Siman 9ט׳
1 א

גְּדוֹלָה מִצְוַת צִיצִית, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכָּתוּב שְׁקָלָהּ וְתָלָה בָהּ כָּל הַמִצְוֹת כֻּלָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וּרְאִיתֶם אוֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל מִצְוַת ה'. צִיצִית בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא ת"ר (עַיֵּן טוּר). שְׁמוֹנָה חוּטִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה קְשָׁרִים, הֲרֵי תַּרְיַ"ג. לָכֵן צָרִיךְ כָּל אִישׁ לִהְיוֹת נִזְהָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ טַלִּית קָטָן שֶׁיְּהֵא מְלֻבָּשׁ בּוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם. וְיִהְיֶה שֶׁל צֶמֶר רְחֵלִים לָבָן וְגָדוֹל כַּשִּׁעוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ שְׁלשָׁה רִבְעֵי אַמָּה בָּאֹרֶךְ וַחֲצִי אַמָּה בָּרֹחַב. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה. וְאוֹתָם שֶׁעוֹשִׂים אֶת הַטַּלִּית קָטָן תָּפוּר מִן הַצְּדָדִים, צְרִיכִים לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִכָּל צַד רֹב הַנִּרְאֶה לָעֵינַיִם, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי קְרָסִים לֹא יְחֻבָּר. גַּם יְהֵא כָל אָדָם נִזְהָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ טַלִּית גָּדוֹל בְּצִיצִית שֶיִּתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ בִּשְׁעַת תְּפִלָּה. וִיהַדֵּר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ טַלִּית נָאֶה. וְכֵן כָּל הַמִצְוֹת צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתָן בְּהִדּוּר בְּכֹל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר, דִּכְתִיב, זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ, וְדָרְשֵׁינָן, הִתְנָאֶה לְפָנָיו בַּמִצְוֹת וִידַקְדֵק לִקְנוֹת צִיצִית מֵאִישׁ נֶאֱמָן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָטוּחַ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ בִטְוִיָּה וּבִשְׁזִירָה בְּפֵרוּשׁ לִשְׁמָן וּכְמִצְוָתָן. וְתִהְיֶינָה אֲרֻכּוֹת כַּשִּׁעוּר (סִימָן טו כ"ד).

The mitzvah of tzitzis is very great for according to the Scriptures all the mitzvos depend on it, as it is said: "And you will look upon it and you will remember all the mitzvos of Hashem."1Numbers 15:39. The numerical value of the word, tzitzis equals 600, and the eight fringes and five knots make a total of 613.2This is the number of commandments contained in the Torah. Therefore every Jew should endeavor to have a tallis katan3This is a four-cornered garment with fringes on all four corners, that is usually worn under the shirt or the jacket. which he should wear the entire day. It should be [made] of white sheep's wool measuring three quarters of an amah in length and a half amah in width.4The minimum measure of a amah is 18 inches. There are various other opinions that a amah is as much as 24 inches. Others maintain that it should be an amah by an amah. Those who make the tallis katan, sewing its sides together [making it like a shirt], should take care that both sides of the garment are left open, i. e. the greater part of the visible sides are left open. Even hooks may not be used to join the open parts. Also, every Jew should endeavor to have a large garment with tzitzis [attached] to wear during prayer.5The Eastern European custom is to don a tallis gadol only after one is married. He should endeavor to have a beautiful garment. Similarly, all mitzvos should be performed with as much splendor as possible, as it is said: "This is my God and I shall glorify Him," and we learn from this be adorned before Him with mitzvos. You should take care to purchase tzitzis from a trustworthy person to be sure that they were spun and twisted6Regarding the validity of tzitzis manufactured by machine. See Achiezer vol. III, chap. 69; Chesed LeAvraham vol. II; Orach Chaim chap. 3; Divrei Chaim vol. II, chaps. 1–3, etc. specifically for the purpose [of tzitzis,]7It must be verbally enunciated that the tzitzis are being made for mitzvah purposes. and according to the prescribed laws. (The tzitzis) should also be adequately long.

2 ב

מִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ אֶלָּא בְטַלִּית שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ צִיצִית שֶׁל צֶמֶר מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שַׁעַטְנֵז, יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵר, דְּיַּעֲשֶׂה כְּנָפוֹת שֶׁל עוֹר וּבָהֶן צִיצִית שֶׁל צֶמֶר. וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִים עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן (עַיֵּן שע"ת סוֹף סִימָן ט').

If only a linen garment is available, in which it is prohibited to tie tzitzis of wool because of the prohibition of sha'atneiz8The Torah prohibits wool and linen in the same garment., according to one opinion, the corners [of the garment] should be made of leather to which woolen tzitzis can be tied. Others, however, dispute this view, and maintain that this should not be done.9They are concerned that as a result, some may tie the tzitzis directly to the linen garment.

3 ג

הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִים בּוֹ אֶת הַצִּיצָה לֹא יִהְיֶה רָחוֹק מִשְּׂפַת הַבֶּגֶד הֵן בָּאֹרֶךְ הֵן בָּרֹחַב יוֹתֵר מִן שְׁלשָׁה אֲגוּדָלִים. (יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲגוּדָלִים אֵלּוּ מוֹדְדִים בִּמְקוֹם הַקָּצָר שֶׁבַּאֲגוּדָל, דְּהַיְנוּ בְרֹאשׁוֹ. וְנָכוֹן לְהַחְמִיר כֵּן, עַיֵּן שַׁעֲרֵי תְשׁוּבָה), כִּי לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה אֲגוּדָלִים, לָא מִקְּרֵי כְּנַף הַבֶּגֶד, אֶלָּא בֶּגֶד. וְאִם עָשָׂה אֶת הַנֶּקֶב לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה אֲגוּדָלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁקּוֹשֵׁר אֶת הַצִיצָה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶת הַקֶּשֶׁר וּמַקְמִיט מִן הַטַּלִית עַד שֶׁבָּא הַנֶּקֶב לְמַטָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם פָּסוּל. וְאִם לְאַחַר שֶׁתָּלָה אֶת הַצִּיצָה בַנֶּקֶב שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה מִן הַשִּׁעוּר חָתַךְ בַּנֶּקֶב כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתָּלֶה הַצִּיצָה לְמַטָּה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה, פָּסוּל מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִן הֶעָשׂוּי (כְּדִלְקַמָּן סָעִיף ו'). וְגַם לֹא יְהֵא הַנֶּקֶב קָרוֹב לִשְׂפַת הַבֶּגֶד בֵּין בָּאֹרֶךְ בֵּין בָּרֹחַב פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִן הַקֶּשֶׁר הָאֶמְצָעִי שֶׁל אֲגוּדָל עַד סוֹף הַצִּפֹּרֶן, כִּי לְמַטָּה מִזֶה גַּם כֵּן לָא מִקְּרֵי כָּנָף אֶלָּא תַּחַת הַכָּנָף. וְאִם הָיָה הַנֶּקֶב רָחוֹק כַּשִּׁעוּר אֶלָּא שֶׁעַל יְדֵי מְשִׁיכַת הַקֶּשֶׁר נִקְמְטָה שְׂפַת הַטַּלִית וְאֵין בָּהּ כַּשִּׁעוּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּשֵׁר. וְהַחוּטִים שֶׁהֵם בִּשְׂפַת הַטַּלִּית וְאֵינָם אֲרוּגִים, יֵשׁ סָפֵק אִם נִמְדָדִים לְשִׁעוּר זֶה אוֹ לֹא. עַל כֵּן צְרִיכִים לְחָתְכָם מִשָּׁם קֹדֶם קְשִׁירַת הַצִּיצִית (עַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סָעִיף ו'). בְּטַלִּית קָטָן נוֹהֲגִים קְצָת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁנֵי נְקָבִים זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה כְּמוֹ צֵירֵי וּמַכְנִיסִים בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם אֶת הַצִּיצִית וְהֵן תְּלוּיוֹת עַל הַטַּלִּית מִבַּחוּץ.

The Torah writes (Deut. 22,12) גְּדִלִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת כְּסוּתְךָ—"Make for yourself bound tassels (tzitzis) on the four corners of your garment."
Among the laws the Sages learned from this verse are:
1) "תַּעֲשֶׂה" —the tzitzis must be "made" i. e. the attaching of the tzitzis is the final act which makes the garment fit for the fulfillment of the mitzvah. If, however, after attaching the tzitzis there is something else to be done to complete the mitzvah then it is invalid because the tzitzis were not "made" but came into being. We call this "תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלאׁ מִן הֶעָשׂוּי" —"make" and not that which came into being by itself (v. para. 6).
2) "עַל אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת" —"on the four corners" —The mitzvah is to attach the tzitzis at the "corners." It is considered the corner [when it is] no more than three thumb breadths (agudlin) and not less than the distance between the thumb's middle knuckle to the end of the nail from the edge of the garment.
The hole through which the tzitzah10Singular for one of the four groups of tzitzis, placed on one corner of the garment. is inserted should be no further than three thumb-breadths from the edge of the garment, whether along its length or width.11 (Some maintain that these thumbs are measured at the narrow part of the thumb, that is, at its tip, and it is proper to follow this stricter [opinion] see Sha'arei Teshuva), because if it is more than three thumb-breadths [away] it is not considered the corner of the garment but [rather] the garment itself. If the hole was made above three thumb-breadths, although upon tying the tzitzah and drawing the knot, the garment is creased causing the hole to be lowered, it is nevertheless invalid. If, after threading the tzitzah through the hole which is above the prescribed distance, he widened the hole by cutting it in order that the tzitzah hangs within three thumb-breadths [of the edge], it is [still] invalid because Scripture states: "You shall make,"12Deuteronomy, 22:12. and not [that] which is already made.13See preface to this paragraph. Likewise, the hole should not be closer to the garment edge, whether along its length or width, than the distance from the middle knuckle of the thumb to the end of the thumb nail, because less than this amount is also not considered the corner but rather under the corner. If the hole was the proper distance [from the edge] but by pulling the knot the garment edge shrank so that there is no longer the proper distance, it is nevertheless valid.14The distance to the corner must be measured with the garment in its normal state. If there are fringes on the garment edge and they are not woven into the garment, it is questionable if they are included as part of these measurements or not. Therefore, it is necessary to cut them before attaching the tzitzis. Regarding the small tallis, some people have the custom to make two holes next to each other similar to the vowel tzeirei, and they thread the tzitzis through both holes so that they hang on the garment towards the outside.

4 ד

אִם בִּשְׁעַת קְשִׁירַת הַצִּיצִית הָיָה הַנֶּקֶב רָחוֹק כַּשִּׁעוּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִקְרַע קְצָת הַנֶּקֶב אוֹ שְׂפַת הַטַּלִּית עַד שֶׁהַצִּיצָה הִיא בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר הָרִחוּק מֵהַקָּצֶה, לֹא נִפְסְלָה בְּכָךְ, כִּי לֹא הִקְפִּידָה הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא הַצִּיצָה תַּחַת הַכָּנָף אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִית עַל כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם וְגוֹ'. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אִמְרָא סְבִיב הַנֶּקֶב (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סָעִיף י"ז), וְכֵן בִּשְׂפַת הַטַּלִּית שֶׁלֹּא יִפְחַת מִשִּׁעוּר קֶשֶׁר אֲגוּדָל.

If at the time of tying the tzitzis the hole was at the proper distance, but afterwards the hole tore slightly or the edge of the garment tore so that the tzitzis are then less than the proper distance from the edge, it is not invalid, because the Torah insists that the tzitzah be placed under the corner only at the time of attaching [the tzitzis] as is stated in Scripture: "They shall make for them tzitzis on the corners of their clothes etc." Nevertheless, it is preferable to make a hem around the hole and at the edge of the garment so that it does not [tear and] diminish [the distance to less than] the knuckle of the thumb [to the end of the nail].

5 ה

נוֹהֲגִים לַעֲשׂוֹת בַּצִּיצִית חֲמִשָּׁה קְשָׁרִים כְּפוּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם אַרְבַּע חֻלְיוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּכְנִיס אֶת הָאַרְבָּעָה חוּטִים בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּקֶב וְקוֹשְׁרָם בִּשְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים וְכוֹרֵךְ בַּחוּטּ הָאָרֹךְ הַנִּקְרָא שַׁמָּשׁ שֶׁבַע כְּרִיכוֹת וְחוֹזֵר וְקוֹשֵׁר שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים וְשׁוּב כּוֹרֵךְ שְׁמוֹנֶה כְרִיכוֹת וְקוֹשֵׁר שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים וְכוֹרֵךְ אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה כְרִיכוֹת וְקוֹשֵׁר שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים וְכוֹרֵךְ שְׁלֹש עֶשְׂרֵה כְרִיכוֹת וְקוֹשֵׁר שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים. וּמִהְיוֹת כִּי נוֹי צִיצִית הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַחֻלְיוֹת שָׁווֹת בְּאָרְכָּן, לָכֵן בָּחֻלְיָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהַכְּרִיכוֹת מֻעָטוֹת, יַרְחִיקֵן זוֹ מִזּוֹ. וּבְחֻלְיָה שְׁנִיָּה, יַקְרִיבֵן קְצָת יוֹתֵר. וְכֵן בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית וּבָרְבִיעִית. וְשִׁעוּר כָּל אֹרֶךְ הַצִּיצָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִן הַקֶּשֶׁר הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד קְצֵה הַחוּטִים, צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲגוּדָלִים. וְהַנּוֹי הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַחֻלְיוֹת בְּיַחַד שְׁלִישׁ וְהַחוּטִים הַתְּלוּיִים שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישִׁים, עַל כֵּן יְדַקְדֵק שֶׁתְּהֵא כָּל חֻלְיָה כְּרֹחַב אֲגוּדָל, וְיִהְיוּ כָּל הַחֻלְיוֹת אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִים וְהַחוּטִים הַתְּלוּיִם שְׁמוֹנָה אֲגוּדָלִים. וְאִם הֵם אֲרֻכִּים יוֹתֵר, יַעֲשֶׂה הַחֻלְיוֹת גַּם כֵּן קְצָת אֲרֻכּוֹת יוֹתֵר. טוֹב לְדַקְדֵק לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הַקְּשָׁרִים בְּאַרְבָּעָה חוּטִים שֶׁמִּצַּד זֶה עִם אַרְבָּעָה חוּטִים שֶׁמִּצַּד זֶה, שֶׁיְּהֵא כָּל חוּט חָלוּק חֶצְיוֹ לְכָאן וְחֶצְיוֹ לְכָאן (עַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סִימָן יא סָעִיף י"ג).

The custom is to tie the tzitzis [into] five double knots so that between them there will be four links. This [is done in the following manner:] the four strings are inserted into the hole and are tied in a double knot and are wound around seven times with the long string called the shamash. Again a double knot is made and again [the string] wound around eight [times] [with the shamash] [followed by] a double knot and wound around eleven [times] [followed by] a double knot, and wound around thirteeen [times] [followed by] a double knot. Since the beauty of the tzitzis is the equal dimension of all its links,15I.e., it is more attractive if they are uniform. therefore, in the first link, where the windings are few they should be a distance, one from another, and in the second link they should be brought closer. [This should] also [be done] in the third and fourth [links.] The proper lenght for each tzitzah, that is from the first knot until the end of the strings, should be at least twelve thumb-breadths.16See glossary. The preferable adornment [would be] that all the links together should comprise a third of the tzitzah and the hanging strings the [remaining] two thirds. Therefore care should be taken that each link should be the width of a thumb17See glossary. so that all of the links should total four thumb-breadths, and the hanging threads should be eight thumb-breadths. If the tzitzis are longer, then the links should also be made slightly longer. It is preferable that all of the knots be made with the [same] four strings [always remaining] on one side, with the [other] four strings [always remaining] on the other side, so that each [individual] string is divided, half on one side [of the four], and half on the other side.18Explanation: Four strings are inserted through the hole. After they are drawn through, all the ends are lined up, making a total of eight strings which hang from the corner. While making the knots and winding the shamash, care should be taken that the strings remain divided in their respective two groups of four. The advantage of this will become apparent in paragraph 13.

6 ו

אִם לֹא פָסַק אֶת הַחוּטִים זֶה מִזֶּה אֶלָּא שֶׁלָּקַח חוּט אֶחָד אָרֹךְ מְאֹד וּכְפָלוֹ לְאַרְבָּעָה וְכָךְ הִכְנִיסָם בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּקֶב וּקְשָׁרָם וְאַחַר כָּךְ פְּסָקָם, פָּסוּל, מִשּׁוּם דִכְתִיב, גְּדִילִים תַּעֲשֶׂה לָךְ, וְדָרְשִׁינָן, תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִן הֶעָשׂוּי. פֵּרוּשׁ, דְּבָעֵינָן שֶׁיִהְיוּ הַצִּיצִית בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּתָן עַל הַבֶּגֶד כַּהֲלָכָה וְלֹא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נַעֲשׂוֹת בִּפְסוּל וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֻכְשְׁרוּ עַל יְדֵי מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ עֲשׂוּיוֹת כָּרָאוּי, דְּזֶּהוּ פָסוּל. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הַצִּיצָה עֲשׂוּיָה כְתִקּוּנָהּ עַל בֶּגֶד אַחֵר וְנִקְרַע הַבֶּגֶד וְרוֹצֶה לָתֵת אֶת הַצִּיצָה כָּךְ בְּבֶגֶד אַחֵר אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֶגֶד זֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּפְסַק הַטַּלִית מִן הַנֶּקֶב עַד סוֹפוֹ וְנָפְלָה הַצִּיצָה וְרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לִמְקוֹמָהּ וְלִתְפֹר אֶת הַטַּלִּית עַד הַנֶּקֶב, זֶהוּ גַּם כֵּן פָּסוּל מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִן הֶעָשׂוּי. וְכֵן אִם קָשַׁר אֶת הַצִּיצִית בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה טַלִּית זֶה פָּטוּר מִצִּיצִית, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רֻבּוֹ תָּפוּר (עַיֵּן לעיל סָעִיף א) וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִתִּיר מִן הַתְּפִירוֹת עַד שֶׁרֻבּוֹ פָתוּחַ וְחַיָּב בְּצִיצִית, אִם יִשָּׁאֲרוּ הַצִּיצִית כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן, גַּם כֵּן פְּסוּלוֹת מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִן הֶעָשׂוּי, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר אֶת הַצִּיצִית וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְקָשְׁרָן כַּהֲלָכָה. וְכֵן כֹּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה (י' י"א ט"ו).

If the strings were not cut from each other but, rather, one very long string was taken and folded to make four [strings], and in this manner inserted into the hole and then made into knots, and afterwards cut, [separating them into individual strings,] it is invalid; this is based on the verse in Scripture: "You shall make tzitzis for yourself." We infer from this that you must make the tzitzis, and not tzitzis that come into being, meaning: it is required that the tzitzis be valid when they are attached to the garment. They may not be invalid at the time of attachment and become valid [afterwards] through another action which would cause them to be valid. This [entire procedure] is invalid. Similarly if the tzitzah were made properly on another garment and that garment tore, and you wish to place the tzitzah in the same way on another garment, or even on this same garment, for example: if the garment tore from the hole until the edge of the garment19I.e., the hole opened completely through the edge of the garment. causing the tzitzah to fall, and you want to put it back to its proper place and then restitch the garment until the hole, this is also invalid because of Ta'aseh velo min he'asui. Similarly, if you tied the tzitzis when the garment was exempt from tzitzis, for example when most of the garment was sewn,20In a way that there are no four corners. and afterwards you undid some stitches causing the garment to open most of the way,21Thereby forming the corners. and [as a result became] obligated to have tzitzis, [then,] if the tzitzis remain as they were,they are invalid because of Ta'aseh velo min he'asui.22Since he validated the tzitzis with an action other than making them now. Rather,the tzitzis must be untied and then tied again properly. The same applies in any similar circumstance.

7 ז

קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְעַטֵּף בַּטַּלִּית יִבְדֹּק אֶת הַצִּיצִית אִם הֵן כְּשֵׁרוֹת. וְצָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק גַּם אֶת הַחוּטִים שֶׁהֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּקֶב וְאֶת הַכְּרִיכוֹת וְגַם יַפְרִיד אֶת הַחוּטִים שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ מְהֻדָּקִים זֶה בָזֶה. וְאִם נִשְׁתָּהָה לָבֹא לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁבְּעוֹד שֶׁיַּפְרִיד אֶת הַצִּיצִית וְיִבְדְקֵן, יִתְבַּטֵּל מִלְּהִתְפַּלֵּל עִם הַצִּבּוּר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָדְקָן וּלְהַפְרִידָן (סִימָן ח).

Before putting on the tallis the tzitzis should be checked as to their validity. You must also check the strings that go through the hole as well as the shamashim (revolutions.) The strings should also be separated so that they must not be entangled with each other. If you are late in coming to the synagogue so that if you [take the time] to separate the tzitzis and check them you will be prevented from praying together with the congregation, you are not required to check them or separate them.23The tallis that will be used on Shabbos should preferably be checked on Friday (Bi’ur Halachah chap. 13).

8 ח

כֹּל הַמִצְוֹת, מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן, פֵּרוּשׁ, קֹדֶם הָעֲשִׂיָּה. וּלְאַחַר הַבְּרָכָה, תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַמִּצְוָה בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק. לָכֵן אוֹחֵז אֶת הַטַּלִּית בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו וִיכַוֵּן שֶׁצִּוָּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִתְעַטֵּף בַּצִּיצִית כְּדֵי שֶׁנִּזְכֹּר אֶת כָּל מִצְוֹתָיו לַעֲשׂוֹתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל מִצְוֹת ה'. וִיבָרֵךְ מְעֻמָּד, לְהִתְעַטֵּף בַּצִּיצִית (הַבֵּית בְּפַתַח) וִיעַטֵּף מִיָּד אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ עַד לְמַטָּה מִפִּיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַעֲלֶה הַכְּנָפוֹת עַל צַוָּארוֹ וִיתְעַטֵּף כַּעֲטִיפַת הַיִּשְׁמְעֵלִים, וְיַעֲמֹד כָּךְ כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְיֹאמַר הַפְּסוּקִים, מַה יָּקָר וְגוֹ', וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָכוֹל לַהֲסִירוֹ מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ. וְנָכוֹן שֶׁלֹּא לִגְרֹר אֶת הַצִּיצִית עַל הָאָרֶץ, מִשּׁוּם בִּזּוּי מִצְוָה. לָכֵן יַגְבִּיהֵן. וְיָכוֹל לְתָחְבָן תּוֹךְ הַחֲגוֹרָה (סִימָן ח' כ"א).

All mitzvos require a berachah oveir la'asiyasan; that is, the berachah must be made before the performance [of the mitzvah.] Immediately after the berachah the mitzvah must be performed without any interruption. Therefore, you should hold the tallis with both hands and think consciously that the Holy One, Blessed is He, commanded us to enwrap ourselves with tzitzis so that we remember to do all His mitzvos, as it is said, [in Scripture:] "And you will look upon them (the tzitzis) and you will remember all the commandments of Hashem." While standing recite the berachah lehisa'teif ba'tzitzis24Lit. to enwrap oneself in tzitzis. The berachah is made on “enwrapping” because that is the “active” part of the mitzvah, as opposed to wearing the tallis which is passive. (with the vowel pasach under the beis.)25I.e., pronounced bah tzitzis rather than b’tzitzis. You should then immediately cover your head [with the tallis] so that the tallis extends below the mouth, and then bring the corners [of the tallis] up to your neck and wrap yourself in the manner of the Arabs. You should remain standing like that for [the length of time] it takes to walk four amos26A few seconds. and recite the verses: Mah Yakar etc. After this you may remove the tallis from your head.27It is most proper to pray with the tallis worn over the head (Sha’arei Teshuvah 8,3). In some communities it is acceptable to pray with the tallis not covering the head ( Responsa Devar Shemuel 123). You should take care not to drag the tzitzis along the floor for [this would constitute] disrespect for the mitzvah. Therefore, you should lift them (the tzitzis), and you may tuck them into your belt.28Thereby preventing them from reaching the floor.

9 ט

אֵין מְבָרְכִים עַל הַצִּיצִית אֶלָּא בַיּוֹם וְלֹא בַלָּיְלָה. וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּל כָּךְ אוֹר שֶׁיַּכִּיר בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְלָבָן. וְאִם לָבַשׁ אֶת הַטַּלִּית קָטָן בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וְלֹא בֵרַךְ עָלָיו אוֹ שֶׁלְּבָשׁוֹ בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יָדָיו נְקִיּוֹת וְלָכֵן לֹא בֵרַךְ עָלָיו, אֲזַי כְּשֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטַּלִּית גָּדוֹל, יְכַוֵּן בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ גַּם עַל הַטַּלִּית קָטָן. וּמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טַלִּית גָּדוֹל אִם לוֹבֵשׁ אֶת הַטַּלִּית קָטָן בַּיּוֹם וְיָדָיו נְקִיּוֹת, יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, עַל מִצְוַת צִיצִית (הַוָּאו בְּפַתַח). וְאִם לוֹבְשׁוֹ כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, אֲזַי אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹם וְיָדָיו נְקִיּוֹת, יִקַּח אֶת הַצִּיצִית בְּיָדָיו וִיבָרֵךְ, עַל מִצְוַת צִיצִית. וְאִם יָשֵׁן בְּטַלִּית קָטָן, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו אַחַר כָּךְ כְּלָל. אַךְ כְּשֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל טַלִּית גָּדוֹל, יְכַוֵּן לְפָטְרוֹ (סִימָן ח' י"ח).

The berachah over the tzitzis is recited only during the daytime and not at night.29Because Scripture states: “You shall see it (the tzitzis),” the Sages inferred that the berachah, for this mitzvah is said during the day. It is preferable not to recite the berachah over the tzitzis until the [light of] day is sufficient to distinguish between blue and white. If you put on the small tallis while it was still night, and did not recite the berachah, or if you put it on before your hands were washed and thus did not recite the berachah, then, when reciting the berachah on the large tallis you should have in mind that this berachah [should also include] the small tallis. If you do not have a large tallis, and you put on the small tallis during the day, and your hands were [already] washed, you should recite the berachah: Al mitzvas tzitzis on it30I.e., on the small tallis. (the letter vav with the vowel pasach).31I.e., mitzvas—singular and not mitzvos—plural. If you put it on while still unable to recite the berachah,32Because it was before daybreak. then, afterwards, when daylight arrives and your hands are washed, you should take the tzitzis in your hands and recite the berachah: Al mitzvas tzitzis. If you slept while wearing a small tallis you do not recite a berachah after [daybreak] at all; but, [should instead,] when reciting the berachah on the large tallis, have intention to include [the small tallis].

10 י

הַפּוֹשֵׁט טַלִּיתוֹ וְדַעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וּלְלָבְשׁוֹ מִיָּד, אֲפִלּוּ הָלַךְ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וְלוֹבְשׁוֹ, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו (כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּצַּד הַדִּין מֻתָּר לָלֶכֶת בּוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, לָכֵן לָא הֲוֵי הֶפְסֵק). אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְלָבְשׁוֹ מִיָּד וְנִמְלַךְ וְחָזַר וּלְבָשׁוֹ, צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו. וְאִם נָפַל טַלִּיתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְמִתְכַּוֵּן, אִם מִקְצָתוֹ נִשְׁאַר עַל גּוּפוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֻבּוֹ נָפַל כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר עָלָיו קְצָת מִן הַמִּצְוָה, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁמְּתַקְּנוֹ עָלָיו. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִשְׁאַר כְּלוּם עַל גּוּפוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹחֲזוֹ בְיָדוֹ, כֵּיוָן דְּלֹא נִשְׁאַר מֵהַמִּצְוָה עַל גּוּפוֹ, דְּהָא אֵין הַמִּצְוָה לֶאֱחֹז אֶת הַטַּלִּית בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא לְהִתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ גּוּפוֹ, לָכֵן צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וְלוֹבְשׁוֹ. וְאִם אֵרַע לוֹ כֵן בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַפְסִיק, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ אָז, אֶלָּא יַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיּוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ וְאוֹחֵז אֶת הַצִּיצִית בְּיָדוֹ וּמְבָרֵךְ (סִימָן ח').

If you take off your tallis with the intention of putting it on again immediately, even if you did so for the purpose of going to the lavatory, when you return and put it on again you do not recite the berachah over it (the tallis).33Since your intention was to remove the tallis only temporarily,this does not constitute an interruption of the mitzvah and, therefore,does not require a new berachah. (Since it is permissible to enter the lavatory with it [i. e. even while wearing a tallis]34Though it is customarily not done, for the tallis is a garment used for prayers. it is,therefore, not considered an interruption). However, if your intention was not to put the tallis on again immediately, and then you changed your mind and did put it on again, you must recite the berachah over it. If your tallis fell off accidentally, [then] if part of it remained on your body, regardless if most of it fell, as long as part of the mitzvah remained upon you you are not required to repeat the berachah when you readjust [the tallis]. However, if none of the tallis remains on your body, although you are holding it in your hand, [then] since no part of the mitzvah remains on your body, for the mitzvah is not to hold the tallis in your hand, but for the body to be wrapped in it, you must, therefore, say a berachah when you put the tallis on again. If this35I.e., the tallis completely falls off your body. happens to you during prayers at a point when you are not permitted to interrupt, you should not recite the blessing then but wait [instead] until you are permitted to recite the berachah, [at which point] you should grasp the tzitzis in your hand and recite the berachah.36There is a controversy among the poskim whether all of the aforementioned in paragraph 10 applies to someone who is wearing a small tallis when the large tallis falls off. Machatzis Hashekel (8,20), Responsa Maharsham (vol. IV. 148), Responsa Imrei Yosher (Vol. II, 9) do not require a new berachah. Mishnah Berurah (9,39) concludes that he requires a new berachah. A learned Orthodox Rabbi should be consulted in this situation.

11 יא

מֻתָּר לִטֹּל טַלִּית שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא גַּם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל בּוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, מִשּׁוּם דְּמִסְּתָמָא נִיחָא לֵהּ לֶאֱנָשׁ דְּלֶעְבָּד מִצְוָה בְּמָמוֹנֵהּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס. אֲבָל לֹא יוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַבַּיִת שֶׁמֻּנַּח שָׁם, כִּי אוּלַי חֲבֵרוֹ מַקְפִּיד עַל זֶה. וְאִם הָיָה הַטַּלִּית מְקֻפָּל, יַחֲזֹר וִיקַפְּלוֹ. וּבַשַׁבָּת לֹא יְקַפְּלוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין מְקַפְּלוֹ מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר שַׁבָּת, חֲבֵרוֹ מוֹחֵל לוֹ. וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ טַלִּית רַק לַעֲלוֹת בּוֹ לַתּוֹרָה, יֵשׁ סָפֵק אִם לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו. עַל כֵּן יִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹתוֹ, וְאָז לְכֻלֵּי עָלְמָא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ. אֲבָל עַל טַלִּית הַקָּהָל אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נוֹטְלוֹ רַק לַעֲלוֹת לַתּוֹרָה, צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, דַּהֲוֵי כְּשֶׁלּוֹ (י"ד).

The halachah states that "One who borrows without the owner's knowledge is considered a thief". (Bava Basra 88a). Here we find an exception to this law. When the borrower's purpose is to perform a mitzvah with the object, and the owner will not incur any loss, then it is assumed that the owner would be pleased and the borrower may make use of the object.
Some go so far as to say that even where the owner explicitly objects, use may be made of his tallis. (Responsa Maharsham Vol. I 29) Others, however, maintain that if the owner is known to be one who would usually object then it is not permitted to use the article without specific permission (Mishnah Berurah 14: 13). Still others go even further and hold that nowadays everyone is assumed to mind and specific permission must be received (Aruch Hashulchan 14: 11).
It is permissible to borrow someone's tallis on an irregular basis, even without his knowledge, and use it for prayers and to recite a berachah over it, because it may be assumed that one is pleased that a mitzvah is performed with his property, if it is at no loss to [the owner]. However, [the article] may not be removed from the house in which it was placed because the owner may object to that. If the [borrower found] the tallis folded he should replace it folded, but on Shabbos he may not fold it [and it may be assumed] that since the reason for his not folding it is due to a Shabbos restriction,37Folding a garment with meticulous care is, in certain situations, prohibited on Shabbos for it constitutes improving the garment. For applicable details consult a learned Orthodox Rabbi. the owner would not object. One who borrows a tallis from another only for the purpose of going up to [read from] the Torah, there is a halachic question if the berachah is recited. Therefore, you should specifically intend not to acquire the tallis, thereby, according to all opinions, you are not required to recite a berachah. However, on the congregation's tallis, even if you take it only for going up to the Torah, you are required to recite a berachah, because it is considered as if it were yours.

12 יב

סְתָם צֶמֶר הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה וּבַפּוֹסְקִים, הוּא צֶמֶר רְחֵלִים וְאֵילִים. וְטַלִּית שֶׁהַשְּׁתִי הוּא שֶׁל צֶמֶר וְהָעֵרֶב הוּא שֶׁל צֶמֶר גֶּפֶן אוֹ מֶשִׁי וְכַדּוֹמֶה אוֹ לְהִפּוּךְ שֶׁהָעֵרֶב הוּא שֶׁל צֶמֶר וְהַשְּׁתִי הוּא מִמִּין אַחֵר, יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל טַלִּית כָּזֶה, מִשׁוּם דְּיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים דְּגַם צִיצִית שֶׁל צֶמֶר אֵינָן פּוֹטְרִין רַק בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא מִמִּינָן. וְכֵן טַלִּית שֶׁל מֶשִׁי וְהַצִּיצִית הֵן שֶׁל צֶמֶר, לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, אֶלָּא יְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה עַל טַלִּית שֶׁל צֶמֶר וְיִתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְסִירוֹ וְיִתְעַטֵּף בָּזֶה. אַךְ אִם גַּם הַצִּיצִית הֵן שֶׁל מֶשִׁי, יְכוֹלִין לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו. (וְלָא שְׁכִיחֵי בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ צִיצִית שֶׁל מֶשִׁי דְהָא צִיצִית בָּעֵינָן טְוִיָּה לִשְׁמָהּ). וְאִם מִקְצָת צִיצִית שֶׁל מֶשִׁי וּמִקְצָתָן שֶׁל צֶמֶר, גָּרוּעַ טָפֵי, וְאֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן (סִימָן ט).

When the Torah refers to "wool" or when the Poskim do so they [usually mean] sheep's or ram's wool. A pious person should not recite the berachah over a tallis [in which] the warp [threads] are made of wool and the woof threads are made of cotton, silk or the like; or the reverse, [that is,] that the woof threads are made of wool and the warp threads are of another material, because some Poskim maintain that even tzitzis made of wool only exempt a garment made of the same material.38The tzitzis must be made of the same material as the garment.There are opinions, however, that tzitzis made of wool exempt “any” garment. Since this ruling is not universally accepted we refrain from reciting a berachah. Similarly, over a tallis made of silk and the tzitzis are made of wool, a berachah is not said, but, [rather,] you should first recite the berachah over a woolen tallis and enwrap yourself with it and remove it (the woolen tallis), and then, enwrap yourself with it (the silk tallis).39By making a berachah over the woolen tallis and having in mind to exempt the silk tallis, he removes any controversy from his actions. However, if the tzitzis [of the silk tallis] were also made of silk you may recite a berachah over it (the tallis,)40All authorities agree that where the garment and the tzitzis are made of the same material, the berachah may be said. (Tzitzis of silk are not common in our countries because tzitzis must be spun for the purpose of tzitzis).41Lit. for its sake, i.e., for the sake and purpose of fulfilling the mitzvah. This intent must be stated verbally at the time of the spinning. If the tzitzis were partially made of silk and partially of wool it is even worse (more questionable) and (tzitzis) should not be made in this manner.42It has become customary to attach wool tzitzis to silk garments and a berachah may be said (Mishnah Berurah 9:6). [Note: Shulchan Aruch 7:4 rules that leather garments are exempt from tzitzis because only woven garments are obligated to have tzitzis. Accordingly, nylon garments are exempt from tzitzis (Igros Moshevol. II, 2).] Rav Z.P. Frank in Har Tzevi maintains that nylon garments do require tzitzis.

13 יג

צִּיצָה שֶׁנִּפְסַק מִמֶּנָּה חוּט מֵאַרְבַּעַת הַחוּטִין (שֶׁהֵן כְּפוּלִים לִשְׁמוֹנָה) וְנִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי עֲנִיבָה, דְּהַיְנוּ אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִין (עַיֵּן חַיֵּי אָדָם), אוֹ אִם נִפְסְקוּ שְׁנַיִם וְנִשְׁאַר מִכָּל אֶחָד אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִין, וּשְׁנֵי חוּטִין הֵן שְׁלֵמִים כַּשִּׁעוּר, כְּשֵׁרָה. אֲבָל אִם נִפְסְקוּ שְׁלשָׁה חוּטִין, אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁאַר מִכָּל אֶחָד אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִין וְהַחוּט הָרְבִיעִי הוּא שָׁלֵם, אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסַק אֲפִלּוּ רַק חוּט אֶחָד וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁלֹשָׁה חוּטִין הֵן שְׁלֵמִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם פְּסוּלָה (אִם לֹא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק). וְלָכֵן אִם נִפְסַק חוּט אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁמוֹנָה חוּטִין הַתְּלוּיִין, אֲפִלּוּ נִפְסַק לְגַמְרֵי עַד הַחֻלְיוֹת פְּשִׁיטָא דִּכְשֵׁרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחוּט זֶה אֵינוֹ רַק חֲצִּי חוּט וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ עֲדַיִּן בְּחֶצְיוֹ הַשֵּׁנִי כְּדֵי עֲנִיבָה וְיוֹתֵר. וְאִם נִפְסְקוּ שְׁנֵי חוּטִין וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר מֵהֶן בְּכָל אֶחָד אַרְבָּעָה אֲגוּדָלִין, אִם יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא שְׁנֵי חוּטִין אֵלּוּ הֵן חוּט אֶחָד, אִם כֵּן הַצִּיצָה פְּסוּלָה. אֲבָל אִם הוּא בָטוּחַ שֶׁהֵן מִשְּׁנֵי חוּטִין, כְּגוֹן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת קְשִׁירָתָן דִּקְדֵּק לִקְשֹׁר תָּמִיד אַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים שֶׁבְּצַד זֶה עִם הָאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים שֶׁבְּצַד זֶה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתְבתִּי סוֹף סָעִיף ה) וְעַתָּה נִפְסְקוּ שְׁנֵי רָאשִׁים מִצַּד אֶחָד שֶׁל הַקֶּשֶׁר, אִם כֵּן הֲרֵי הֵן בְּוַדַּאי מִשְּׁנֵי חוּטִין. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּכָל חוּט עֲדַיִן שִׁעוּר אֲגוּדָלִין וְיוֹתֵר בְּצַד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁל הַקֶּשֶׁר וּשְׁנֵי הַחוּטִין הֵן שְׁלֵמִים, הֲרֵי הַצִּיצָה כְּשֵׁרָה. אִם נִפְסַק חוּט אֶחָד בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁהֵן תְּלוּיִם בַּנֶּקֶב, פְּסוּלָה. זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם נִפְסַק חוּט אֶחָד וְנִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי עֲנִיבָה כְּשֵׁרָה, זֶהוּ דַוְקָא אִם בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּה הָיוּ כָּל הַחוּטִין אֲרֻכִּין כַּשִּׁעוּר אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ נִפְסְקוּ. אֲבָל אִם בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּה הָיָה אֲפִלּוּ רַק חוּט אֶחָד קָצָר רַק מַשֶּׁהוּ מִן הַשִּׁעוּר, פְּסוּלָה.

A tzitzah from which a string tore from the four strings (that are folded over to form eight strings), and enough remained from it to allow the tying of a bow, that is, four thumb breadths, or if two strings tore but each had four thumb-breadths left and the other two strings remain complete with the prescribed size, it [the tzitzah] is valid. However, if three of the tzitzis strings tore, even if there remains from each (string) four thumb-breadths and the fourth string is complete, or if the tear was even in only one thread and there did not remain four thumb-breadths, even though the other three threads are complete, it is nevertheless invalid (unless it is an emergency). Therefore, if one string tears from the eight strings which are hanging, even if it tore completely up to the links it is certainly valid since this one string is only half [of a larger] string, and there is still [enough left] in the other half to tie a bow and even more. If two strings tore and there did not remain in each one four thumb-breadths, [then] if there is the possibility that these two strings are [really parts of] one string, then the tzitzah is invalid. However, if it is certain that they are from two separate strings, for example, if at the time of tying them he was careful to always tie the four ends on one side with the four ends of the other side, (as I've already mentioned at the end of paragraph five) and now there is a tear in two of the ends located on one side of the knot; in this particular case it is certain that the tears were in two separate strings, and since there still is in each string the amount of four thumb-breadths and even more on the second side of the knot, and the other two strings are complete, the tzitzah is valid. If one string tears at the point where they hang in the hole the tzitzah is invalid. We mentioned that if one string tears, and there remains a [sufficient] amount to tie a bow, that the tzitzah is valid, this is so only if at the time of making [the tzitzis] all of the strings were the proper length, except that afterwards they tore. However, if at the time of making the tzitzis, there was even only one string that was slightly shorter than the prescribed length the tzitzah is invalid.

14 יד

חוּטֵי הַצִּיצִית צְרִיכִין לִהְיוֹת שְׁזוּרִין. וְאִם אֵיזֶה חוּט נִפְרַד מִשְּׁזִירָתוֹ, אֲזַי כָּל הַפָּרוּד נֶחְשָׁב כְּאִלּוּ נִקְצָץ וְאֵינוֹ (סִימָן י"א).

The strings of the tzitzah must be twisted43See preface to this paragraph. 44I.e., a minimum of two threads must be twisted around one another (Biur Halachah 11:2). Many consider it a more scrupulous observance of the mitzvah to have the string twisted from eight threads (Artzos Hachaim 11, Responsa Chasam Sofer vol. I, 6). and if any string becomes unravelled from its twistedness then any unravelled part is considered as if it were cut off and as if it does not exist.

15 טו

טַלִּית שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צִיצִית וְנֶחֱלַק לִשְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא שָׁכִיחַ בְּהַרְבֵּה טַלִּיתִים שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁהֵם מְחֻבָּרִים מִשְּׁנֵי חֲלָקִים, וְלִפְעָמִים מַפְרִידִין אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי לְכַבְּסוֹ אוֹ לְתַקְּנוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזְרִין וּמְחַבְּרִין אוֹתָן בִּתְפִירָה, כֵּיוָן דְּמִסְּתָמָא יֵשׁ בְּכָל חֵלֶק כְּדֵי לְהִתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ, עַל כֵּן דַּי אִם יִטֹּל שְׁתֵּי הַצִּיצִית מֵאֵיזֶה חֵלֶק שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וּלְאַחַר שֶׁיְּחַבֵּר אֶת הַטַּלִּית, יַחֲזֹר וְיִקְשְׁרֵם. אֲבָל אִם אֵין בְּכָל חֵלֶק בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי לְהִתְעַטֵּף בּוֹ, צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר כָּל הַצִּיצִית (מִשּׁוּם שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּתְפָּרְדוּ הַחֲלָקִים, נִפְטַר כָּל חֵלֶק מִצִּיצִית. וּלְאַחַר שֶׁשּׁוּב נִתְחַבְּרוּ וְנִתְחַיָּב בְּצִיצִית, אִם יִשָּׁאֲרוּ בוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, פָּסוּל מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא מִן הֶעָשׂוּי כְּדִלְעֵיל סָעִיף ו). וְאִם בְּחֵלֶק אֶחָד יֶשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי עִטּוּף וּבְחֵלֶק אֶחָד אֵין בּוֹ כְּדֵי עִטּוּף, יָסִיר אֶת הַצִּיצִית מֵחֵלֶק זֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּדֵי עִטּוּף.

Please refer to preface to para. 3 where the rule of Ta'aseh velo min he'asui was discussed. Here we find another situation where the problem arises:
A large tallis with a seam down the middle whose tzitzis are validly attached is separated at the seam for the purpose of facilitating the handling of the tallis during laundering or mending. We, thus, have "two" taleisim (the Yiddish plural of tallis) with two tzitzis each. We are now faced with a problem—sewing the two halves together again would result in validating the tallis for the mitzvah through an act not done directly to the tzitzis. Thus: Ta'aseh velo min he'asui. The author here proposes a solution to the problem.
This paragraph deals with a tallis that had tzitzis [attached] and was divided into two [halves] as is common with many of our taleisim, that are sewn together from separate sections. Occasionally [the sections] are separated in order to launder it, or to mend it, and then is restitched. Since there is usually enough left in each section to enwrap a person, it is sufficient to remove two of the tzitzis from any section and after restitching the tallis to retie the tzitzis.45Thus avoiding ta’aseh velo min he’asui. However, if each section is not large enough to enwrap a person, he must [first] remove all of the tzitzis (because when the sections were separated each part is exempt from the mitzvah of tzitzis, and when they are later reattached and require tzitzis, then, if the original tzitzis remain the tallis is invalid because of Ta'aseh velo min he'asui as [was mentioned] previously in paragraph six). If in one section there is a sufficient amount [left] to enwrap [a person], and in the other section there is not enough to enwrap [a person], he should [then] remove the tzitzis from the part that does not have enough to enwrap a person.

16 טז

אִם נֶחְתַּךְ אוֹ נִקְרַע הַכָּנָף וְנִפְרַד לְגַמְרֵי מִן הַטַּלִּית וְאֵין בַּחֲתִיכָה זוֹ שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין עַל שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁחֲתִיכָה זוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁתְּפָרָהּ הֵיטֵב אֶל הַטַּלִּית, פְּסוּלָה מִלְּהַטִּיל בָּהּ צִּיצִית, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין עַל שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין, אֵין עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם בֶּגֶד. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְחַבְּרָה עִם הַטַּלִּית, נֶחְשָׁבָה כִּפְרוּדָה. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר כֵּן. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ נִפְרָד לְגַמְרֵי מֵהַטַּלִּית, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁאָר מְחֻבָּר מְעָט, מוֹעֶלֶת הַתְּפִירָה שֶׁיְּהֵא נֶחְשָׁב בִּכְלַל הַטַּלִּית. וְהַצִּיצִּית שֶׁיַּטִּיל בּוֹ אַחַר הַתְּפִירָה, כְּשֵׁרוֹת. וְנוֹהֲגִין לִתְפֹּר חֲתִיכַת בֶּגֶד בְּכַנְפֵי הַטַּלִּית, מִשּׁוּם דִּבְהַרְבֵּה בְגָדִים אֲפִלּוּ חֲדָשִׁים, יֵשׁ בָּהֶן חֲתִיכוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין עַל שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין, לָכֵן נוֹתְנִים בִּמְקוֹם הַטָּלַת הַצִיצִית, חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין עַל שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין.

If the corner [of the tallis] was either cut or torn and became completely separated from the tallis, and the area of that piece is less than three thumb-breadths by three thumb-breadths, there are those who maintain that this piece, even after it is resewn properly to the tallis, is invalid for attaching tzitzis to it. [The reason for this is] since there is not [in this piece] three thumb-breadths by three thumb-breadths it is not considered to be a "garment"46The Torah writes: “upon the corners of their garments” and a piece of cloth less than three by three is halachically not considered a “garment.” and even if it is attached to the tallis it is still considered as separated. We should adhere to this strict view. However, if the piece is not separated completely from the tallis, as long as it remains slightly attached, resewing it [to the tallis] is sufficient [for the piece] to be considered a part of the tallis, and the tzitzis that will be attached, after resewing [the piece], are valid. The custom is to sew a piece of cloth (three by three) on the corners of the tallis because in many garments, even if they are new, there are pieces of cloth attached that are less than three agudlin by three agudlin. We, therefore, sew at the place that we attach the tzitzis, a piece of cloth, three agudlin by three agudlin.

17 יז

יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁבְּכָל הַשֶּׁטַח שֶׁל הַכָּנָף שֶׁרָאוּי לְהַטִּיל אֶת הַצִּיצָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִמְּלֹא קֶשֶׁר גּוּדָל מִשְּׂפַת הַטַּלִּית עַד שְׁלשָׁה גוּדָלִין, לֹא יִהְיֶה שָׁם שׁוּם תֶּפֶר אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּחוּט שֶׁהָיָה רָאוּי לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵחוּטִין כָּאֵלּוּ צִיצִית לְטַלִּית זֶה, כְּגוֹן אִם הַטַּלִּית שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן, לֹא יִתְפֹּר שָׁם בְּחוּטֵי פִֹּשְתָּן רַק בְּחוּטֵי מֶשִׁי וְכַדּוֹמֶה. וְאִם הַטַּלִּית שֶׁל מֶשִׁי, לֹא יִתְפְּרֶנּוּ בְּחוּטֵי מֶשִׁי. וְאִם הַטַּלִּית שֶׁל צֶמֶר, לֹא יִתְפְּרֶנּוּ בְּחוּטֵי צֶמֶר, אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁל מֶשִׁי וְכַדּוֹמֶה. וְיֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר בָּזֶה גַּם בָּאִמְרָא שֶׁעוֹשִׂין סָבִיב הַנֶּקֶב לְחַזְּקוֹ. וְכָל זֹאת אֵינוֹ רַק בְּחוּט לָבָן. אֲבָל בְּחוּט צָבוּעַ, אֵין לָחוּשׁ (סִימָן ט"ו).

Rashi's opinion(Maseches Menachos 41a) is that any thread used in the stitching at the corner of the garment should be of material other than the tzitzis. This is because there is concern that one may leave some of the sewing thread dangling from the corner and then combine it with three other strings for tzitzis. Since his original intent for this thread was for stitching and not for tzitzis, it cannot become part of the tzitzis merely by his decision to consider it so. This constitutes Ta'aseh velo min he'asui.
Some authorities hold: that on the entire area of the corner, which is eligible for attaching the tzitzis, that is, from after the length of the first thumb knuckle, from the edge of the tallis until a length of three thumb-breadths,47See glossary. there should not be any stitches whatsoever with a thread that may be used in the making of tzitzis for this particular tallis;48See preface for the reason. for example, if the tallis, was made of linen, one should not sew there with linen threads, but [use] only silk threads or the like.49I.e., or any thread not valid for tzitzis in this tallis. [Likewise] if the tallis is silk it should not be sewn with silk threads. If the tallis was made of wool it should not be sewn with woolen threads but with silken threads or the like. It is preferable to adhere to this strict view also in regard to the hem that is made around the hole to reinforce it (the hole). All of the above, however, applies only to white thread but with colored thread50Which is not to be used for tzitzis.there is no reason for concern.51And the thread used at the “corner” may be of the same material as the tallis.

18 יח

אִם רוֹצֶה לְהָסִיר צִּיצִּית מִן הַטַּלִּית כְּדֵי לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ צִיצִּית אֲחֵרוֹת יוֹתֵר יָפוֹת אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּפְסַק אֶחָד מִן הַחוּטִין וְרוֹצֶה לִתְלוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת עֲדַיִן כְּשֵׁרוֹת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל אֶת הַטַּלִּית מִן הַצִּיצִית וְאַדְרַבָּה יִתְלֶה בוֹ צִיצִית יוֹתֵר יָפוֹת. וִיהֵא נִזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁלִיךְ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת לִמְקוֹם בִּזָּיוֹן (סִימָן ט"ו כ"א).

If you wish to remove the tzitzis from the tallis in order to reattach replacement tzitzis which are more beautiful, or because one of the threads tore and you wish to attach complete ones, although the original tzitzis are still valid, it is nevertheless permissible [to remove them] since you are not nullifying the tallis from the mitzvah of tzitzis. On the contrary, you will be attaching more beautiful tzitzis. [However,] you should be careful not to throw the original [tzitzis] into a disrespectful place.52According to some poskim it is more respectful to untie the tzitzis rather than cut them off (Peri Megadim 15:2).Others, however, permit cutting them where untying them would be too tedious ( Chaye Adam 11:32).

19 יט

וַאֲפִלּוּ צִיצִית שֶׁנִּפְסְלוּ וְהֵסִירָן מִן הַטַּלִּית, לֹא יִזְרְקֵם לָאַשְׁפָּה, מִשּׁוּם בִּזּוּי מִצְוָה. וְיֵשׁ מְדַקְדְּקִין לְגָנְזָם בַּסֵּפֶר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן סִימָן בַּסֵּפר, מִשּׁוּם דְּאִתְעָבִיד בְּהוּ מִצְוָה חֲדָא זִמְנָא, לִתְעָבִיד בְּהוּ מִצְוָה אַחֲרִיתָא. וְגַם הַטַּלִּית שֶנִּתְיַשֵּׁן וְאֵינוֹ לוֹבְשׁוֹ עוֹד לַמִּצְוָה, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ מְגֻנֶּה (סִימָן כא).

Even tzitzis that have become invalid and were removed from the tallis should not be thrown into the trash because it shows disrespect for the mitzvah. Some people are careful to place them in a holy book and to use them as a bookmark; for since they were used to perform a mitzvah at one time, let them be used for another mitzvah. Likewise, a tallis that has aged and is no longer worn as a mitzvah, should not be used in a disrespectful way.

20 כ

אִם בָּא בַשַׁבָּת לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּמָצָא שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה צִיצָה מִן הַטַּלִּית וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצֵא לִשְׁאֹל טַלִּית אַחֵר וְהוּא מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ לָשֶׁבֶת בְּלֹא טַלִּית, אֲזַי כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ הַיּוֹם לִקְשֹׁר צִיצָה אַחֶרֶת, לָכֵן מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת, מֻתָּר לוֹ לִלְבּוֹשׁ אֶת הַטַלִּית כָּךְ וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, כְּשֶׁלֹּא נוֹדַע לוֹ קֹדֶם שַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע קֹדֶם שַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה, אָסוּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ, דְּהָיָה לוֹ לְתַקֵּן מֵאֶתְמוֹל (יג).

It is important to note that wearing a four-cornered garment without valid tzitzis is not merely a failure to perform a mitzvah but, rather, a transgression, because the Torah prohibits the wearing of a four-cornered garment without tzitzis.
If you go to a Synagogue on Shabbos and discover that a tzitzah of your tallis has become invalid and you are unable to borrow another tallis and you are embarrassed to sit without a tallis, then, since it is not possible for you to tie another tzitzah on this day,53Because it is prohibited to tie a knot on Shabbos. therefore for the sake of your dignity you are permitted to wear the tallis as is54I.e., despite the invalid tzitzis. but you should not recite the berachah. This is applicable only if you were unaware before Shabbos that [the tzitzah] became invalid, but if you knew before Shabbos that it became invalid you are forbidden to wear the tallis, since you should have fixed it the day before.

21 כא

הַלּוֹבֵשׁ בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּצִיצִית בְּלֹא צִיצִית, הֲרֵי זֶה בִּטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. וּצְרִיכִין לְהַשְׁגִּיחַ בִּקְצָת בְּגָדִים הָעֲשׂוּיִין בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אַרְבַּע כְּנָפוֹת, צְרִיכִין לַחְתֹּךְ קֶרֶן אֶחָד שֶׁיְּהֵא עָגֹל. אֲבָל אִם כָּפַל אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וּתְפָרוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶנִּרְאֶה עָגֹל, לָא מַהֲנֵי, דְּכָל כַּמָּה שֶׁלֹּא חֲתָכוֹ עֲדַיִן, מִכְּלַל הַבֶּגֶד הוּא. וְגָדוֹל עֹנֶשׁ הַמְבַטֵּל מִצְוַת צִיצִית. וְהַזָּהִיר בְּמִצְוַת צִיצִית, זוֹכֶה וְרוֹאֶה פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה (ח' י' כד).

If a garment that requires tzitzis is worn without tzitzis, this constitutes transgression of a positive command.55See preface to paragraph 20. We must be careful about certain garments that are made with four corners; one corner must be cut so that it becomes rounded.56Leaving the garment with only three “corners” and removing the obligation of tzitzis. However, if the corner was merely folded and sewed it so that it appears round it is not sufficient, because as long as it was not cut, it is still considered part of the garment.57And the garment still has four corners. Note: Only garments that are used to dress the body are obligated to have tzitzis. Therefore, a cloth used as a head-dress does not require tzitzis (Beis Yoseif 10); neither does a scarf (Aruch Hashulchan 3:22). (This would make it doubtful as to whether talleisim worn as scarves, which are available in some synagogues, would constitute a fulfillment of the mitzvah of tzitzis. These talleisim also do not have the required dimensions for a valid tallis.) Great is the punishment for one who negates the mitzvah of tzitzis. One who is scrupulous in this mitzvah will be worthy to behold the Divine Presence.