the will] etc., between the three sets of shofar tones, as it is printed in the Machzor. You should be very careful not to articulate the names of the angels mentioned there. In many communities the Yehi ratzon is omitted entirely, and this is preferable. The main [reason for blowing the shofar] is to stir the people to wholehearted repentance. The Rambam, of blessed memory wrote, (Laws of Repentance 3:4) and these are his words: "Although the blowing of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, is ordained by Scriptural verse, it has an underlying message, as if the shofar were telling us, 'Wake up from your sleep, you slumberers, and you who are soundly asleep, awake from your deep sleep, scrutinize your deeds and repent, and remember your Creator. You, who are oblivious of the truth in your futile pursuit of transitory values, and engrossed all your years in the pursuit of vain and hollow things that are useless and will not save you, — look at the state of your souls, and improve your ways and your deeds. Let each of you abandon his evil ways and his thoughts which are not good.'"

16 טז

בַּחֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה, כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר שְּׁלִיחַ הַצִבּוּר וַאֲנַחְנוּ כּוֹרְעִים, נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁגַם הַצִּבּוּר אוֹמְרִים עִמּוֹ, וְגַם כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים, אֲבָל אֵין נוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם, רַק בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּסֵדֶר הָעֲבוֹדָה. וְגַם שְּׁלִיחַ הַצִבּוּר כּוֹרֵעַ עַל בִּרְכָּיו, אֲבָל אָסוּר לַעֲקֹר מִמְּקוֹמוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַתְּפִלָּה. וְלָכֵן נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד קְצָת רָחוֹק מִן הָעַמּוּד, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לִכְרֹעַ עַל בִּרְכָּיו בְּלִי עֲקִירָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ, וְהָעוֹמְדִים אֶצְלוֹ מְסַיְּעִים אוֹתוֹ לַעֲמוֹד, שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲקֹר רַגְלָיו. הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ חֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה, אֵין לִשְּׁלִיחַ הַצִבּוּר לִתְקֹעַ, אֶלָּא אִם הוּא בָּטוּחַ שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְבַּלְבֵּל דַּעְתּוֹ עַל יְדֵי כָּךְ (קלה תקפה תרכא).

During the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei when the Chazzan recites [the prayer] Va'anachnu kore'im [But we bow], it is customary for the congregation to say it along with him, and the people also bow and prostrate themselves, but they do not fall on their faces,15It is our custom, however, that the people in the congregation do fall on their faces even on Rosh Hashanah. We must be careful to place a mat, towel or another object on the floor because it is forbidden to fall on our faces directly on the floor. (See Shaarei Tzion 131:44; Mishnah Berurah 621:14; Ibid 131:40) except on Yom Kippur, during the Avodah [the service of the Kohein gadol.] The Chazzan also bows, but since he is forbidden to move from his place during the Shemoneh Esrei; therefore, he stands slightly removed from the amud [Chazzan's desk] so that he can fall to his knees without moving from his place, and those who stand near him help him stand up so that he will not have to move his feet. The Tekios during the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei should not be blown by the Chazzan unless he is sure that he will not be confused [in his prayers]16In our time, since the Chazzan uses the Siddur or Machzor, he is considered as one who is sure not to become confused in his prayers. (Ibid 585:14) as a result of it.

17 יז

בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ חֲזָרַת הַתְּפִלָּה, יֵשׁ מִנְהָגִים שוֹנִים כַּמָּה תּוֹקְעִין, וְכָל מָקוֹם יַחְזִיק מִנְהָגוֹ. וְכֵן בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה, יֵשׁ מִנְהָגִים שׁוֹנִים. וּלְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמְרוּ כָּל הַתְּקִיעוֹת כְּפִי מִנְהַג הַמָּקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְהַצְנִיעַ אֶת הַשּׁוֹפָר וְלֹא יִתְקְעוּ יוֹתֵר. אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִהְיוֹת תּוֹקֵעַ בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי, אֵין לוֹ לִתְקֹעַ בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן לְהִתְלַמֵּד (תקצב תקצו).

Regarding the Tekios in the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei, there are different customs regarding the number of sounds to be blown. Each community should maintain its custom. Regarding the Tekios at the conclusion of the prayers, there are also different customs.17These tekios are blown in order to complete a hundred sounds. After the conclusion of all the Tekios, according to the local custom, the shofar should be hidden, and it should not be blown any more. Even a person wishing to officiate as tokei'a on the second day of Rosh Hashanah may not blow it on the first day in order to practice.

18 יח

אִם יֵשׁ מִילָה, מָלִין לְאַחַר הַהַפְטָרָה קֹדֶם תְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר. וְהָרֶמֶז, זְכֹר בְּרִית אַבְרָהָם (זוֹ מִילָה). וַעֲקֵדַת יִצְחָק (זֶה שׁוֹפָּר). וּבְשַׁבָּת, מָלִין אַחַר אַשְׁרֵי. וְאִם צְרִיכִין לָמוּל אֵצֶל הַיּוֹלֶדֶת, מָלִין אַחַר הַיְצִיאָה מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת.

If a bris is to be held in the synagogue it should be performed after the reading of the haftarah, before the blowing of the shofar. An allusion [to this sequence can be found in the Selichos prayer] "Remember the covenant with Abraham (this refers to bris milah) and the binding of Isaac" (this alludes to the shofar). On Shabbos the bris is performed after Ashrei. If the bris must be performed at the house of the infant's mother, it should be held after leaving the synagogue.

19 יט

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא בִּתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר וְצָרִיךְ לִתְקֹעַ בִּשְׁבִיל אֲחֵרִים, יָכוֹל גַּם כֵּן לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁצָרִיךְ לָצֵאת, הוּא יְבָרֵךְ אֶת הָבְּרָכוֹת. וְהַתּוֹקֵעַ בִּשְׁבִיל נָשִׁים, אִם הוּא כְּבָר יָצָא, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת, אֶלָּא הָאִשָּׁה תְּבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּמִצַּד הַדִּין נָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת מִתְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמָן גְּרָמָהּ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּמִי שֶׁיָּצָא, לֹא יִתְקַע כְּלָל בִּשְׁבִיל נָשִׁים. וְהָרוֹצֶה לִתְקֹעַ בִּשְׁבִיל נָשִׁים, יִתְקַע קֹדֶם שֶׁיִשְׁמַע הַתְּקִיעוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְנֶסֶת, וִיבָרֵךְ עַל הַתְּקִיעוֹת וִיכַוֵּן שֶׁיֵּצֵּא בָּהֶן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה זֶה בְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל הַיּוֹם, כִּי אָז אֵין לִתְקֹעַ בִּיחִידוּת, אוֹ שֶׁיִּתְקַע לָהֶן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁתּוֹקְעִין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אוֹ לְאַחַר הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁיְכַוֵּן שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בִּתְקִיעוֹת אֵלּוּ, אֶלָּא בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁהוּא יִתְקַע לִפְנֵי הָאִשָּׁה וִיבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן. וְאַף עַל גַּב שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ אַחַר כָּךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מוּסָף וְלִשְׁמֹעַ הַתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּפִלָּה, אֵין הַהֶפְסֵק מַצְרִיכוֹ לְבָרֵךְ שֵׁנִית, דְּכֻלְהוּ תְּקִיעוֹת חֲדָא מִצְוָה נִינְהוּ. וְאִם הָאִשָּׁה חֲלוּשָׁה וּצְרִיכָה לֶאֱכוֹל קֹדֶם הַתְּקִיעוֹת, יְכוֹלָה לֶאֱכוֹל (תקפה תקפט).

If you already fulfilled your obligation of blowing the shofar, and you must blow it for other people, you may also say the berachos. Nevertheless, it is best, that the person who has to fulfill his obligation [by virtue of listening to you blowing the shofar], should say the berachos himself. If you blow shofar for women, then, if you already fulfilled your obligation, you should not say the berachos, but the women should say the berachos, because, according to the law, women are exempt from blowing the shofar, since it is a positive precept dependent on a particular time. Other authorities say that a person who has already fulfilled his duty should not blow the shofar at all for women.18Shulchan Aruch (589:6) says that it is permitted to blow shofar for women even if you have already fulfilled your obligations. Mishnah Berurah does not even mention any authority that says it is not permitted. If you wish to blow the shofar for women you should do it before hearing the Tekios at the synagogue; and you should say the berachos on the Tekios with the intention of fulfilling your obligation thereby, but you should not do it during the first three hours of the day, for at that time you may not blow the shofar privately. You should either blow the shofar for the women at the time it is blown in the synagogue or after that; but you should have in mind [when you are in the synagogue] not to fulfill your duty with these Tekios but only with the Tekios which you will sound for the women, and [on these Tekios] you should say the berachos. Although you will go to the synagogue afterwards to pray Musaf, and hear the Tekios sounded during the Shemoneh Esrei, the interruption does not require you to repeat the berachos, since all the Tekios constitute one mitzvah. If a woman feels weak and needs to eat before the Tekios, she is permitted to eat.

20 כ

כְּשֶׁיּוֹצְאִין מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, יֵשׁ לָלֶכֶת בְּשׁוּבָה וָנַחַת, שָׂמֵחַ וְטוֹב לֵב, בְבִטָּחוֹן כִּי שָׁמַע ה' בְּקוֹל תְּפִלָּתֵנוּ וּתְקִיעוֹתֵינוּ בְּרַחֲמִים, וְאוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין כְּיַד ה' הַטּוֹבָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה, וּתְהֵא יִרְאַת ה' עַל פָּנָיו. וְיֵשׁ לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן. לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אֵין לִישֹׁן, אֶלָּא הוֹלְכִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאוֹמְרִים תְּהִלִּים בְּצִבּוּר עַד תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה. וְאַךְ מִי שֶׁרֹאשׁוֹ כָּבֵד עָלָיו, יָכוֹל לִישוֹן מְעַט קֹדֶם שֶׁיֵלֵךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.

When leaving the synagogue, we should walk unhurried and relaxed, happy and cheerful, confident that God has heard our prayers and the sounds of the shofar with compassion. You should eat and drink [in generous measure] enjoying the bountiful gifts of God. You should, nevertheless, take care not to overeat and the fear of God should be upon you. It is proper to study Torah at the table. After saying Birkas Hamazon you should not go to sleep,19Ari Z’l says that it is permitted to nap after midday. He adds that one who sits idle, not engaged in Torah study or reciting Psalms, is considered as one who is asleep. (Mishnah Berurah 583:9) but rather go to the synagogue and recite Psalms with the congregation20If possible, you should study Torah. It is also customary, to recite the entire book of Psalms. (Ibid) until the Minchah service. Only a person who has a headache may sleep a little before going to the synagogue.

21 כא

לְאַחַר תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה, הוֹלְכִין אֶל הַנָּהָר (לִזְכֹּר זְכוּת הָעֲקֵדָה, דְּאִיתָא בַּמִּדְרָשׁ כְּשֶׁהָלַךְ אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עִם יִצְחַק בְּנוֹ לָעֲקֵדָה, עָשָׂה הַשָּׂטָן אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְּמוֹ נָהָר לְעַכְּבוֹ, וְעָבַר אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, בַּנָּהָר עַד צַוָּארוֹ וְאָמַר, הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי אֱלֹהִים כִּי בָאוּ מַיִם עַד נָפֶשׁ. וְעוֹד יֵשׁ טַעַם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָנוּ מַמְלִיכִין הַיּוֹם אֶת הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָלֵינוּ, וְהַדֶּרֶךְ הוּא לִמְשֹׁחַ אֶת הַמְּלָכִים אֵצֶל הַנָּהָר, לִרֶמֶז שֶׁתִּמָּשֵׁךְ מַלְכוּתָם) וְטוֹב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִחוּץ לָעִיר וְיֶשׁ בּוֹ דָּגִּים (לְזֵכֶר שֶׁאָנוּ מְשׁוּלִים כְּדָגִים חַיִּים הַלָּלוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱחָזִים בַּמְּצוֹדָה, כָּךְ אָנוּ נֶאֱחָזִים בִּמְצוּדַת הַמָּוֶת וְהַדִּין, וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ נְהַרְהֵר יוֹתֵר בִּתְשׁוּבָה. עוֹד טַעַם, סִימָן שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁלֹט בָּנוּ עַיִן רָעָה כְּמוֹ בְּדָגִים, וְנִפְרֶה וְנִרְבֶּה כְּדָגִים. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, הַטַּעַם, כִּי לְדָגִים אֵין גְּבִינִים [עַפְעַפַּיִם] וְעֵינֵיהֶם תָּמִיד פְּתוּחוֹת, כְּדֵי לְהִתְעוֹרֵר עֵינָא פְּקִיחָא דִּלְעֵילָא) וְאִם אֵין שָׁם נָהָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דָּגִּים, הוֹלְכִין לְנָהָר אַחֵר אוֹ לִבְאֵר, וְאוֹמְרִים הַפְּסוּקִים מִי אֵל כָּמוֹךָ וְכוּ' כַּכָּתוּב בַּסִּדּוּרִים בְּסֵדֶר תַּשְׁלִיךְ. וּמְנַעֲרִים שׁוּלֵי הַבְּגָדִים, וְהוּא לְרֶמֶז בְּעָלְמָא, לִתֵּן לֵב לְהַשְׁלִיךְ אֶת הַחֲטָאִים וּלְחַפֵּשׂ וְלַחֲקֹר דְּרָכָיו מֵהַיּוֹם וָהָלְאָה, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּגָדָיו לְבָנִים וּנְקִיִּים מִכָּל חֵטְא. אִם חָל יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן בַּשַׁבָּת הוֹלְכִין בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי (תקפג ובסידור).

After the Minchah service21This should be done before sunset. (Ibid) you should go to a river [or stream] (to recall the merit of the Akeidah, [the binding of Yitzchak] for the Midrash relates that when our Father Avraham went to the Akeidah with his son Yitzchak, Satan transformed himself into a river to deter him. But our Father Avraham, peace be upon him, walked into the river until [the water reached] his neck and said, "Deliver me, O God, for the waters have reached until my soul." (Psalm 69:2) There is another reason [for this custom]; for on this day we proclaim the kingship of the Holy One, blessed is He, over us, and it was the custom to anoint kings near a river bank as a sign that their kingdom may endure without end.)22Maseches Horayos 12a. It is preferable that [this river] should be outside the city limits and it should contain fish (as a reminder that we are compared to living fish who are caught in a net. We too, are caught in the net of death and judgment, and as a result [we will be inclined] to think more of repenting. Another reason is to symbolize that the evil eye shall have no power over us, just as [it has no power] over fish, and that we may be fruitful and multiply as the fish. Others say the reason is that fish have no eyelids, and their eyes are always open, the purpose is thus to arouse the compassion of the All-Seeing Eye above us.) But if there is no river that contains fish you may go to any river, or to a well, and you should recite the verses, Mi keil kamocha [Who, Almighty, is like you] etc. as it is written in the prayer books in the text of Tashlich. You should then shake the ends of your clothes, symbolizing your resolve to cast away your sins, and to examine and scrutinize your ways, from now on; so that your "clothes" will be white and innocent of all sin. If the first day of Rosh Hashanah is on Shabbos you go [to the stream for Tashlich] on the second day.

22 כב

לְאַחַר שֶׁחוֹזְרִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן עַרְבִית, יִזָּהֵר מֵחֶבְרַת מְרֵעִים, שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹא חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, לִדְבָרִים בְּטֵלִים. אַךְ יַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה אוֹ בַּתְהִלִּים אוֹ בְּסִפְרֵי מוּסָר, כִּי קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדוֹנֵנוּ.

After returning to the synagogue, if it is not yet time for Maariv you should avoid the company of friends in order not to engage, Heaven forbid, in idle talk. But you should study Torah or recite Psalms or study books on ethics, because this is a holy day unto our Master.

23 כג

שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, כְּיוֹם אֶחָד הֵן חֲשׁוּבִים, וּקְדֻשָּׁה אַחַת הֵן (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִמָן צט סָעִיף ב) וְלָכֵן נֶחְלְקוּ הַפּוֹסְקִים, אִם לְבָרֵךְ בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי בַּקִּדּוּשׁ וְכֵן בְּהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת וְכֵן בַּתְּקִיעוֹת שֶׁל הַיּוֹם שֵּׁנִי שֶׁהֶחֱיָּנוּ אוֹ לֹא, כִּי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, כֵּיוָן דִּקְדֻשָּׁה אַחַת הֵן וּכְבָר בֵּרַךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָּנוּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עוֹד בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְעַל כֵּן נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁבְּקִדּוּשׁ לֵיל שֵׁנִי, מַנִּיחִין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן פְּרִי חָדָֹש, שֶׁתְּהֵא בִרְכַּת שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ שֶׁבַּקִּדּוּשׁ גַּם עַל הַפְּרִי, אוֹ שֶׁלּוֹבֵשׁ בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב, וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ בַּקִּדּוּשׁ (כִּי אָנוּ תּוֹפְסִין הָעִקָּר כְּהַפּוֹסְקִים שֶׁאוֹמְרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ) וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה בְּהַדְלָקַת הַנֵּרוֹת בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי (אִם נוֹהֶגֶת לְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ אֲזַי עַל כָּל פָּנִים) אִם אֶפְשָׁר, תִּלְבַּשׁ בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ אוֹ תַנִּיחַ פְּרִי חָדָשׁ, שֶׁתְּהֵא בִּרְכַּת שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ גַּם עַל זֶה. וְאִם אֵין לָהּ, אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב. וְכֵן הַתּוֹקֵעַ בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי, אִם אֶפְשָׁר, יֵשׁ לוֹ לִלְבּוֹשׁ בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ. וְאִם חָל יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן בַּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ, דְּהָא עֲדַיִן לֹא בֵּרְכוּ שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ עַל הַשּׁוֹפָר (סִימָן תר).

The two days of Rosh Hashanah are considered as one long day, and as one [extended period of] holiness (see Chapter 99:2 above). Therefore, the authorities differ whether in the Kiddush of the second night, or when lighting candles, or when blowing the shofar on the second day, you should say the berachah Shehecheyanu or not. For some authorities say, since both days are one [extended period of] holiness and you already said Shehecheyanu on the first day, you need not say it again on the second day. Therefore, it is the custom, when you recite the Kiddush on the second night, that a new fruit is placed on the table, in order that the Shehecheyanu in the Kiddush should also apply to the fruit; You might also put on a new garment. If you have neither [a new fruit nor a new suit], it does not matter; you should still say Shehecheyanu in the Kiddush, for the Halachah is decided according to the authorities who say that we must say Shehecheyanu on the second night. A woman, too, when lighting the candles on the second night, (if she follows the custom of saying Shehecheyanu,)23See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 103:4 should nevertheless, put on a new garment if possible, or place a new fruit [on the table], so that the Shehecheyanu should apply also to these. But if she has neither of these it does not matter; she should still say Shehecheyanu. Also the person who blows the shofar on the second day should, if possible, put on a new garment. However, if the first day occurs on Shabbos there is no need for this, for he has not yet said Shehecheyanu on the shofar.