Siman 80פ׳
1 א

(עִקַּר הַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ לָנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹתָם בַּשַׁבָּת, כְּבָר נוֹדְעוּ לְרֹב בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל, וְלֹא נִכְתַּב כָּאן רַק מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעוּ לְרַבִּים וְהֵמָּה דְּבָרִים שְׁכִיחִים).
אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹר הַנֵּר דָּבָר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ עִיּוּן קְצָת, דְּגָזְרוּ רַבָּנָן, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיַטֶּה אֶת הַנֵּר, לְקָרֵב אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן אֶל הַפְּתִילָה, וְיִתְחַיֵּב מִשּׁוּם מַבְעִיר וּשְׁנַיִם, מֻתָּרִין לִקְרוֹת מִתּוֹךְ סֵפֶר אֶחָד בְּעִנְיָן אֶחָד, שֶׁאִם יָבֹא אֶחָד לְהַטּוֹת, חֲבֵרוֹ יַזְכִּירֵהוּ. וּבַנֵּרוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁהָחֵלֶב אוֹ הַשַּׁעֲוָה כָּרוּךְ עַל הַפְּתִילָה, נוֹהֲגִין לְהַתִּיר. אַךְ צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵיזֶה הֶכֵּר, שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִקְצֹץ רֹאשׁ הַפְּתִילָה שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה פֶּחָם. וּלְהָרַמְבַּ"ם, הֲוֵי אִסּוּר דְּאוֹרָיְתָא. וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי אָסוּר לִקְצוֹץ רֹאשׁ הַפְּתִילָה (סִימָן ער"ה רע"ח).

The principal melachos which we are forbidden to do on Shabbos are already known to most of the Jewish people. Thus, we will list only those things which are not generally known [to be forbidden] and are done in our daily activities.
It is forbidden to use the light of an oil lamp1Even if the oil lamp is placed very high and is quite inaccessible. (See Taz and Biur Halachah 275) for anything that requires concentration.2Reading portions of the prayers that are somewhat familiar to you is permitted. (Shulchan Aruch, 1 Mishnah Berurah) This is a rabbinic prohibition, lest you forget and tilt the lamp to draw the oil closer to the wick, thereby violating [the deoraisa3Deoraisa refers to something that is prohibited by the Torah. prohibition of] lighting a fire. Two people may read the same subject4Most poskim permit this only for such reading that is a mitzvah, such as Torah study or reciting Psalms. (Magein Avraham, Peri Megadim, Mishnah Berurah) from the same book together, for if one attempts to tilt the lamp, the other one will remind him. [Studying by the light of] our present day candles5Candles of superior quality are permitted, for they never need adjustment. (Mishnah Berurah) in which the wax or tallow adhere to the wicks, is permitted,6Many poskim disagree [Vilna Gaon] and it should be avoided where there is no particular necessity (Magein Avraham, Mishnah Berurah). All the poskim agree that wax and tallow candles are prohibited for reading in the synagogue or in other public places. (Peri Megadim, Mishnah Berurah) but you must make some sort of mark in order to remember not to snip off the charred end of the wick which, according to the opinion of the Rambam, is a deoraisa prohibition.7This prohibition is called mesakein manah, fixing a utensil [Vilna Gaon 514]. This is prohibited only when part of the charred wick is snipped off, but if the piece of charcoal on top is removed without removing a piece of the wick, there is no transgression. However, since most likely a piece of wick will be removed, many poskim prohibit it and this is our custom. (Mishnah Berurah 514) Even through a non-Jew, it is forbidden to snip off the tip of the wick.

2 ב

אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ דֶּלֶת אוֹ חַלּוֹן נֶגֶד נֵר דּוֹלֵק כְּשֶׁהוּא קָרוֹב לָהֶם, שֶׁמָּא יְכַבֶּה עַל יְדֵי זֶה. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִסְגּוֹר דֶּלֶת וְחַלּוֹן. וּפֶתַח הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אֵשׁ, אָסוּר, בֵּין לִפְתּוֹחַ בֵּין לִסְגּוֹר, כִּי עַל יְדֵי זֶה הוּא מַבְעִיר אוֹ מְכַבֶּה (רעז רגט).

It is forbidden to open a door or window directly opposite and close to8For the wind from outside may blow out the candle. Thus it is forbidden even to open the door slowly [Magein Avraham, Eliyahu Rabbah, Chayei Adam, etc]. Where there is no wind blowing, Mishnah Berurah rules that you may be lenient, provided you open the door slowly so as not to create a draft that could blow out the candle. a burning candle lest the flame be extinguished.9Maharsha (Maseches Shabbos 120b) states that it is almost certain that the candle will be blown out. But it is permitted to close a door or window [even in such circumstances].10Even if closing the door removes the source of wind and the fire is extinguished. (Mishnah Berurah) The door of an oven in which a fire is burning11In the case of smoldering coals, opening the oven door is unanimously prohibited, and most poskim agree that closing it is also prohibited. (Mishnah Berurah 259) must not be opened or closed, for by doing so, the fire is either increased or extinguished.12This may also apply to modern thermostat controlled gas and electric ovens, where opening and closing the oven door has an almost immediate effect on the intensity of the flame. A competent halachic authority should be consulted.

3 ג

אָסוּר לְעָרוֹת רֹטֶב רוֹתֵחַ עַל חֲתִיכוֹת לֶחֶם אוֹ מַצּוֹת, אֶלָּא יְעָרֶה תְּחִלָּה אֶת הָרֹטֶב לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה וְיִתְקָרֵר קְצָת עַד שֶׁיְהֵא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן שָׁמָּה אֶת הַלֶּחֶם אוֹ הַמַּצּוֹת. אֲבָל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָרֹטֶב הוּא רוֹתֵחַ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בַּקְּעָרָה, אָסוּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ לֶחֶם אוֹ מַצּוֹת. וְכֵן אֵין לִתֵּן מֶלַח אוֹ תַבְלִין לְתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בַּקְּעָרָה וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ, אֶלָּא יַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁתִּתְקָרֵר קְצָת שֶׁיְהֵא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה. וּבְמֶּלַח שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל יֵשׁ מְקִלִּין. וְהַמַּחְמִיר גַּם בָּזֶה, תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה. וְכֵן אֵין לְעָרוֹת קַאפֶע אוֹ טֵה רוֹתֵחַ לְהַכְּלִי שֶׁרוֹצִים לִשְׁתּוֹת בּוֹ אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם צוּקֶר (סֻכָּר) אֶלָּא יְעָרֶה תְחִלָּה אֶת הַקַאפֶע וְהַטֵה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ אֶת הַצוּקֶר. וּבִמְקוֹם צֹרֶךְ יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל.

It is forbidden to pour hot gravy on pieces of bread or matzos,13The author holds the stringent view of the Yerei’im and Semag who maintain that the prohibition of cooking on Shabbos applies also to food that was already baked. (see Shulchan Aruch 318: 5) rather you should first pour the gravy into a dish, and let it cool until it is fit to eat.14The gravy must be sufficiently cooled off so that a person’s hand will not recoil when touching it. This is called yad soledes. We are not sure as to the exact temperature of yad soledes, but it is approximately 45 degrees c. or 113 degrees f. According to Rav Moshe Feinstein it is 43 degrees c. or 110–160 degrees f. In this halachah, the author follows Rema 318: 5. You should, therefore, not put soup nuts into soup or dip bread into cholent if the soup and cholent are yad soledes (45 degrees c.). If you did, you may eat it, even if you put the bread into the pot itself [keli rishon]. (see Mishnah Berurah 318: 45) After that you may put in the bread or matzos. However, as long as the gravy is hot, even if it is in the dish [which is a keli sheini],15The pot in which it is cooked is called a keli rishon. The bowl into which it is poured is called a keli sheini. The third vessel into which it is put is called a keli shelishi. it is forbidden to put in bread or matzos.16Peri Megadim (A.A. 318: 28) rules that it is better not to put bread etc. into a vessel that is on the fire, even if it is cooler than yad soledes. You should also not put salt or spices into the [hot] gravy, even if it is in a dish [keli sheini] and, certainly, not into the pot [keli rishon] as long as it is hot.17Regarding putting raw food into a keli rishon, Magein Avraham 318: 28 is machmir [stringent] even when the keli rishon is off the fire and even if it is not yad soledes.
Mishnah Berurah is lenient in the case when the keli rishon is removed from the fire and is not yad soledes. The Yerei’im rules that easily cooked foods, like onions, etc. may not be put into a keli sheini when it is yad soledes, and since we are not experts in knowing what is considered easily cooked, you should not put any raw food into a keli sheini that is yad soledes. Chayei Adam and Magein Avraham 318: 18 agree with the Yerei’im.
But (you) should wait until it cools off, until it is fit to eat. If the salt was processed through boiling,18Mishnah Berurah 318: 71 rules that salt which was processed by boiling, may be put into a keli sheini even if it is yad soledes, but it should not be put into a keli rishon. some are lenient [and permit it], but he who adheres to the stricter view, will be blessed.19The Rema says this refers to regularly mined salt. Likewise, you should not pour hot coffee or tea into a cup that you wish to drink from if it contains sugar; rather, you should first pour in the coffee or tea and then put in the sugar.20The reason is that since sugar is usually eaten in its dissolved state, it is not considered thoroughly cooked until it is dissolved and thus, you are cooking it by pouring in the boiling water [Maharam Schick Resp. 133]. According to Siddur Ha Tanya, the reason is that sugar dissolves before it cooks and, therefore, has the law of a liquid, which even when previously cooked, may not be re-cooked. [This reason may apply to salt processed through boiling and probably is the reason why the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch is machmir regarding salt]. When there is a necessity, you may be lenient.21If you already did it, you may drink the tea or coffee, even if it is not necessary (e.g. you can make other cups of tea etc.), since some poskim permit it even initially. See this general rule in Magein Avraham 254: 11 and Chayei Adam 9: 11.

4 ד

אָסוּר לִתֵּן פְּרִי אוֹ מַיִם עַל הַתַּנּוּר לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻסַּק, מִשּׁוּם דְּאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּרְתִּיחַ הַמַּיִם וְשֶׁיִּצָלֶה הַפְּרִי. וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ אֶלָּא לְחַמֵּם אוֹתָם קְצָת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ אוֹ יִצָּלוּ, אָסוּר לְחַמְּמָן שָׁם. וְכֵן פַּשְׁטִידָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שֻׁמָּן אֵין לְהַעֲמִידָהּ נֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה אוֹ עַל הַתַּנּוּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתּוּכַל לְהַרְתִּיחַ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ אֶלָּא לְחַמְּמָהּ. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ אֶלָּא יִתְחַמְּמוּ קְצָת שָׁם, מֻתָּר לִתְּנָם, וַאֲפִלּוּ נִקְרַשׁ הַשֻּׁמָּן אוֹ הַמַּיִם מֵחֲמַת הַקֹּר. אֲבָל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁהִטְמִינוּ בּוֹ, אָסוּר לָתֵת שׁוּם דָּבָר צוֹנֵןשֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַרְתִּיחַ שָׁם. וּלְצֹרֶךְ קְצָת חוֹלֶה, יַעֲשֶׂה שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם (עַיֵן נִשְׁמַת אָדָם) (רנ"ג רנ"ט שי"ח ש"כ). וּקְצָת נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲזִיר בַּשַׁבָּת הַמַּאֲכָלִים לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁהִטְמִינוּ בּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם עֲדַיִן חַמִּים. אַךְ אִם נִצְטַנְּנוּ לְגַמְרֵי, אוֹסְרִים. וּבַעַל נֶפֶשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחְמִיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן.

It is forbidden to place fruit or water on a hot stove because the water might boil and the fruit might bake.22I.e. you might forget to remove them before they are cooked or roasted. Even if your intention is only to warm them a little, nevertheless, if on this place it is possible that they will boil or bake, it is forbidden to warm them there.23If you did it already and removed it before it attained the heat of yad soledes, you may probably use it. (Tehilah LeDavid 318: 29) Likewise, pudding (kugel) containing fat should not be placed near a fire or on an oven in a place where it may boil, even if you intend only to warm it. But in a place where it cannot be cooked but only warmed somewhat, you are permitted to place it,24According to Magen Avraham 259: 12, even to place it on an oven in a place where it cannot reach yad soledes, nevertheless requires a separation (like a blech) between the pot and the oven. On Erev Shabbos, you may place it in such a spot without a separation [Shulchan Aruch Harav]. The Magen Avraham may be referring only to food not thoroughly cooked. (Tehila LeDovid 253) even if the fat is congealed25This is in accordance with Shulchan Aruch 318: 16 and Ramban etc. Even though you may not crush ice to make ice water, because you would be changing it from a solid to a liquid [changing a form is called nolad, creating], in this instance you are not actually doing it, rather it happens by itself (from the warmth) [Mishnah Berurah 318: 102]. The Rema says our custom is to be machmir [stringent] unless it is very necessary for you to do it. The Shaarei Teshuva 318: 7—says there are no grounds to be machmir in this if it is not yad soledes. This is probably the intention of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. or the water is frozen. But in an oven in which food is kept warm, it is forbidden to put anything cold for the purpose of warming, even if it cannot boil there. If it is needed for one who is slightly ill, a halachic authority should be consulted. There are some who are accustomed to replace foods into the oven on Shabbos where they had been kept warm, since they are still warm. But if they cooled off completely, it is forbidden to do so. A spiritually sensitive person should be stringent in all such cases.

5 ה

בְּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר לְהַטְמִין בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר, (אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הָבֶל). לָכֵן אִם נוֹטֵל קְדֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּם בָּהּ, אָסוּר לְכָרְכָהּ אוֹ לְכַסּוֹתָהּ בְּכָרִים וּכְסָתוֹת וְכַדּוֹמֶה לִשְׁמוֹר חֻמָּהּ.

On Shabbos it is forbidden to warm food, by wrapping it in anything [that insulates], (even if it does not increase its warmth). Therefore, if you remove a pot containing food that was cooked or warmed in it,26The Keli Rishon. But you may put it into a keli sheini and wrap it in towels that do not increase the heat. You may even put it back into the original pot and wrap it, etc. (Magein Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 257: 28) it is forbidden to wrap it or cover it with pillows or cushions, etc. to preserve its warmth.27If the food in the keli rishon is less than yad soledes, you may wrap it if you really need to. (Mishnah Berurah)

6 ו

דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר כְּלָל לְאָכְלוֹ בְּלִי הֲדָחָה, אָסוּר לַהֲדִיחוֹ בַּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן. וְדָג מָלוּחַ (הערינג) מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִים, לְפִי שֶׁגַּם קֹדֶם הַשְּׁרִיָּה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה.

Food that cannot be eaten at all without being rinsed, is forbidden to be rinsed on Shabbos, even with cold water.28This is the opinion of the Peri Megadim and Nishmas Adam. But Mishnah Berurah 318: 37 rules according to Beis Yosef, Perisha, Eliyahu Rabbah, Levush, etc., that you are allowed to make it edible by rinsing it with cold water, for there is no prohibition of makeh bepatish (applying the finishing touches) regarding food. Salted fish [herring] may be soaked in cold water for even before soaking, it is edible.

7 ז

חַרְדָּל וְתִמְכָּא וּשְׁאָר מִינֵי טִבּוּלִין שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן בָּהֶם חֹמֶץ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אָסוּר לִתֵּן בָּהֶם בַּשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא בְּשִׁנּוּי, דְּהַיְנוּ, שֶׁיִּתֵּן תְּחִלָּה אֶת הַחֹמֶץ בַּכְּלִי, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ אֶת הַחַרְדָּל אוֹ הַתִּמְכָּא. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנוּ בְּלִילָה עָבָה, אֶלָּא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁתְּהֵא בְּלִילָתוֹ רַכָּה, וְגַם לֹא יְעָרְבוֹ בְּכַף וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אֶלָּא בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיְנַעְנֵעַ בִּכְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב (שכ"א).

It is forbidden to put vinegar into mustard, horseradish, and other relishes on Shabbos, in which no vinegar was put while it was still day (before Shabbos).29Putting in liquid is prohibited because of losh (kneading), (one of the thirty-nine melachos). It is permitted if you do it in an irregular manner; that is, you must first put the vinegar into a dish, and afterwards put in the mustard or horseradish.30If you put some liquid in before Shabbos, you may add more on Shabbos [Taz, Mishnah Berurah 321: 64]. A few drops, however, is insufficient for this purpose, there must be a noticeable quantity. (Magein Avraham, see Biur Halachah. You should not make a thick mixture, but you must pour enough vinegar into it so that the mixture is thin. You may not mix it with a spoon or anything similar, but with your finger, or you may shake the vessel until the contents are well mixed.31If you did put in the liquid on Shabbos, (bediavad), you may eat it [Biur Halachah]. This is because many poskim rule that the prohibition of losh applies only to kneading but not to pouring in liquid. (The opinion of the Semag, Semok, Seifer Haterumah and Yerei’im)

8 ח

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ תַּחַת אִילָן, אֲסוּרִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּטִלְטוּל, שֶׁמָּא נָפְלוּ הַיּוֹם. וְכֵן כָּל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵצֶל אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, אִם יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא נִתְלְשׁוּ הַיּוֹם, אֲסוּרִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּטִלְטוּל (וּלְעִנְיַן חֲֹשַשׁ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, עַיֵן לְקַמָּן סִימָן צ"ה סָעִיף י"ז) (שכ"ב שכ"ה ובחיי"א).

Fruit found lying under a tree [on Shabbos], must not even be moved, for it may have fallen off that very day.32A safeik (doubt) is also prohibited. (Peri Megadim and Mishnah BerurahYerushalmi) 33It is prohibited for two reasons: (1) muktzeh (see Chapter 88), (2) you might come to pick them from the tree. (Magein Avraham 322) Similarly, all fruits of a non-Jew, if there is a possibility that they were picked that day, must not even be moved.

9 ט

אָסוּר לִרְדּוֹת דְּבַשׁ הַמְחֻבָּר בְּכַוֶּרֶת. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְרַסֵּק חַלּוֹת דְּבַשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ נִתְלְשׁוּ אֶתְמוֹל מֵהַכַּוָרֶת. וְאִם לֹא רִסֵּק אוֹתן קֹדֶם שַׁבָּת, אֲזַי הַדְּבַשׁ הַזָּב מֵהֶן בַּשַׁבָּת אָסוּר. אֲבָל הַדְּבַשׁ הַזָּב בַּכַּוֶּרֶת, מֻתָּר (סִימָן שכ"א ובחיי"א).

It is forbidden to remove honey from a beehive.34See Maseches Shevi’is 10: 7. The Sages hold that this act is not prohibited by Biblical law, but is Rabbinically imposed. Rambam (Shabbos 21: 6) and Shulchan Aruch (321: 13) agree. The Chachamim [Sages] maintain that a beehive has the status of something that is attached to the ground, and, therefore, it is forbidden to detach it on Shabbos. It is also forbidden to crush honeycombs, even if they were removed from the hive before Shabbos. If the honeycomb was not crushed before Shabbos, the honey that flows from it on Shabbos is forbidden.35If you crushed the honeycomb before Shabbos, you may use the honey that flows from the comb on Shabbos, even though it is still connected to the hive. (Magein Avraham) 36Crushing before Shabbos must be thorough, otherwise, you may not use the honey on Shabbos, lest you come to further crush the comb. (see Biur Halachah 321: 13) But honey flowing from the hive itself is permitted (to be eaten on Shabbos).

10 י

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְפַּזְרוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד בַּבַּיִת אוֹ בֶּחָצֵר מֻתָּר לְקַבְּצָם. אֲבָל אִם נִתְפַּזְּרוּ אַחַת הֵנָּה וְאַחַת הֵנָּה דְּאִכָּא טִרְחָא לְקַבְּצָם, אָסוּר לְקַבְּצָם לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל, אֶלָּא מְלַקֵּט וְאוֹכֵל (שכ"ה).

Fruit that was scattered in one place in the house or yard, may be gathered together.37Even into a basket. (see Shulchan Aruch 335: 5) But if they are scattered all about, when it is a bother to gather them, it is forbidden to gather them into a basket,38Because this is considered uvda dechol. Uvda dechol implies any weekday type of activity. These are Rabbinical prohibitions. The Rambam in an Igeres (Letter) lists three types of uvda dechol: (1) activities that resemble a melachah of Shabbos, (2) one that may lead to an act of desecrating the Shabbos, (3) a very bothersome activity. but you may pick them up and eat them39One or two at a time. (Shulchan Aruch) 40The Vilna Gaon holds that it is only permitted to eat them, but according to Tosafos and the Rosh, it is permitted to put the fruits into a garment, etc., but definitely not into a basket. 41Gathering fruits together into a pile or heap is a melachah called מְעַמֵר (me’ameir). Rambam, Or Zarua (Maseches Shabbos Ch. 57), Meiri-Yesh Omrim rule that this is prohibited even when done not in the place where they grew. Tosafos (Maseches Beitzah 31), Semag and Tur 340 rule that it is prohibited only in the place in which they grew. The Eglei Tal rules that it is best to be machmir.
The halachah of uvda dechol, however, merely concerns the actual gathering of the fruit, but does not deal with the piling or heaping of the fruit.
[one by one].

11 יא

קִטְנִיּוֹת וְכַדּוֹמֶה שֶׁהֵן בִּקְלִפָּתָן, שֶׁקּוֹרִין שַׁרְבִיטִין (שויטין), אִם הַקְּלִפּוֹת עֲדַיִן לַחוֹת וּרְאוּיוֹת גַּם כֵּן לַאֲכִילָה, מֻתָּר לְפָתְחָן וְלָקַחַת מֵהֶן אֶת הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת, (דַּהֲוֵי כְּמַפְרִיד אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל). אֲבָל אִם הַקְּלִפּוֹת נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ וְאֵינָן רְאוּיוֹת עוֹד לַאֲכִילָה, אָסוּר לָקַחַת מֵהֶן אֶת הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת. וְכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר מִלְּהוֹצִיא אֶת הָאֱגוֹזִים מִתּוֹךְ הַקְּלִפָּה הַיְרֻקָּה שֶׁלָּהֶן, וְכֵן הַשֻּׂמְשְׁמִים מִתּוֹךְ הַקְּלִפָּה (ס' שיט).

Concerning legumes [peas] in their pods (which are called sharvitin), when their pods are fresh and edible,42When the peels are not edible, you are not allowed to remove the peas from their pods, for then it is prohibited because of the melachah of mefareik (extracting) which is a toldah (an off-shoot melachah of the melachah) of dosh (threshing). (see Biur Halachah 319: 6) you may open them and remove [the peas] from the pod, (for this is considered separating food from food) [which is permitted]. But if the pods have become dry and are no longer edible, it is forbidden to remove the peas from them.43This is מְפַרֵק (mefareik). (see footnote 42) Similarly, you must be careful not to remove nut (kernels) from their (soft) green (outer) shell44The green shell is the one that covers the very hard shell. or sesame seeds from their shells.

12 יב

אָסוּר לִסְחֹט פֵּרוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ הַמַּשְׁקִין. וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִסְחֹט לִימוֹנִים (ציטראנען) לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם לַעֲשׂוֹת מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁקּוֹרִין לִימוֹנַדַּה. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִמְצוֹץ פְּרִי בְּפִיו, יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין. וְיֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר עַל כָּל פָּנִים בַּעֲנָבִים, שֶׁלֹּא לִמְצוֹץ אֶת הַמַּשְׁקֶה וְלִזְרוֹק אֶת הַקְּלִפּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַמַּשְׁקִין הַיּוֹצְאִין, מֻתָּר לְסָחֳטָן, וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לִסְחוֹט חַסָּה (סעלאט) וְקִשׁוּאִים מְלָפְפוֹנִים (גורקען) שֶׁהַמַּיִם הוֹלְכִין לְאִבּוּד.

It is forbidden to squeeze fruit45This is considered mefareik (toldah of dosh). for their juice.46This ruling is according to Rashi, Tosafos, and Taz (320). Therefore, it is forbidden to squeeze lemons into water47According to most poskim, it is permitted to squeeze lemon juice into sugar (because liquid into food is like food into food). (Radvaz etc., Mishnah Berurah) to make lemonade. And even to suck the juice into your mouth is forbidden according to some poskim.48See Rema 320: 1. Those poskim who permit sucking out fruit juice say that it is not the regular way of squeezing, hence, it is permitted. You should be careful at least when eating grapes,49This also applies to olives (Eliyahu Rabba). not to suck out the juice and discard the skins. If you do not need the juice, it is permitted to squeeze it out. Therefore, you may squeeze out lettuce or cucumbers [pickles], since the water goes to waste.50You may squeeze it even into an empty container, provided you intend to discard it. (see Shulchan Aruch 320: 7)

13 יג

לֹא תְקַלַּח אִשָּׁה חָלָב מִדַּדֶּיהָ לְתוֹךְ הַכּוֹס אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה וְתֵינִיק אֶת בְּנָהּ. אֲבָל מֻתֶּרֶת לְקַלֵּחַ מֵהֶחָלָב כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאחֵז הַתִינוֹק אֶת הַדַּד וְיִינָק. וְאָסוּר לְהַתִּיז מֵחֲלָבָהּ עַל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר לִרְפוּאָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה וְלֹא צַעֲרָא יְתֵרָה.

A woman may not squeeze milk from her breasts51According to most Rishonim, milking is מְפַרֵק (mefareik), a toldah of dosh, threshing. into a cup52Milking into an empty cup is a deoraisa. Milking into food is a shevus (Rabbinic prohibition). or pot53You are not allowed to milk into an empty vessel even with the intention to discard it. [see Chazon Ish 55: 6—(also see footnote 50)] and feed her child with it,54Even though nursing is mefareik, it is permitted to nurse a baby on Shabbos, for it is considered an irregular form of mefareik. See Biur Halachah 328: 34.
The Chelkas Yoav (Resp. 9) says that a baby may nurse on Shabbos, for since this is its way of eating, it is not considered mefareik. But for an adult, it would be considered mefareik.
but she may squeeze out a little milk55Into the mouth of the baby. (Shibolei Haleket Ch. 123, Chayei Adam 69: 10, Mishnah Berurak 328: 112) to facilitate the baby's nursing. It is forbidden to sprinkle some of her milk on something for the sake of a remedy where there is no danger involved and no intense pain.56In case the mother is in pain, she may express the milk with a manual breast pump, even though the milk goes into the pump before being discarded. [see Avnei Neizer (Orach Chaim Vol. I Resp. 47)]

14 יד

מֻתָּר לִתֵּן שֻׁמָּן קָרוּשׁ עַל מַאֲכָל חַם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נִימּוֹחַ. הַשֶּׁלֶג וְהַבָּרָד, אֵין מְרַסְּקִין אוֹתָן בְּיָּדַיִם, דְּהַיְנוּ לְשַׁבְּרָם לַחֲתִיכוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּזוּבוּ מֵימֵיהֶם. אֲבָל נוֹתֵן הוּא לְתוֹךְ הַכּוֹס שֶׁל יַיִן אוֹ מַיִם כְּדֵי לְצַנְּנָם וְהֵם נִימּוֹחִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ. וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בַּחֹרֶף, שֶׁלֹּא יִטֹּל יָדָיו בְּמַיִם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁלֶג אוֹ בָּרָד. וְאִם יִטּוֹל, יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִדְחֲקֵם בֵּין יָדָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מְרַסֵּק. וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁבּוֹר קֶרַח כְּדֵי לִטּוֹל מַיִם מִתַּחְתָּיו. וּלְהַשְׁתִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַשֶּׁלֶג, טוֹב לִזָּהֵר אִם אֶפְשָׁר. וְכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר, שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁתִּין עַל גַּבֵּי טִיט אוֹ לְתוֹךְ עָפָר תִּחוֹחַ (שיח שכ).

It is permitted to place congealed fat upon hot food57This is permitted only in a keli sheini [Misgeres Hashulchan]. (see Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Chapter 72) even though it melts.58Shulchan Aruch 318: 16. Our custom is to be stringent and not to do this even when the fat will not ever heat up to yad soledes. We are lenient, however, when necessary. [For example, oneg Shabbos (Shaarei Tziyon 318: 133), or when a guest arrives (see Rema 333: 1) etc.]. (see Rema 318: 16 and Mishnah Berurah) You may not crush snow or hail by hand,59The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch permits placing congealed fat upon hot foods because the melting is accomplished by itself, and not directly by anyone’s action. Fat and ice have almost identical Halachos in this regard. (see Mishnah Berurah) breaking them into pieces so that their water oozes out; but you may put [ice] into a cup of wine or water to chill it, letting the ice melt of itself.60Mishnah Berurah 320: 33 rules that crushing ice is forbidden because it is similar to creating water. Another reason it is forbidden is because it might lead one to think it is permissible to squeeze fruits for juice (Rambam). Therefore, merely putting an ice cube in a cup of wine or water, is permitted because the Sages saw no reason to enact such a prohibition. (Vilna Gaon) In the winter, you should be careful not to wash your hands with water containing snow or hailstones. If you did, you should be careful not to squeeze them with your hands, in order not to crush them. It is permissible to break ice in order to take water from underneath.61Because the water is not derived as a result of the ice. (Beis Yosef, Vilna Gaon) Urinating in snow should be avoided if possible.62Because the snow will surely melt as a direct result of this act. However, if there is a problem about finding another place, it is permissible to urinate on snow. (Mishnah Berurah) Likewise, you should be careful not to urinate on mud or soft dirt.63Because of the melachah of losh (לָשׁ), kneading. (see Peri Megadim (321: 19) and Chayei Adam 19: 4)

15 טו

אֹכֶל הַמְעֹרָב עִם פְּסֹלֶת, מֻתָּר לִבְרוֹר אֶת הָאֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת, אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַפְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל. וְגַם אֶת הָאֹכֶל, אָסוּר לִבְרוֹר עַל יְדֵי כְּלִי, אֶלָּא דַּוְקָא בַּיָּד. וְדַוְקָא מַה שֶּׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמַאֲכָלִים שֶׁרוֹצִים לִבְרוֹר מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכְלוּ עַתָּה מִמַּה שֶּׁיַּשְׁאִירוּ, צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר לִבְרוֹר מַה שֶּׁרוֹצִים לֶאֱכוֹל עַתָּה, וְלֹא לִבְרוֹר מַה שֶּׁרוֹצִים לְהַנִּיחַ. כִּי מַה שֶרוֹצִים לֶאֱכוֹל עַתָּה, חָשׁוּב אִכֶל. וּמַה שֶׁרוֹצִים לְהַנִּיחַ, חָשׁוּב פְּסֹלֶת. אֲפִלּוּ לִקְלוֹף שׁוּם אוֹ בְּצָלִים וּלְהַנִּיחָם, אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם בּוֹרֵר, וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר לִקְלוֹף אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁצְּרִיכִין לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד (שי"ט שכ"א). וְהַקְּלִפָּה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁעַל הַשּׁוּם הַמְסַבֶּבֶת כָּל הַחֲלָקִים, יֵשׁ לֶאֱסוֹר לַהֲסִירָהּ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה מִיָּד, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי מְפָרֵק, תּוֹלָדָה דְּדִישָׁה (פְּרִי מְגָדִים סִימָן שי"ט. אֵשֶׁל אַבְרָהָם סָעִיף קָטָן ח'. הִנִּיחַ בְּצָרִיךְ עִיוּן, עַיֵן שָׁם)

When food is mixed with pesoles,64Pesoles, which means waste, refers to matter that is presently unwanted. you may separate [select] the food from the pesoles,65Even if the majority is pesoles. (Peri Megadim 319: 3) However, most poskim disagree with this ruling. but not the pesoles from the food. And even separating food from pesoles is forbidden when using a utensil.66Using a utensil designed for selection (e.g. a strainer, etc.) is prohibited, even for separating food from pesoles for immediate use. Even if you intend to eat both species immediately, you may not use such utensils according to Biur Halachah 319: 1.
Using utensils not designed primarily for selection but which make it easier, is a deoraisa violation except when separating food from pesoles to eat immediately. In this case it would be a Rabbinic prohibition lest it lead to using a strainer or sieve [see Shulchan Aruch Harav]. The use of cutlery to facilitate the process of selection is a shevus (Rabbinic prohibition) and should not be used to separate the food from the pesoles, even for immediate use [see Igros Moshe Resp. 124]. This is only if the utensil essentially enhances the selection process; but if it is used because of cleanliness, it may be used to separate food from pesoles when eaten immediately.
It is permitted only by hand,67Or fork, etc. If they do not, in essence, facilitate the selection process. (see Igros Moshe, Resp. 124 and footnote 66)
You may hand-select the food from the pesoles to eat immediately because this is considered the normal way of eating and is not considered a melachah of boreir (selecting). The classic case of boreir is when one selects or separates something for later usage, and does so with a helpful utensil, or removes pesoles from food. (Magein Avraham 320: 7, Mishnah Berurah 320: 10 etc.)
and only for the purpose of eating it immediately.68Immediately, in this case, has various definitions: some say it means for the following meal of that day, even if it is many hours later [Beis Yosef according to the Bach]. Others say no more than one hour before the meal [Meiri Maseches Beitzah 14b], Shulchan Aruch Horav, see Eglei Tal. Still others maintain it has to be exactly before the meal. See Eglei Tal. Others hold that an hour in this instance is not absolute, but only represents the normal way of preparing the meal, which can be much less than an hour [Igros Moshe]. Extreme care should be taken to avoid this unclear situation, since it is a safeik (doubt) of a deoraisa violation.
However, if it is impossible to eat without separating the pesoles from the food (bony fish for the very young or old), they may remove the pesoles from the food and eat it immediately [from hand to mouth. Initially, however, you should try to remove the bones while leaving some of the flesh on it.] This is the only way you eat it without violating the melachah of boreir (selection) [see Mishnah Berurah 321: 84—Peri Megadim]. This is probably permitted only if you are feeding yourself, but if you are feeding someone else, you may not be allowed to remove the pesoles from the food and put it into his mouth.
Even foods which you select to eat now, from food which will be left for later use, care must be taken to select only what is to be eaten now, and not to select that which will be left over,69According to Mishnah Berurah, Rambam’s view is that doing so constitutes a definite violation of Boreir. because the part to be eaten now is considered food and the part to be left over is considered pesoles. Even peeling garlic or onions and putting them away is prohibited,70Rema (321: 19) —Semag, etc. because of boreir (selecting). You are permitted to peel only what you need for eating71Even though you are separating the pesoles from the food, which is prohibited even if done for an immediate meal, since there is no other way to remove it from its peel, this is the way it is eaten and it is not considered boreir. (Biur Halachah 321: 19) now.72Magein Avraham considers apples in the same category as garlic or onions and so does the Mishnah Berurah 321: 84. The outermost peel of the garlic, that surrounds the whole cluster must not be removed even to eat the garlic now,73Mefareik, even for immediate use is prohibited. (Magein Avraham 320: 7) because it is considered mefareik,74The melachah of dosh (threshing) is done with a utensil. When extraction of the pesoles is done by hand, it is mefareik, a toldah. (Shulchan Aruch Harav 319: 9) a toldah [offshoot melachah] of dosh (threshing).

16 טז

אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִדֵּי דְּלָאו בַּר אֲכִילָה שַׁיָּךְ אִסּוּר בְּרִירָה, כְּגוֹן בְּכֵלִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם דְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ עַתָּה, הֲוֵי כְּמוֹ אֹכֶל, וְהַשְׁאָר הֲוֵי כְּמוֹ פְּסֹלֶת.

Even non-edible items are included in the prohibition of boreir (selection), such as utensils etc.;75Most poskim [Chayei Adam 16, Mishnah Berurah, and Aruch Hashulchan, etc,] agree that boreir applies to clothing, silverware, dishes, seforim, etc. If you do not know which item to take, you should take whatever comes to hand and walk with it a little and then see if it is what you want. If it is not, you can take another one until you find the one you want. It should not be done in a way that looks as though you are selecting. whatever you need for immediate use is considered food and the rest is considered waste.

17 יז

אֵין לְסַנֵּן שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה, כִּי יֵשׁ בָּזֶה כַּמָּה חִלּוּקֵי דִּינִים. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת עַל יְדֵי מַפָּה, דְּלֹא שַׁיָּךְ בּוֹרֵר אֶלָּא בִּמְתַקֵּן הָעִנְיָן קֹדֶם אֲכִילָה אוֹ שְׁתִיָּה. אֲבָל בְּעִנְיָן זֶה, אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מְעַכֵּב אֶת הַפְּסֹלֶת שֶׁלֹּא תִכָּנֵס לְתוֹךְ פִּיו. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לִשְׁתּוֹת מַיִם כָּךְ עַל יְדֵי מַפָּה, יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין מִשּׁוּם כִּבּוּס. וְיֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כְּשֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַיִם נְקִיִּים לִשְׁתּוֹת. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה דֶּרֶךְ בֵּית יָד מִן הַכְּתֹּנֶת שֶׁלּוֹ, דְּבָזֶה אִכָּא לְמֵיחָשׁ טְפֵי, שֶׁמָּא יִסְחֹט.

It is forbidden to strain any liquid76Straining a liquid from its dregs is a toldah of boreir or merakeid (sifting). [Rambam (Shabbos 8: 11)] because it involves many halachic details. However, it is permitted to drink through a cloth, for the law of boreir applies only to improvements made prior to eating or drinking, but in this case (of drinking through a cloth), you are merely preventing the pesoles from entering your mouth.77In this case, it is not just a shinui (unusual method of doing the melachah), rather, it is not a melachah at all. (see Eglei Tal) Nevertheless, drinking water through a cloth is prohibited by some poskim because it constitutes washing (the cloth).78This is a toldah of melabein, (bleaching). But you can be lenient in an urgent situation where there is no pure water to drink.79Since your intention is not to wash the cloth by drinking through it, most poskim also hold that soaking is not like washing if the cloth is not dirty. (Shaarei Tziyun 319: 52 and Biur Halachah 320: 18) However, you should not drink through your shirt sleeve for fear that you will wring out [the sleeve].80Since you would be uncomfortable wearing a shirt with a wet sleeve. (Chayei Adam 22: 4) 81Squeezing out water from clothing is melabein (bleaching).

18 יח

מַשְׁקֶה קַאפֶע שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתַחְתִּיתוֹ הַקָּאפֶע מַמָּשׁ שֶׁהוּא הַפְּסֹלֶת, וְכֵן שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתַחְתִּיתוֹ שְׁמָרִים אוֹ שְׁאָר פְּסֹלֶת כְּשֶׁמְעִרִין אוֹתוֹ, צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְעָרוֹת כָּל הַצָּלוּל, אֶלָּא יַשְׁאִיר מְעַט אֵצֶל הַפְּסֹלֶת. וְחָלָב שֶׁהָעֳמַד אָסוּר לִקְלוֹט מַה שֶּׁלְּמַעְלָה הַנִּקְרָא סְמֶעטִין, רַק מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל עַתָּה וְגַם בָּזֶה יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִקַּח הַכֹּל, רַק יַשְׁאִיר קְצָת עַל הֶחָלָב הַתַּחְתּוֹן (שיט).

A coffee (beverage) which has coffee grounds on the bottom, which is pesoles, or any other beverage that has dregs on the bottom, or other pesoles, when you pour from it, care must be taken not to pour off all the clear liquid, but you must leave a little82When you pour off the clear liquid and leave the pesoles, some of the liquid remains mixed with the pesoles. Pouring out these drops constitutes boreir [Shulchan Aruch 319: 14]. It is not considered boreir when the other water is poured out because, according to the Chazon Ish 53, the other water was considered separate from the sediment and boreir applies only to the drops mixed in with the sediment. with the pesoles.83Mishnah Berurah 319: 55 and Eglei Tal rule that if you pour it off to drink immediately, you may even pour out the last drops. In the case of milk that has curdled, it is forbidden to remove the top which is called butterfat,84This is the halachah with regard to cream on top of milk. (See Magein Avraham 510: 13) unless it is needed for the immediate meal, and even in this case, you must be careful not to remove all of it,85You may take it all if you take some of the milk with it. (Acharonim, Mishnah Berurah 319: 62) rather leave some of it on the milk which is on the bottom.86You may remove the skin-like membrane that forms on boiled milk in order to drink the milk because it, too, is edible and is separate from the milk itself. Cream is different, for it is wet and not separate from the milk. (Rav Moshe Feinstein)

19 יט

אִם נָפַל זְבוּב וְכַדּוֹמֶה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל אוֹ הַמַּשְׁקֶה, לֹא יָסִיר אֶת הַזְּבוּב לְבַדּוֹ, אֶלָּא יִקַּח גַּם קְצָת מֵהַמַּאֲכָל אוֹ מְהַמֵשְׁקֶה וְיִזְרֹק עִמּוֹ (שיט).

If a fly or other insect fell into food or beverage, it is forbidden to remove just the fly itself; but you must, remove some of the food or beverage with it and discard it with the fly.

20 כ

אִם צָרִיךְ לָדוּךְ פִּלְפְּלִין אוֹ מֶלַח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ לָתֵת לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל, מֻתָּר לָדוּךְ בְּקַתָּא דְּסַכִּינָא עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא בִּמְדוּכָה וְלֹא בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת.

If you must crush pepper or salt,87The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and Mishnah Berurah 321: 28 compare salt to pepper and rule that it must be crushed in a very irregular way with two deviations from the normal procedure. and similar items, to put into food, you may crush (them) with the handle of a knife on the table,88Two deviations: Handle instead of pestle, and tabletop (or plate) instead of mortar. Pressing garlic should be done with two deviations, if possible. See Shulchan Aruch Harav and Minchas Shabbos. or with similar methods. But not with a mortar and pestle,89It is also forbidden to cut them very fine with a knife (blade). If you want to cut them (peppers, spices) to put in the food for immediate use, it is permitted. (Shaar Hatziyun—Mogen Avraham and Vilna Gaon [and Kilkeles Shabbos]) or with a hand-mill.90Salt or sugar that was pre-cooked and is considered pre-ground may be crumbled by hand if they get lumpy because of humidity. See Shaarei Teshuvah 328: 30 and Rema 321: 8 and Mishnah Berurah 321: 29—Shibolei Haleket.

21 כא

אָסוּר לַחְתּוֹךְ בְּצָלִים וּשְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת אֶלָּא דַּוְקָא סָמוּךְ לַסְּעוּדָּה וְגַם אָז לֹא יַחְתְּכֵם דַּק דַּק מְאֹד.

It is forbidden to cut up91The author indicates that unless it is needed for the meal, it is forbidden to cut them even in larger slices. Later poskim maintain that cutting vegetables is not considered “grinding” unless it is done very fine. (Igros Moshe) onions and other vegetables, except immediately before a meal and even then, they should not92However, the Rema 321: 12, Magein Avraham, Peri Megadim, Vilna Gaon, Shulchan Aruch Harav, Mishnah Berurah and Aruch Hashulchan maintain that it is permitted to cut them very fine before the meal. Rav Moshe Feinstein ruled that even a scrupulous person need not be machmir in this regard. However, this is valid only when using a regular knife, but regarding the use of a chopping knife (specially designed for chopping), Biur Halachah is not sure that it is permitted even before the meal, for it may be similar to selection (boreir) with a strainer which is not permitted, even near the meal. Aruch Hashulchan 321: 9 permits using a chopping knife, but Rav Moshe Feinstein ruled that it is befitting to be machmir if the necessity is not great. be cut very fine.93Cooked meat may be cut with a knife into very fine pieces. (Shulchan Aruch 321: 9)

22 כב

דָּבָר שֶׁהַמֶּלַח פּוֹעֵל בּוֹ לְרַכְּכוֹ אוֹ לְהָפִיג חֲרִיפוּתוֹ, אָסוּר לְמָלְחוֹ מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי כְּמוֹ מְעַבֵּד. וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ (גורקען) חַיִּין, וְכֵן צְנוֹן אוֹ בְּצָלִים אָסוּר לִמְלוֹחַ, אֲפִלּוּ מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לְאוֹתָהּ סְעוּדָּה, אֶלָּא מַטְבִּיל בְּמֶלַח חֲתִיכָה חֲתִיכָה וְאוֹכֵל. אֲבָל בֵּיצִים וּבָשָׂר מְבֻשָּׁל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁאֵין הַמֶּלַח מוֹעִיל לָהֶן אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּתֵּן בָּהֶם טַעַם מֶלַח, מֻתָּר לְמָלְחָם לְאָכְלָם בְּאוֹתָהּ סְעוּדָּה. אֲבָל בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַנִּיחָם לִסְעוּדָּה אַחֶרֶת, אָסוּר.

It is forbidden to salt anything which will become soft or less pungent94This rule encompasses any change in its nature, such as hardening, etc. (Shulchan Aruch Harav 321: 4) because of the salt. This is similar to (the melachah of) me'abeid95Tanning hides is an av melachah. Salting food, as described here, is a shevus (Rabbinical) [Tosafos Maseches Shabbos 75b]. [tanning]. Therefore, it is forbidden to salt raw cucumbers. It is also forbidden to salt radishes or onions, even if they are needed for that meal, but you may dip each piece in salt and eat them.96Salting more than one at a time or letting them remain in salt are situations associated with מְעַבֵּד (tanning) and are prohibited. Eggs, cooked meat,97It is forbidden to salt raw meat, even if it will spoil by not salting it. (Magein Avraham-Rishonim, Mishnah Berurah) and other foods that are not affected by salt, except that it gives them a salty flavor, may be salted to be eaten at that meal. It is forbidden98The author rules like the Shibolei HaleketGaonim, Taz and Magein Avraham. However, Raavan, Eliyahu Rabbah and Vilna Gaon permit salting the foods for another meal to be eaten on that day. They hold that it is forbidden only when it is done for a meal to be eaten after Shabbos. Mishnah Berurah relies on this opinion in case of hot weather, when it will spoil if not salted, for then even the Taz permits it to be salted for another meal on that Shabbos. to salt them for another meal.

23 כג

אֵין לִמְלֹוֹחַ בְּיַחַד הַרְבֵּה פּוֹלִין וְקִטְנִיּוֹת מְבֻשָּׁלִים כִּי הַמְּליחָה מוֹעִילָה בָּהֶן לְרַכְּכָן. וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לְאָכְלָן לְאַלְתֵּר, אָסוּר.

You may not salt a large quantity of cooked beans and legumes together,99If they were cooked in their shells [Shulchan Aruch 321: 6], for then they benefit by being softened by the salt. (Taz) because salting helps to soften them; and even if you intend to eat them immediately, it is forbidden.

24 כד

"סַאלַאט", "גּוּרְקֶען", וְכֵן שְׁאָר מִינֵי טִבּוּלִין שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִבְּצָלִים וְכַדּוֹמֶה, מֻתָּר לְמָלְחָן סָמוּךְ לַסְּעוּדָּה, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים לְתוֹכָן מִיָּד שֶׁמֶן וְחֹמֶץ מַחְלִישִׁין כֹּחַ הַמֶּלַח. אֲבָל אָסוּר לְמָלְחָן וּלְהַשְׁהוֹתָן אֵיזֶה זְמָן.

Cucumber salad, and other relishes made from onions, may be salted immediately before the meal, since the oil and vinegar which are added immediately weaken the strength of the salt. But it is forbidden to salt them and leave them stand for a while.

25 כה

אִסּוּר בּוֹנֶה, שַׁיָּךְ גַּם בַּמַאֲכָל, כְּגוֹן הַמְגַבֵּן גְּבִינָה אוֹ שֶׁמְדַבֵּק פֵּרוֹת וּמַשְׁוֶה אוֹתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יָפִין וְלָכֵן כְּשֶׁחוֹתְכִין בְּצָלִים עִם בֵּצִים אוֹ עִם חָלָב מִדָּג מָלוּחַ (הערינגְּ) יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשׁוְוֹתָן וּלְיַפּוֹתָן, אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם. (עין מגן אברהם סימן שי"ט סעיף קטן י"ח, וסימן שי"ט סעיף קטן י"ח, וסימן ש"מ סעיף קטן י"ז).

The prohibition of "Building"100Building (Boneh) is an av melachah. applies also to foods, such as making hard cheese or arranging fruits in an orderly fashion. Therefore, when cutting onions for eggs or for creamed herring, you should be careful not to shape them and decorate them, rather put them on the plate as they are.

26 כו

כְּשֶׁמְדִיחִין כֵּלִים בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִין לֹא יְעָרֶה הַמַּיִם עַל הַכֵּלִים אֶלָּא יְעָרֶה אֶת הַמַּיִם לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי אַחֵר וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן בָּהֶם אֶת הַכֵּלִים. וְלֹא יְדִיחֵם בְּמַפָּה, מִשּׁוּם אִסּוּר סְחִיטָה, אֶלָּא מְדִיחָם בִּסְמַרְטוּט הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו לְסָחֳטוֹ גַּם בְּחֹל. וּכְשֶׁמֵדִיחַ כְּלִי זְכוּכִית, לֹא יְדִיחֵם בְּשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְכַדּוֹמֶה. וְאָסוּר לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים בַּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹתָן שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לַשַׁבָּת (דִּין טְבִילַת כֵּלִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, עַיֵן לְעֵיל סוֹף סִימָן ל"ז) (רנ"ב ש"ב שכ"ג).

When washing dishes in boiling water, you should not pour the water on the dishes,101Magein Avraham 253: 41 rules that only if there are (congealed) fats on the plates, is it forbidden to pour boiling water on them; because this will cause the fats to melt, which is nolad. See Machatzis Hashekel. Perhaps the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch ruled not to pour boiling water on all dirty dishes, because it could possibly be a violation by cooking the liquid or food that is left on the plate. The source of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch is the Chayei Adam 20: 19. rather, pour the water into another vessel and then put the dishes into the vessel. Dishes must not be washed with a cloth because of the prohibition of squeezing, but you may wash them with a cloth used especially for this purpose, since you are not concerned to wring it out, even on weekdays.102The source of this ruling is the Magein Avraham 302: 27. Glass dishes must not be washed with oats or similar detergents. It is forbidden to wash dishes on Shabbos other than those [actually] needed for Shabbos.103According to Mishnah Berurah, even if you need only one cup, you are permitted to wash a number of them. (323: 26)

27 כז

כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהַיִשְֹרָאֵל אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ, אָסוּר גַּם כֵּן עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּימֵי הַחֹרֶף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמֻּתָּרִין לְהַסִּיק אֶת הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי לְחַמֵּם אֶת הַבַּיִת עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, (כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֶכְתֹּב לְקַמָּן סִימָן צ' סָעִיף יח), נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁהָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי מַעֲמִיד אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁילִין שֶׁנִּצְטַנְּנוּ, עַל הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁהוּא מַסִּיקוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַסִּיקוֹ. דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין הַכַּוָּנָה בְּהַסָּקָה זֹאת לְחַמֵּם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁילִין, אֶלָּא לְחַמֵּם אֶת הַבַּיִת, יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין. וְדַוְקָא שֶׁיַּעֲמִידֵם קֹדֶם הַהַסָּקָה וְלֹא אַחַר כָּךְ. וּפְשִׁיטָא שֶׁאִם אֵין הַכַּוָּנָה בַּהַסָּקָה בִּשְׁבִיל הַבַּיִת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַתַּבְשִׁילִין, וַדַּאי אָסוּר בְּכָל עִנְיָן. וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַכַּוָּנָה הִיא בִּשְׁבִיל לְחַמֵּם אֶת הַבָּיִת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמִּנְהָג כְּהַמַּתִּירִין, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם צֹרֶךְ כָּל כָּךְ. וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן בְּאוֹתָן תַּנּוּרֵי בַּרְזֶל הָעֲשׂוּיִין לְבַשֵּׁל עֲלֵיהֶן תָּמִיד (שפאר קיכע), אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּסִּיקִים בָּהֶן בַּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ חִמּוּם הַבַּיִת, וְגַם הָאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי מַעֲמִיד עָלָיו אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁילִין קֹדֶם הַהַסָּקָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַיָּרֵא אֶת ה' יִמָּנַע מִזֶּה.

Whatever is forbidden to be done on Shabbos by a Jew, is also forbidden to be done for him through a non-Jew.104See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Chapter 73 for details. Nevertheless, in the winter, since it is permitted to light the oven in order to heat the house through a non-Jew,105According to Shulchan Aruch 276: 5, you may tell the non-Jew to light the oven to heat your home only when it is bitter cold. When a house is that cold, the people in the house have the halachah of a sick person, and they are permitted to tell the non-Jew to do something to alleviate the situation. If the cold is not bitter and the non-Jew lights the oven on Shabbos to heat the house, if he is hired on a contractual basis (hired to take care of heating the house for the winter), whereby what he does is considered that he did so for himself and not for you, you may enjoy its benefits on Shabbos. (Mishnah Berurah 276: 45) the custom is that the non-Jew [is permitted] to place the cold food on the oven before he lights it, and then light it. Since lighting the oven is not intended for heating the food, but rather for heating the house some (poskim) permit this; but only if he (the non-Jew) put on the food before lighting the oven and not after. Certainly if lighting (the oven) is not intended for the sake of heating the house, but for the food, it is forbidden in any manner. Some (poskim) forbid this106Taz, Vilna Gaon. even if the intent is to heat the house. Even though the custom is to rely on the poskim who permit it, nevertheless, a scrupulous person should be stringent107Shulchan Aruch Harav. when it is not very urgent. And certainly this is the case with iron ovens which are made especially for cooking purposes. Although people light them on Shabbos to heat their homes, and the non-Jew puts on the food before lighting it, nevertheless, a God-fearing Jew should abstain from this practice.

28 כח

הַשּׁוֹפֵךְ מַשְׁקִים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַקַּרְקַע מַצְמַחַת, חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ, שֵׁהֲרֵי הַמַּשְׁקֶה גּוֹרֵם שֶׁתִּצְמַח הַקַּרְקַע. וְעַל כֵּן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר מִלֶּאֱכוֹל בַּגִּנָּה, כִּי בְּקשִׁי יָכוֹל לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מַשְׁקִים עַל הָאָרֶץ. וּמִלְּבַד זֹאת, יֵשׁ בַּגִּנָּה אִסּוּר טִלְטוּל (עַיֵן סִימָן פ"ג) (של"ו שנ"ח).

Anyone who spills liquid on soil where something grows is guilty of violating the law against sowing,108זוֹרֵעַ (zorei’a), sowing, is an av melachah.109The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch rules like Rambam and Or Zarua that, in this case, the person is guilty only of sowing and not for the melachah of plowing. However, Semag, Hagahos, Maimoni, Rokeach and Gra rule that a person is also in violation of the law against plowing, because the ground is softened with the liquid. This is also the ruling of the Mishnah Berurah 336: 26. Therefore, even if the ground has not yet been sown, you must not spill water on it because of the law against plowing (if it is fit for agriculture). for the liquid110Magein Avraham rules that it is best to be careful with all liquids, but Eliyahu Rabbah maintains you need not be careful with wine because its alcoholic content does not enhance growth. causes the soil to sprout. Therefore, you should be mindful not to eat (a meal) in a garden; because it is difficult to prevent the spilling of some liquid on the soil, and, besides, it is forbidden to carry in a garden.111This refers to a garden of 70 amohs [Taz]. (see Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Chapter 83)

29 כט

סְפוֹג שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה, אֵין מְקַנְּחִין בּוֹ (ש"כ).

A sponge that has no handle must not be used for wiping [a table].112For this reason it is also muktzeh and it may not be moved [Peri Megadim 320: 22]. (see Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Chapter 88. 113According to the Talmud Maseches Shabbos 143, squeezing of a wet sponge is inevitable. (see Shulchan Aruch 320: 17 and Magein Avraham, Vilna Gaon.) 114If a sponge has a handle, squeezing is no longer inevitable. (Rashi, Rambam)

30 ל

אָסוּר לָרֹק בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָרוּחַ יְפַזֵּר אֶת הָרֹק (שי"ט).

It is forbidden to spit in a place where the wind will scatter the saliva.115It is a toldah of זוֹרֶה (zoreh) which means winnowing [Rema 319: 17, Yerushalmi]. The poskim do not cite this Yerushalmi and the Birkei Yosef cites poskim who do not agree with this Rema. Rabbi Akiva Eiger, Responsum 20, rules that zoreh does not apply to water or spit, etc. Also when spitting, a person has no intent to scatter it in the wind and, even if it is inevitable, many poskim permit doing something when there is no intention.
Mishnah Berurah tends to agree with Rabbi Akiva Eiger.

31 לא

בְּתוּלָה, אֲסוּרָה לִקְלוֹעַ שַׂעֲרוֹתֶיהָ בַּשַׁבָּת, וְלֹא לְהַתִּיר קְלִיעָתָהּ, אֲבָל יְכוֹלָה לְתַקֵּן שַׂעֲרוֹתֶיהָ בְּיָדֶיהָ. וּבְמַסְרֵק הֶעָשׂוּי מִשְּׂעַר חֲזִיר, אִם הוּא קָשֶׁה מְאֹד שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲקוֹר שְׂעָרוֹת, אָסוּר לְסָרֵק בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ קָשֶׁה, מֻתֶּרֶת לְתַקֵּן בּוֹ שַׂעֲרוֹתֶיהָ, וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן אִם הִיא מְיַחֶדֶת אוֹתוֹ לְכָךְ (שג שכז).

A girl is forbidden116Shulchan Aruch 303: 26. See Masechet Shabbos 94. According to most poskim, this is a shevus. The Rabbanan prohibited this because it is similar to boneh (building). Braiding a wig is also considered weaving (one of the melachos). Since it may not be considered permanent, it is a shevus and not a deoraisa. to braid her hair on Shabbos and she must not undo117Tosafos (Maseches Shabbos 57), Shulchan Aruch 303: 26. her braids, but she may fix her hair with her hands.118Rema 303. She can also put her hair in a tiara or put a ribbon in the hair on Shabbos. Regarding combs made from hogs' hair, —If the bristles are very hard, so that it is impossible not to tear out hairs, it is forbidden to comb with it, but if it is not so hard, she is permitted to set her hair with it.119It should be special for Shabbos so it should not look like עוּבְדָא דְחוֹל (weekday melachah activity). (Peri Megadim, Mishnah Berurah 303: 87) 120The wording is somewhat unclear. The halachah is, that even a soft brush is permitted only to flatten down the hair a little, but it is forbidden to comb or brush, even with a soft brush. It is forbidden to do anything to your hair with a hard brush. See Shulchan Aruch 303: 27, Mishnah Berurah. A wig should not be straightened with a comb, but with the fingers [Eglei Tal (Gozeiz, par. 10)]. See Rema 337: 2, Mishnah Berurah. It is preferable to be machmir. (also see Minchas Shabbos 117) And it is certainly [permitted] if it is set aside for that purpose.

32 לב

בֶּגֶד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו אֵיזֶה לִכְלוּךְ, מְקַנְּחוֹ בִּסְמַרְטוּט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. אֲבָל לֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ עָלָיו מַיִם. מִשּׁוּם דִּנְתִינַת הַמַּיִם, הֲוֵי כְּמוֹ כִּבּוּס. וְלָכֵן אִם תִּינוֹק הִשְׁתִּין עַל אֵיזֶה בֶגֶד, אָסוּר לִשְׁפּוֹךְ עָלָיו מַיִם. (אֲבָל הִשְׁתִּין עַל הַקַּרְקַע אוֹ עַל כְּלֵי עֵץ אוֹ עוֹר, מֻתָּר לִשְׁפֹּךְ שָׁם מַיִם), וּכְשֶׁאָדָם נוֹטֵל יָדָיו וְרוֹצֶה לְנַגְבָן בְּמַפָּה, טוֹב לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן הֵיטֵב זוֹ בָזוֹ לְהָסִיר הַמַּיִם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר עֲלֵיהֶם רַק מְעַט מַיִם, (דְּבִמְעַט מַיִם שֶׁהוּא מְנַגְּבָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לִכְלוּךְ, לֹא הֲוֵי כִּבּוּס). וּבְמַפָּה צָבוּעָה אֵין לָחוּשׁ בְּכָל עִנְיָן (דְּלֹא שַׁיָּךְ בָּהּ כִּבּוּס כָּל כָּךְ).

A garment or anything similar that is soiled, may be wiped with a rag or something similar,121It may be wiped lightly, so as not to squeeze the dirt (oil etc.) out of the garment. but water may not be spilled on it because spilling122This rule applies to other liquids as well. water on it is equivalent to washing. Therefore, if a child urinates on a garment, it is forbidden to pour water on it. (But if he urinates on the ground or on a wooden vessel or hide,123See paragraph forty for details about leather, plastic, etc. it is permitted to pour water on it.) When you wash your hands and want to dry them with a towel, you should rub your hands together well, to remove the water,124Shulchan Aruch 302: 10—This ruling accommodates the opinion of the Yere’im that even as part of the soiling process, it is forbidden (even if the towel is clean anyway). This is a proper custom, but according to halachah, it is permitted to dry your hands, even when all the water is on them and even with an unclean towel. (see Peri Megadim and Biur Halachah) so that only a little water remains on them; (for the little water that you dry is considered soiling and is not considered washing). When a colored towel is used there is no cause for concern in any case, (since such a towel is not likely to be washed in this manner).

33 לג

חָבִית שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, אָסוּר לִפְרֹס עָלָיו בֶּגֶד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד לָהּ, לְכַסּוֹתוֹ בּוֹ, דְּחַיְשִׁינָן שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה. אֲבָל בְּבֶגֶד הַמְיֻחָד לָהּ מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹתָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן דִּמיֻחָד לָּהּ, לֹא חַיְשֵינָן שֶׁיִּסְחוֹט (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סָעִיף פ) (שכ).

If a barrel contains water or other liquids, it is forbidden to cover it with a cloth which is not set aside to cover it, lest it be wrung out. But with a cloth set aside for this purpose, it is permitted to cover it, for since it is set aside for that purpose, we have no reason to fear that it will be wrung.

34 לד

אִם נִשְׁפְּכוֹ מַיִם עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אָסוּר לְקַנְּחוֹ בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו, דְּכֵיוָן דְּאִכָּא מַיִם מְרֻבִּים, חָיְשִׁינָן שֶׁמָּא יִסְחוֹט. וְכֵן לֹא יְנַגֵּב בְּמַפָּה כּוֹסוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָר כֵּלִים שֶׁפִּיהֶן צָר, דִּמֵחֲמַת דָּחֳקָם נִסְחָט הַמַּשְׁקֶה (ש"ב).

If water spilled on the table or any similar surface, it is forbidden to wipe it with a garment which you value,125If the garment is dirty, even if it has no value, it is forbidden, for soaking is like washing [Machatzis Hashekel (302)]. for since it absorbs much water you might wring it out.126If there is a tablecloth you must also make sure not to spread the water any further [see Peri Megadim m. z. 302: 12]. But the Biur Halachah (320: 18) rules that you can be meikil if necessary (if the part it is spread on is clean). Similarly, you may not use a towel127Even if they are not of any value. See Magein Avraham 302: 27. to dry cups or other vessels having a narrow opening, because the liquid will be squeezed out of the towel.

35 לה

הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ וְיָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים עָלָיו וְעַל בְּגָדָיו, מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ. וּכְשֶׁפּוֹשְׁטָן, אָסוּר לְשָׁטְחָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ לַחִים רַק מִן הַזֵּעָה, אָסוּר לְשָׁטְחָן, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן דְּאָסוּר לְשָׁטְחָן נֶגֶד הָאֵשׁ. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לָבוּשׁ בָּהֶם, אָסוּר לַעֲמֹד נֶגֶד הָאֵשׁ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא חַם הַרְבֵּה. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְנַעֵר בֶּגֶד מִן הַמָּיִם, וּבֶגֶד שֶׁהוּא מַקְפִּיד עַל מֵימָיו, אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְטַלְטְלוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁפְּשָׁטוֹ מֵעָלָיו, דְּחַיְשִׁינָן שֶׁמָּא יִסְּחֲטֶנוּ.

If you were walking in the rain and your clothing got wet, you are permitted to go home, but when you remove [your clothes], it is forbidden to spread them out to dry. Even if they were only moist from perspiration,128See Mishnah Berurah (301: 164) concerning infants’ clothing. it is forbidden to spread them out129Someone may suspect you washed them on Shabbos [see Shulchan Aruch 301: 45]. and certainly it is forbidden to spread them out (to dry) near a fire. Even if you are wearing them, it is forbidden to stand near the fire where it is very hot. It is likewise forbidden to shake off the water from the garment.130This is similar to squeezing out the water [see Shulchan Aruch (302: 1). A garment of which you take special care lest it get wet, is forbidden to be handled even after taking it off for fear you might squeeze out the water.131Only when it is very wet are we afraid you may do so [Mishnah Berurah 301: 171].

36 לו

הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ וְהִגִּיעַ לְאַמַּת הַמַּיִם, יָכוֹל לְדַלֵּג וְלִקְפֹּץ עָלָיהָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא רְחָבָה. וּמוּטָב שֶׁיְדַלֵּג מִמַּה שֶּׁיַּקִיף, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּרְבֶּה בְּהִלּוּךְ. וְאָסוּר לַעֲבוֹר בָּהּ, שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַחְלִיק וְלִפּוֹל בַּמַּיִם, אָסוּר לֵילֵךְ בַּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁרוּ בְּגָדָיו וְיָבוֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה.

If you are walking and reach a stream, you may jump over it even if it is [a bit] wide. It is better to jump over it than to bypass it, because (bypassing) increases the [effort of the] journey.132Shulchan Aruch 301: 3. It is forbidden to pass through the stream, lest you wring your clothes after crossing. It is forbidden to walk on Shabbos in any place where you might slip and fall into water lest your clothes get soaked and you will wring them out.133Rema 301: 46.

37 לז

הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה, כְּגוֹן לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי אָבִיו אוֹ רַבּוֹ אוֹ מִי שֶׁגָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּחָכְמָה, יָכוֹל לַעֲבוֹר בַּנָּהָר, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שִׁנּוּי, כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא יָדוֹ מִתַּחַת לִשְׂפַת חֲלוּקוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכּוֹר וְלֹא יָבוֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה. וְאָסוּר לַעֲבוֹר בְּסַנְדָּלוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן דְּאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַדְּקוֹ וּלְקָשְׁרוֹ יָפֶה, חָיְשֵׁינָן דִּלְמָא נָפַל וְאָתֵי לְאֲתוּיֵי (לְטַלְטָלוֹ). אֲבָל בְּמִנְעָלוֹ, מֻתָּר. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָלַךְ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה, מֻתָּר לוֹ אַף לַחֲזוֹר. וְאִם הוֹלֵךְ לִשְׁמוֹר פֵּרוֹתָיו (דִּשְׁמִירַת מָמוֹנוֹ, הֲוֵי גַּם כֵּן קְצָת מִצְוָה), מֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲבוֹר בַּהֲלִיכָה, אֲבָל לֹא בַחֲזָרָה (ש"א).

If your are going to do a mitzvah, such as greeting your father or your rebbe or someone greater in Torah wisdom than you, you may cross the134When going to do a mitzvah some poskim say you may either cross the stream, or go around it, as you choose [see Peri Megadim 613: 10—Rema]. Most poskim rule that it is better to go around the stream [Mishnah Berurah - Maharshal, Bach, Taz, Magein Avraham (613)]. river, provided you do so in an unusual manner. For example, do not remove your hands from underneath your overcoat, so that you will remember not to wring [the clothes]. It is forbidden to cross (a stream) wearing sandals, for since you cannot secure them and fasten them well, they may fall off and you will carry them. But you may (cross the stream) in your shoes.135Shulchan Aruch 301: 4. Once you go for the purpose of doing a mitzvah you may also return [the same way]. If you are going to guard your fruit, (watching over your property is also somewhat of a mitzvah), you may (cross the stream) on the way there but not when you return.

38 לח

טִיט שֶׁעַל בִּגְדּוֹ, אִם הוּא לַח, מְגָרְדוֹ בְּצִפֹּרֶן אוֹ בְּסַכִּין. אֲבָל אִם הוּא יָבֵשׁ, אָסוּר לְגָרְדוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי כְּטוֹחֵן.

Wet mud on a garment, may be scraped off with a fingernail or a knife, but if it is dry, it is forbidden to scrape it, for that would be similar to136This act would be a rabbinic prohibition, thus it would be permitted to tell a non-Jew to do it in order to avoid the embarrassment of wearing dirty clothing [Mishnah Berurah (302: 36)—Acharonim] [Kalkeles Shabbos]. "Grinding."137This applies only when there is a clod of dirt and not just a spot of dirt [Taz]. Mishnah Berurah (301: 36) says it is forbidden to rub off a spot of dirt because this is considered cleaning.

39 לט

בֶּגֶד שָׁחוֹר, אָסוּר לְנַעֲרוֹ מִן הַשֶּׁלֶג אוֹ מִן הָאָבָק. אֲבָל לְהָסִיר מֵעָלָיו הַנּוֹצוֹת בְּיָדוֹ, מֻתָּר. וְיֵשׁ חוֹשְׁשִׁין גַּם בָּזֹאת.

It is forbidden to shake dust or snow from a black garment,138If the snow has not melted, it is permitted, for then it is considered as feathers. [Mishnah Berurah (302: 1)] See note 139. but it is permitted to remove a feather from it.139For feathers are not embedded in the fabric [Levush, Mishnah Berurah]. Some (poskim) rule that this too is forbidden.

40 מ

טִיט שֶׁעַל רַגְלוֹ אוֹ מִנְעָלָיו, יָכוֹל לְהָסִירוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁיְקַנְּחוֹ בְּקוֹרָה, אֲבָל לֹא יְקַנְּחוֹ לֹא בַכֹּתֶל וְלֹא בַקַּרְקַע. וּבִשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כְּגוֹן שֶׁצּוֹאָה עַל רַגְלוֹ אוֹ עַל מִנְעָלָיו, וְאֵין לוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, יָכוֹל לְקַנֵּחַ בַּכֹּתֶל. וְאִם אֵין כֹּתֶל, יְקַנַּח בַּקַּרְקַע. וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ מַיִם, יָכוֹל לִרְחֹץ הַמִּנְעָל גַּם בַּמַיִם אִם הוּא שֶׁל עוֹר, (כִּי בְּעוֹר, שִׁכְשׁוּךְ בְּעָלְמָא לֹא הֲוֵי כִּבּוּס, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ צַד זֶה עַל צַד זֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ הַכּוֹבְסִים). אֲבָל בְּסַכִּין, אָסוּר לְגָרֵד הַטִּיט וְהַצּוֹאָה מִן הַמִּנְעָל שֶׁל עוֹר. וְהַבַּרְזֶל שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת שֶׁעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ, אִם הוּא חַד, אָסוּר לְגָרֵד בּוֹ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ חַד, מֻתָּר.

Mud that is on your foot or your shoe may be removed with something which is permitted to be handled [on Shabbos], or they may be wiped on a beam. They may not be wiped on a wall140This applies only to a stone wall but on a wooden wall it is permitted. It is forbidden on a stone wall because it appears as though you are adding to the wall [Magein Avraham, Eliyahu Rabbah, Mishnah Berurah (302: 28)]. or on the ground.141For by doing so you may fill up a hole in the ground. If there is an urgent need, as when there is excrement on your foot, or on your shoe, and there is nothing available which may be handled on Shabbos, they may be wiped on a wall.142Mishnah Berurah 302: 28 rules you can rely on the vast majority of Rishonim who permit it. If there is no wall they may be wiped on the ground. And if water is available, the shoe may be washed even in water if it is made of leather. (For in the case of leather, mere splashing of [water] is not considered washing unless the two ends are rubbed together in the manner of launderers.) But it is forbidden to use a knife143Even a blunt edged knife is forbidden (Shabbos 141b). to scrape off mud or excrement from a leather shoe. If the iron (post) in front of the house, that is made for cleaning shoes, is sharp,144If it is as sharp as the blunt edge of a knife [Shulchan Aruch,Harav, Mishnah Berurah (302: 38)]. it is forbidden to scrape shoes with it; if it is not sharp it is permitted.

41 מא

נִתְלַכְלְכָה יָדוֹ בְּטִיט, לֹא יְקַנְּחָהּ בְּמַפָּה שֶׁמְקַנְּחִין בָּהּ הַיָּדַיִם (דְּחָיְשֵׁינָן שֶׁמָּא יְכַבְּסָהּ) (ש"ב).

If your hands become soiled with mud you should not wipe them on a hand towel,145Rambam. But you may use a rag that you are not concerned with [see Peri Megadim m.z. 302: 3]. (lest you forget and rinse it).

42 מב

אָסור לִצְבּוֹעַ שׁוּם דָּבָר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּצֶבַע שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם, וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לְאִשָּׁה לִצְבּוֹעַ פָּנֶיהָ וְיֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁיָּדָיו צְבוּעוֹת מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁאָכַל, שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בְּבִגְדּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצּוֹבְעוֹ. וְכֵן דַּם חָטְמוֹ וְדַם מַכָּתוֹ לֹא יְקַנַּח בְּמַפָּה (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סִימָן צ"א סָעִיף י"א) (ש"כ שכ"ח).

It is forbidden to dye anything even with a dye that is not permanent. Therefore a woman is forbidden to color her face.146This constitutes a rabbinic prohibition according to most poskim. The Behag rules that it is a de’oraisa. See Maseches Shabbos (95). 147Even to darken previously reddened lips is prohibited [Yerushalmi Maseches Shabbos (7: 2)]. Care must be taken when your hands are colored by the fruits you have eaten, not to touch your garment, because it will become dyed. Likewise, blood from your nose or blood from a wound should not be wiped on a kerchief.148Shulchan Aruch 328: 48. This should not be done as an initial act [Magein Avraham], but if there is no satisfactory alternative, you may be lenient since it is the way of soiling, not dyeing [Eliyahu Rabbah etc., Mishnah Berurah 328: 146]. 149See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch ch. 91: 11.

43 מג

אֵין לִתֵּן כַּרְכֹּם לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצּוֹבְעוֹ, (כָּךְ כָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר חַיֵּי אָדָם).

You may not put saffron into your (cooked) food because it colors [dyes] it. (And so it is written in the sefer Chayei Adam [24: 5] 150The Shulchan Aruch, however, and most poskim, say that there is no prohibition against coloring food on Shabbos. However, you may not color water for decorative purposes [Peri Megadim, Mishnah Berurah (320: 56)]..)

44 מד

אָסוּר לִקְלוֹעַ אוֹ לִשְׁזוֹר אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנֵי חוּטִין אוֹ שְׂעָרוֹת הַתְּלוּשׁוֹת (שג שיז).

It is forbidden to braid or weave even two threads, or two loose hairs [on Shabbos].151Weaving threads is a melachah de’oraisa but weaving hair is a rabbinical prohibition.

45 מה

הַדֶּרֶךְ הוּא כְּשֶׁצְּרִיכִין לִקְשֹׁר אֵיזֶה דָּבָר בִּשְׁנֵי חוּטִין אוֹ מְשִׁיחוֹת, אוֹ שֶׁמְסַבְּבִים חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה אַחַת וְקוֹשְׁרִין שְׁנֵי הַקְּצָווֹת יַחַד כְּדֶרֶךְ הַחֲגוֹרָה, עוֹשִׂין שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים זֶה עַל גַב זֶה, כִּי בְּקֶשֶׁר אֶחָד לֹא יִתְחַזֵּק. וְאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן בַּשַׁבָּת, שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים זֶה עַל גַב זֶה, אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַתִּירוֹ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם, וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר בַּמִּטְפַּחַת שֶׁכּוֹרְכִין סְבִיב הַצַּוָּאר (האלזטוך) שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהּ בַּשַׁבָּת שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים. וְכֵן בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לֹא יִהְיוּ בָּהּ שְׁנֵי קְשָׁרִים, דְּאִם כֵּן אָסור לְהַתִּירוֹ בַּשַׁבָּת כְּדִלְקַמָּן. וְכֵן לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִלּוּ קֶשֶׁר אֶחָד בְּרֹאשׁ אֶחָד שֶׁל חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה, אוֹ לִטּוֹל שְׁנֵי הַקְּצָווֹת זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה וְלַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם בְּיַחַד קֶּשֶׁר אֶחָד, אָסוּר. כֵּיוָן דְּבָזֶה גַּם קֶשֶׁר אֶחָד מִתְקַיֵּם. וְלַעֲשׂוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי קְצָווֹת זֶה עִם זֶה קֶשֶׁר אֶחָד וְעָלָיו עֲנִיבָה, אִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהַתִּירוֹ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם מֻתָּר. וְאִם לָאו, אָסוּר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַתִּירוֹ בּוֹ בַיּוֹם. אֲבָל לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁתֵּי עֲנִיבוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי זוֹ, מֻתָּר, וַאֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד כֵּן יָמִים רַבִּים (סִימָן שי"ן, וּבְחַיֵּי אָדָם).

Usually when we want to tie something with two strings or ropes, or when we wind around a string or rope, and tie the two ends together like a belt, we tie a double knot because a single knot will not hold. It is forbidden to tie a double knot on Shabbos, even on something that is usually untied the same day. [Therefore] you must be careful when wrapping a scarf around the neck, not to make a double knot. Similarly on Friday [erev Shabbos] you should not make a double knot, for if you do, it is forbidden to untie it on Shabbos, as discussed below. Similarly, to make even one knot at one end of a string or rope, or to hold the two ends together, and make one knot on both of them is forbidden, since with this method even a single knot holds strongly. It is permitted to take the two ends together, tie them with a single knot and a loop on top, if it is something that is usually untied the same day.152According to Mishnah Berurah, something that is tied Friday night and will be untied on Shabbos during the day is also permitted because if it is less than twenty four hours it is considered the same day. (317: 5, 6) If not, it is forbidden, even if you intend to untie it the same day.153Within 24 hours [Peri Megadim (317: 2)]. But making two loops, one on top of the other, is permitted, [and it is permitted to make] even many loops even if it is intended that they remain for many days.154You may make a loop (or loops) over a single tie if you intend to untie it that day [Mishnah Berurah (317: 29) —Acharonim].

46 מו

קֶשֶׁר שֶׁאֲסוּרִין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ, קֶשֶׁר כָּזֶה אֲסוּרִין גַּם כֵּן לְהַתִּיר. וּבִמְקוֹם צַעַר, יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי (שי"ז).

A knot which you are forbidden to tie is also forbidden to be untied. If it causes discomfort it may be untied by a non-Jew.155If very necessary it may be untied by a non-Jew [Taz 317: 5].

47 מז

דֶּרֶךְ הַחַיָּטִים, שֶׁקֹּדֶם שֶׁתּוֹפְרִין אֶת הַבֶּגֶד כָּרָאוּי, מְחַבְּרִים אֶת הַחֲתִיכוֹת בִּתְפִירוֹת מְרֻוָּחוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְסִירִין אֶת הַחוּטִין מֵאֵלּוּ הַתְּפִירוֹת, וְאָסוּר לְהָסִירָן בְּשַׁבָּת (ש"ב).

It is the custom of tailors before sewing a garment to connect the pieces with long basting stitches, and afterward remove the threads from these stitches. It is forbidden to remove them on Shabbos.156Completing a melachah (in this case tailoring) is in violation of the melachah called makeh bepatish (final touch of the hammer).

48 מח

בְּגָדִים הָעֲשׂוּיִם לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶם מְשִׁיחָה אוֹ רְצוּעָה, כְּגוֹן מִכְנָסַיִם אוֹ מִנְעָלִים אוֹ חָלוּק, אִם הַבֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ, אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסוֹ בָּהֶם, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי תִקּוּן מָנָא. וּבְיָשָׁן אִם אֵין הַנֶּקֶב צָר, שֶׁאֵין טֹרַח לְהַכְנִיסָהּ מֻתָּר. וְאִם יֵשׁ טֹרַח, אָסוּר.

Some garments are made so that a string or strap may be inserted in them such as pants, shoes, or a robe. If it is a new garment it is forbidden to insert them, because it is like perfecting157See preceeding note. a vessel. If it is old, and the hole is not narrow, so that there is no bother inserting [the string], it is permitted.158You may put a belt through a new pair of pants since you will not let it remain there permanently as part of the garment [Mishnah Berurah 317: 16]. See Rema 317: 2 and Biur Halachah. If it is bothersome, it is forbidden.

49 מט

לִפְעָמִים אֵיזֹה תְּפִירָה מִתְקַלְקֶלֶת וּמִתְפָּרְדוֹת הַחֲתִיכוֹת קְצָת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, וּמוֹשְׁכִין בְּחוּט הַתְּפִירָה וְהֵן מִתְהַדְּקוֹת וּמִתְחַבְּרוֹת, אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן בַּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי תוֹפֵר (ש"מ).

When a stitch becomes loose and the parts of the garment become a bit separated, if the thread is pulled, the loose parts will tighten and hold together. It is forbidden to do this on Shabbos because this is considered sewing.159Safety pins may be used because they are not made to remain closed. See Shaarei TeshuvahGinas Veradim and Taz (Yoreh Dei’ah 300: 3). Some poskim say you may not draw the pin through three places, for that is like sewing (מִדְרַבָּנָן—rabbinically).

50 נ

נְיָרוֹת שֶׁנִּדְבְּקוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נִדְבְּקוּ דַּפֵּי סְפָרִים מֵחֲמַת הַצֶּבַע שֶׁצְּבָעָן הַכּוֹרֵךְ אוֹ שֶׁנִּדְבְּקוּ אֵיזֶה דַּפִּין בְּשַׁעֲוָה מֻתָּר לְפָתְחָן (ש"מ).

If sheets of paper were stuck together unintentionally, as the pages of a book sometimes stick together from the paint [or glue] used by the bookbinder, or if some pages were stuck together by wax,160If stuck together over a letter you may not separate them for it is like writing the letter [Mishna Berurah (340: 2)]. it is permitted to open them.161But you may not cut open the pages [Peri Megadim (340: 18)].

51 נא

כֵּלִים שֶׁכָּרְכוּ סְבִיב פִּיהֶם בְּמַטְלִית וּקְשָׁרוּהוּ בִּמְשִׁיחָה, מֻתָּר לְקָרְעָן בַּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁזֶּהוּ מְקַלְקֵל, וּמֻתָּר לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת (סִימָן שי"ד ובחיי"א).

If the openings of vessels were covered with a cloth and tied with a string, it is permitted to tear them open on Shabbos, for this is considered spoiling,162There are numerous details involved in this halachah and you should ask a poseik if you have any doubt whatsoever. The main rules are: (1) whatever may be opened must be opened in a way that the wrapper etc. cannot be used after being opened; (2) you do not tear letters or pictures; (3) you may not open a bag on its seam; (4) you may not open something in a way that will form a spout. and it is permissible when needed for Shabbos.

52 נב

אָסוּר לָצוּד שׁוּם בַּעַל חַי בַּשַׁבָּת, (וְעַיֵּן לְקַמָּן סִימָן פ"ז סָעִיף כ', כ"א). וַאֲפִלּוּ פַּרְעוֹשׁ אָסוּר לִתְפּוֹס, וְאַךְ אִם הִיא עַל גּוּף הָאָדָם וְעוֹקְצּוֹ, מִשּׁוּם צַעְרָא דְּגוּפָא מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ וּלְזָרְקוֹ. אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהָרְגוֹ כִּי אָסוּר לַהֲרוֹג שׁוּם בַּעַל חָי. אַךְ הַכִּנִּים כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן מִתְהַוּוֹת רַק מִן הַזֵּעָה, מֻתָּר לְהָרְגָן. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַּבְּגָדִים אָסוּר לְהָרְגָן, אֶלָּא נוֹטְלָן וְזוֹרְקָן. רַק אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בָּרֹאשׁ, מֻתָּר לְהָרְגָן.

It is forbidden to catch any living creature on Shabbos. It is forbidden even to catch a flea [on Shabbos]. But if it is on your body and it is biting you, since it causes you physical discomfort, it may be removed and thrown away. It is forbidden to kill it because it is forbidden to kill any living creature163In a place where many ants are found you must be careful not to step on them [Shulchan Aruch Harav 316: 21]. [on Shabbos]. [It is, however, permitted to kill] lice since they are created only by perspiration. Nevertheless, those found in clothing must not be killed,164Because fleas are found there too and you may come to kill a flea [Magein Avraham (316: 21)]. rather they should be removed and thrown away. Only lice found in the head may be killed.

53 נג

יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר, כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לִסְתּוֹם תֵּבָה אוֹ כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם זְבוּבִים, שֶׁיַּפְרִיחֵם תְּחִלָּה מִשָּׁם, כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא סוֹתֵם, הֵמָּה נִצּוֹדִים שָׁמָּה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵק וְלִבְדֹּוֹק שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר שָׁם כְּלָל, אֶלָּא יַפְרִיחַ מַה שֶּׁנִּרְאֶה לוֹ.

You must take care when closing a box or vessel in which there are flies, to let them fly out first, because when you close it they will be trapped there. However, it is not necessary to examine the box to see that none are left, it is sufficient to chase away those you see.165Taz, see Biur Halachah.

54 נד

אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא דָּם. וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּם שֶׁבֵּין הַשִּׁנַּיִם אָסוּר לִמְצוֹץ. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ עַל הַמַּכָּה רְטִיָּה הַמּוֹצִיאָה דָּם וְלֵחָה. וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן דְּאָסוּר לִדְחוֹק אֶת הַמַּכָּה לְהוֹצִיא דָּם אוֹ לֵחָה (עַיֵן לְקַמָּן סִימָן צ"א סָעִיף י"א).

It is forbidden to draw blood [on Shabbos]; it is forbidden even to suck blood from the gums. It is also forbidden to dress a wound with a dressing that draws out blood and pus. It is certainly forbidden to squeeze a wound to draw out blood or pus.

55 נה

צִיצִין שֶׁהֵן כְּמִין רְצוּעוֹת דַּקּוֹת שֶׁפֵּרְשׂוּ מֵעוֹר הָאֶצְבַּע סְבִיב הַצִּפֹּרֶן, אָסוּר לְהָסִירָן, בֵּין בִּכְלִי בֵּין בְּיָּד בֵּין בְּשִּׁנַּיִם. וְצִפֹּרֶן שְׁנִפְּרַשׁ רֻבּוֹ וּקָרוֹב לְהִנָּתֵק וּמְצַעֲרוֹ, מֻתָּר לְהֲסִירוֹ בְּיָּד, אֲבָל לֹא בִּכְלִי. וְאִם לֹא פֵּרַשׁ רֻבּוֹ, אָסוּר לַהֲסִירוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיָּד (שכ"ח).

If tzitzin, shreds of skin, become separated from the skin around the fingernail, it is forbidden to remove them either by means of an instrument or by hand, or with the teeth. A nail, most of which has been separated and is almost torn off, and causes discomfort, may be removed by hand,166Since most of the nail is separated it is almost certain to separate completely. [Mishnah Berurah (328: 96)] but not with an instrument. If most of it was not separated, it is forbidden to remove it even by hand.167It is also prohibited to do so with your teeth.

56 נו

אָסוּר לִשְׁפֹּוֹךְ לְתוֹךְ הַחֹמֶץ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים, שֶׁיִּתְהַוּוּ גַּם כֵּן חֹמֶץ.

It is forbidden to pour other liquids into vinegar so that they too become vinegar.168Taz 321: 3 because this is considered pickling which (rabbinically) is similar to cooking. See Mishnah Berurah (321: 15).

57 נז

בָּשָׂר שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלַח וְחָל יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁלּוֹ בַּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאִם לֹא יְדִיחוּהוּ יְהֵא נֶאֱסָר, יֵשׁ לַהֲדִיחוֹ עַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי. אֲבָל עַל יְדֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל, אָסוּר.

Meat that was not salted (Kashered)169Meat must be salted within three days after the slaughter. If it was not salted it must be thoroughly rinsed or else it becomes treife, forbidden. and its third day occurs on Shabbos and if it is not rinsed [now] it will be forbidden, may be rinsed by a non-Jew, but it is forbidden for a Jew to do so.

58 נח

אָסוּר לִמָרֵחַ רְטִיָּה, וְכֵן שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ זֶפֶת. לָכֵן אָסוּר לִתֵּן שַׁעֲוָה אוֹ שֶׁמֶן עָב בַּנֶּקֶב לְסָתְמוֹ אוֹ לְדַבְּקוֹ עַל אֵיזֶה דָבָר לְסִימָן. אֲבָל אֹכֶל מֻתָּר לִמְרֹחַ, כְּגוֹן חֶמְאָה עַל הַלֶּחֶם וְכַדּוֹמֶה (שי"ד שכ"א).

It is forbidden to smear plaster or wax or tar. Therefore, it is forbidden to put wax or congealed oil into a hole to close it, or to stick it onto something for a marker. But it is permitted to smear food, like butter on bread or similar things.170Some people use liquid soap on Shabbos but Igros Moshe (Vol. I, 113) says that it is better not to use it.171See Igros Moshe (Vol. I, 112). It is forbidden to use toothpaste on Shabbos.

59 נט

אָסוּר לִשְׁבּוֹר אוֹ לַחְתֹּךְ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכָל. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהוּא מַאֲכָל, אֲפִלּוּ רַק לִבְהֵמָה, מֻתָּר. וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לַחְתּוֹךְ קַשׁ לַחֲצוֹץ בּוֹ שִׁנָּיו. וַעֲצֵי בְּשָׂמִים, מֻתָּר לִמְלוֹל וְלִקְטוֹם כְּדֵי לְהָרִיחַ בָּהֶם, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם קָשִׁים כָּעֵץ. אֲבָל לִקְטוֹם אוֹתָם כְּדֵי לַחְצוֹץ שִׁנָּיו, אָסוּר.

It is forbidden to break or cut anything that is not food; but it is permitted to cut food, even animal food. Therefore you may cut straw to pick your teeth. Fragrant woods may be crushed and broken172Only by hand and only to increase its fragrance, not to create its fragrance [Magein Avraham (322: 6)]. in order to smell them even if they are as hard as wood.173And not even edible for animals [Mishnah Berurah 322: 18]. But you may not break them to pick your teeth.

60 ס

אִילָן בֵּין שֶׁהוּא לַח בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁ, אֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ שׁוּם תַּשְׁמִישׁ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְנִידוֹ. (דְּאִם מְנִידוֹ, בְּלָאו הֲכִי אִכָּא אִסּוּר מֻקְצֶה). אֵין עוֹלִין בּוֹ, וְאֵין נִתְלִין בּוֹ. וְאָסור לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו אֵיזֶה חֵפֶץ אוֹ לִטְּלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ לִקְשׁוֹר בּוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּצִדְדֵי הָאִילָן, אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ. וְלָכֵן אִם סַל תָּלוּי עָלָיו, אָסוּר לִטּוֹל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר מִתּוֹךְ הַסַּל, אוֹ לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ, דְּהַסַּל הֲוֵי צְדָדֵי הָאִילָן. אֲבָל אִם יָתֵד תָּקוּעָה בָּאִילָן וְעָלֶיהָ תָּלוּי סַל, מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל מִתּוֹכוֹ אוֹ לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דְּאָז הֲוֵי הַסַּל צִדֵּי צְדָדִין. וְהַסַּל, אָסוּר לִקַּח מִשָּׁם אוֹ לִתְלוֹתוֹ שָׁם, מִשׁוּם דְּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּיָתֵד דַּהֲוֵי צִדְדֵי הָאִילָן.

A tree, be it green or dried up, may174Lest you pick fruits and leaves. The Rabbanan prohibited the use of any trees [Shulchan Aruch 336: 1, Rashi (Eruvin 100)]. not be used for any purpose, even if you do not shake it. (Because shaking the tree is in itself a violation of muktzeh.) You may not climb on it nor hang on it. It is forbidden to place any article on it or remove anything from it, or to tie an animal to it, or to make any other use of it. And even the sides of the tree are forbidden to be used.175Sides here refers to anything stuck into or tied to the tree. The real side of the tree is like the tree in all respects [Mishnah Berurah 336: 59]. Therefore, if a basket is hanging on it, it is forbidden to take anything from the basket or to place anything into it, for the basket is (considered) the side of the tree. But if a spike is driven into a tree and a basket is suspended from it, it is permissible to take things from it or to put (things) into it, because the basket is then considered the side of the side [of the tree]. It is forbidden to remove the basket from it or to hang the basket on the spike, because you would be making use of the spike which is the side of the tree.

61 סא

כְּלִי שֶׁזּוֹרְעִין בּוֹ מִינֵי עֲשָׂבִים אוֹ שׁוֹשַׁנִּים לְנוֹי אוֹ לְהָרִיחַ, אָסוּר לִתְלוֹשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לִתְלוֹשׁ מִן הָאִילָן. וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלוֹ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע לְהַעֲמִידוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר. דְכֵיוָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד עַל הַקַּרְקַע, מֵרֵיחַ הָאָרֶץ הוּא גָּדֵל, אִם כֵּן הַנּוֹטְלוֹ מִשָּׁם, הֲוֵי כְּמוֹ תוֹלֵשׁ. וְכֵן אִם עוֹמֵד בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ וּלְהַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הַקַּרְקַע, מִשּׁוּם דְּבָזֶה הֲוֵי כְּמוֹ זוֹרֵעַ. וּצְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל עֵץ בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל חֶרֶס, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא נָקוּב, בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב (של"ו).

If a vessel is used for planting herbs or roses for their beauty or fragrance; it is forbidden to pluck them from the vessel just as it is forbidden to pluck them from a tree. Care must be taken [that such a vessel] not be moved from the ground to set it in another place,176For example, to set it down on some object or platform [Shulchan Aruch 336: 8]. But from place to place on the ground it is permitted. Peri Megadim as quoted by Mishnah Berurah rules that there may be a violation of muktzeh if it is moved. because when it stands on the ground it is nourished from the aroma of the soil, therefore removing it from there is like plucking [something from the ground]. Similarly, if it is standing in another place, it is forbidden to remove it and place it on the ground, because doing this is equivalent to planting.177Biur Halachah (336: 2) says if you only intend to leave it on the ground a day or two, or if it is dry there and not fit for growing, you may place it there. (The problem of muktzeh mentioned earlier, however, remains). You must be diligent in all these matters, whether the vessel is of wood or of clay, and whether there is an opening on the bottom or not.178According to Rashi, Tosafos and Shulchan Aruch (312: 3), even when the vessel has an opening it is a rabbinic prohibition. However Rambam maintains that it would be a de’oraisa violation.

62 סב

אָסוּר לִכְתֹּב אוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵיזֶה צִיּוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ עִם הַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אוֹ עַל הַהֶבֶל שֶׁעַל חַלּוֹן זְכוּכִית (שִׁמְשַׁת הַחַלּוֹן) וְכֵן בְּכָל דָּבָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיִּם. וַאֲפִלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת רשֶׁם בְּעָלְמָא בְּצִפָּרְנוֹ עַל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר לְסִימָן, אָסוּר. נִמְצְאָה שַעֲוָה וְכַדּוֹמֶה שֶׁנָּטְפָה עַל הַסֵּפֶר, אֲפִלּוּ רַק עַל אוֹת אַחַת, אָסוּר לְהָסִירָהּ (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן כ"ד סָעִיף י"ב).

It is forbidden to write or draw any form, even with your finger, with liquid [spilled] on the tabletop, or with the condensation on a glass window, or with anything else, even if it is not of a permanent nature. Even to make a mark with your fingernail upon an object for a sign is forbidden.179Anything used as a sign is considered writing (like numbers, shorthand etc.). If wax or something similar is found on a book, even if it is only on one letter, it is forbidden to remove it.

63 סג

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לִכְתּוֹב, כָּךְ אָסוּר לִמְחוֹק כָּל מַה שֶּׁנִּכְתַּב. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אוֹתָן עוּגוֹת שֶׁעָשׂוּ עֲלֵיהֶן אוֹתִיּוֹת וְצִיּוּרִים, מֻתָּר לְשַׁבְּרָן וּלְאָכְלָן בַּשַׁבָּת. אַךְ אִם נַעֲשׂוּ כֵּן לִסְגֻלָּה לִקְטַנִּים, יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר בָּהֶם.

Just as it is forbidden to write, so is it forbidden to erase any writing. However, cakes upon which letters or figures were made, are permitted to be broken and eaten on Shabbos;180Dagul Meirevava (340: 3). Rema prohibits this (unless the letters are made from the cake itself [Acharonim, Mor Uktziya (340) etc.]). Mishnah Berurah is lenient when the letters are written with fruit juice etc. But if written with frosting you should not cut or break it in the place of the letters, but you may bite into it in the normal way of eating. but if they were made as a charm for children,181Such as birthday cakes, etc. you should be machmir (stringent).

64 סד

סְפָרִים, שֶׁעַל חֻדֵּי הַגִּלְיוֹנוֹת מִבַּחוּץ נִכְתְּבוּ אוֹתִיּוֹת, יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין לְפָתְחָן אוֹ לְסָגְרָן בַּשַׁבָּת וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין, וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִים. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאַחַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹסְרִין יֵשׁ לִמְנוֹעַ מִלִּכְתּוֹב כֵּן (ש"מ).

Books upon which the edges of the pages have written words, according to some (poskim), are forbidden to be opened or closed on Shabbos, but other (poskim) permit it, and such is the custom. However, since some poskim forbid it it is best not to write on the edges of pages.182Also, if you have another similar seifer you should use it rather than use the one with the writing [Mishnah Berurah (340: 17)]. If not, at least open and close it with your left hand [Eliyahu Rabbah].

65 סה

מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְיֻחָד לְמִדָּה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁל מוֹכֵר, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹטְלוֹ וּמוֹלִיכוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ. וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאִם הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵבִיא כְּלִי שֶׁלּוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה, דְּוַדַּאי מֻתָּר. אֲבָל לִמְדּוֹד בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְמִדָּה שֶׁל הַמּוֹכֵר וְלִשְׁפּוֹךְ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל לוֹקֵחַ, אָסוּר. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ: תֵּן לִי חֲמִשִּׁים אֱגוֹזִים וְכַדּוֹמֶה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר לוֹ שֵׁם מִדָּה וְלֹא דָּמִים, וְגַם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה חֶשְׁבּוֹן, לוֹמַר, הֲרֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְךָ בְּיָדִי חֲמִשִּׁים אֱגוֹזִים, תֵּן לִי עוֹד חֲמִשִּׁים וְיִהְיוּ לְךָ בְּיָדִי מֵאָה. וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יַזְכִּיר לְשׁוֹן מֶכֶר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ קוֹצֵץ הַדָּמִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת. וְעַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת בַּשַׁבָּת, וְהוּא הַדִּין בִּשְׂכִירוּת (ש"ו שכ"ג שכ"ה).

You are permitted to say to a friend, "Fill up this vessel for me," even though it is specifically used for measuring, and even if it belongs to the seller, so long as [you] the customer, takes it home. And certainly if the customer, brings his own vessel and says, "Fill up this vessel for me," it is surely permitted. However, it is forbidden to measure in a measuring vessel that belongs to the seller, and empty it into the customer's vessel. It is permissible to say to your friend, "Give me fifty nuts" etc. provided you do not mention any measure or money, and you also make no calculation saying, "I owe you for fifty nuts, give me another fifty nuts and I will owe you for a hundred." Certainly you should not speak in terms of sale, even if you do not set the price, and even if it is for Shabbos needs. It is forbidden to make purchases on Shabbos,183Even if you give him the money in the beginning of the week. See Mishnah Berurah 307: 15. [even] through a non-Jew and the same law applies to renting.

66 סו

מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, מַלֵּא לִי כְּלִי זֶה אוֹ תֵּן לִי בּוֹ עַד הָרֹשֶׁם הַזֶּה, וּלְמָחָר נִמְדֹּוֹד אוֹתוֹ אוֹ נִשְׁקוֹל אוֹתוֹ (שכ"ג).

You are permitted to say to a friend, "Fill up this vessel for me or fill it up until this mark184But you should not mention the name of the measuring vessel or fraction of it. [Rema 323: 2, Mishnah Berurah]. and tomorrow we will measure it or weigh it."

67 סז

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בִּנְיָן עֲרַאי בַּשַׁבָּת, כָּךְ אָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף עַל בִּנְיָן קָבוּעַ, אֲפִלּוּ תּוֹסֶפֶת עֲרָאי. וְלָכֵן פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר אֶלָּא לְעִתִּים רְחוֹקוֹת, אִם עָשָׂה לָהּ דֶּלֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירֶיהָ (צִיר, הוּא עֵץ אוֹ בַּרְזֶל הַבּוֹלֵט מִן הַדֶּלֶת שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בְּחוֹר שֶׁלְּמַטָּה בָּאַסְקֻפָּה, וּלְמַעְלָה בַּמַּשְׁקוֹף, שֶׁתְּהֵא הַדֶּלֶת חוֹזֶרֶת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּמַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינָתֵנוּ לְתַקֵּן אֶת הַדְּלָתוֹת באנגלען) בְּצִירִים קְטַּנִּים הַמִּתְחַבְּרִים לִמְזוּזַת הַפֶּתַח. אֶלָּא שֶׁקְּשָׁרָהּ שָׁם וּתְלָאָהּ שָׁם לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ, אִם יֵשׁ צִיר בְּדֶלֶת זוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּהּ עַתָּה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה לָהּ צִיר וְנִשְׁבַּר וּמְקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר, מֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ בַּשַׁבָּת. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִיא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁפּוֹתְחִים אוֹתָהּ הִיא נִגְרֶרֶת עַל הָאָרֶץ, וּכְשֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ מַגְבִּיהִין אוֹתָהּ וּמַעֲמִידִין אוֹתָהּ עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִיא קְשׁוּרָה וּתְלוּיָה, וְגַם יֵשׁ בָּה הֶכֵּר צִיר, נִכָּר שֶׁהִיא דֶּלֶת הָעֲשׂוּיָה לִנְעִילָה וּפְתִיחָה וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה. וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ עֲדַיִן צִיר. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַחְזִיר אֶת הַצִּיר לִמְקוֹמוֹ, דְּבָזֶה הֲוֵי בּוֹנֶה.

Just as it is forbidden to erect even a temporary building on Shabbos, so too is it forbidden to add even a temporary185The Magein Avraham and Shulchan Aruch Harav prohibit only a permanent addition. addition to a permanent structure. There is a halachic question regarding a door made for a doorway which is not used frequently for entrance and exit except on rare occasions. A door which does not swing on pivots or on hinges but rather was attached and suspended there, may be used to close [the opening], so long as there is a hinge on the door, or even if there is no hinge at present, but it had one that was broken and the place where it was is still discernible. Even if the door is such that when it is opened, it drags on the ground and in order to close it it must be raised and placed on the threshold, it is nevertheless permissible. (The reason is) since it is attached and suspended and there is also a mark of a hinge, it is obvious that it is a door used for closing and opening, and it does not appear as construction. Certainly this is true if it still has a hinge, provided that you do not slip the hinge into place, for this would be considered (the melachah of) building.

68 סח

אֲבָל אִם אֵין לָהּ הֶכֵּר צִיר, אָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ בַּשַׁבָּת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַפֶּתַח אֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהִפָּתֵחַ אֶלָּא לְעִתִּים רְחוֹקוֹת וְהַדֶּלֶת אֵינָהּ נִכֶּרֶת כְּדֶּלֶת, נִרְאֵית הַנְּעִילָה כְּמוֹ בִנְיָן. אַךְ אִם הִיא קְשׁוּרָה וּתְלוּיָה יָפֶה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁהִיא פְּתוּחָה אֵינָהּ נִגְרֶרֶת עַל הָאָרֶץ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ גָּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא כִּמְלֹא נִימָה, נִכֶּרֶת הִיא שֶׁהִיא דֶּלֶת וּמֻתָּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ.

But if there is no mark of a hinge, it is forbidden to close an opening with it on Shabbos. For since it is made to open only on rare occasions, and it is not obvious that it is used as a door, closing it is equivalent to building. But if it is attached and suspended well so that when it is opened it does not drag on the ground, even if it is suspended above the ground only a hairbreadth, it is clearly a door and it is permissible to close the opening with it.

69 סט

אִם אֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה וּתְלוּיָה כְּלָל, וּכְשֶׁפּוֹתְחִין שׁוֹמְטִין אוֹתָהּ לְגַמְרֵי, אָסוּר לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ בְּשׁוּם אֹפֶן פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר. אֲבָל פֶּתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר, מֻתָּר לִנְעֹל בָּהּ, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין בָּה הֶכֵּר צִיר.

If it is not attached and suspended at all, and upon opening it, it is removed entirely, it is absolutely forbidden to use it to close an opening not made for regular entrance and exit. But if it is an opening which is made for regular entrance and exit, it is permitted to close the doorway with it, even if there is no mark of a hinge on it.

70 ע

דֶּלֶת הָעֲשׂוּיָה מִלּוּחַ אֶחָד, אֵין נוֹעֲלִין בָּהּ פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וְלִיצִיאָה תָּדִיר. וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהּ צִיר, אִם אֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירֶיהָ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִלּוּחַ אֶחָד וְאֵינָהּ סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירֶיהָ, נִרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה וְסוֹתֵם מָקוֹם הַפָּתוּחַ, אֲבָל בְּפֶתַח הֶעָשׂוּי לִכְנִיסָה וִיצִיאָה תָדִיר, יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל לִנְעוֹל בָּהּ. וְדַוְקָא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם אַסְקֻפָּה, דְּאָז נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא פֶּתַח.

A door made of one (wooden) plank, may not be used to close a doorway that is not used for regular entrance and exit, even if it has a hinge, but it does not swing on its hinge, for since it is made of only one plank and it does not swing on its hinge, it appears like building and closing up an open space. But if an opening is made for regular entrance and exit, you may be lenient and close the doorway with it provided there is a doorsill, 186If the door is made of more than one plank, even if there is no doorsill, it is permitted [Misgeres Hashulchan]. for then it is obvious that it is a doorway.

71 עא

פְּקַק הַחַלּוֹן, כְּגוֹן לוּחַ אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁסּוֹתְמִין בּוֹ אֶת הַחַלּוֹן, יְכוֹלִין לְסָתְמוֹ בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר שָׁם. וְהוּא שֶׁכְּבָר סָתַם בּוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת קֹדֶם הַשַׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁחָשַׁב עָלָיו קֹדֶם הַשַׁבָּת לִסְתּוֹם בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא סָתַם בּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם, וְגַם לֹא חָשַׁב עָלָיו, אָסוּר לִסְתּוֹם בּוֹ בַּשַׁבָּת, אִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם שֶׁיְהֵא שָׁם לִזְמַן אָרֹךְ. אֲבָל דָבָר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם אֶלָּא לִזְמַן קָצָר, כְּגוֹן בֶּגֶד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, מֻתָּר לִסְתּוֹם בּוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן (עַיֵּן בחַיֵּי אָדָם).

A window shutter such as a plank or anything else with which a window is shut, may be used to shut the window even if it is not attached there, provided that it has already been used once to shut the window before Shabbos, or you had in mind to shut the window with it before Shabbos. However, if it was never used to shut the window, and you did not have in mind to do so, it is forbidden to shut a window with it on Shabbos, if it is a thing which is customarily left there for a long time. 187Halachically, once in 30 days is considered a long time [Tosafos Shabbos, Biur Halachah (313: 3)]. But something which is customarily left there only for a short time, such as a garment or the like, is permitted to be used for shutting under all circumstances.

72 עב

דְּלָתוֹת וְחַלּוֹנוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן תְּלוּיִים עַל צִירֵי בַּרְזֶל שֶׁנָּקֵל לְהָסִירָן וּלְהַחְזִירָן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר בַּשַׁבָּת לְהָסִירָן אוֹ לִתְלוֹתָן, כִּי הַתּוֹלֶה אוֹתָן הֲוֵי כְּבוֹנֶה וְהַמְּסִירָן הֲוֵי כְּסוֹתֵר (סִימָן שי"ג ובחיי"א).

Doors and windows even when they hang on iron hinges, and are easily removed and reset, nevertheless, it is forbidden to remove them or to hang them on Shabbos,188Taz (313: 5) Magein Avraham (308: 22). for one who hangs them is [in violation of] building and the one who removes them is [in violation of] demolition.

73 עג

אָסוּר לְכַבֵּד אֶת הַבַּיִת, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְרֻצָּף בַּאֲבָנִים אוֹ בִּנְסָרִים. וְעַל יְדֵי אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי, מֻתָּר. וְאִם עוֹשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוּי גָּדוֹל, כְּגוֹן עַל יְדֵי כְּנַף אַוָּז וְכַדּוֹמֶה, מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל (של"ז).

It is forbidden to sweep the house even if the floor is made of stone or wood.189Rema (337: 2). However, Biur Halachah rules that if your house and most of the houses in your city have floors (not dirt) you may sweep it with a soft bristled broom (whose bristles won’t break). But when a non-Jew does it, it is permitted.190Even to sweep a dirt floor. Even though it inevitably will make grooves, since it is not your intent, it may be done by a non-Jew [Mishnah Berurah (313: 10)]. If you do it in an entirely unusual manner, such as using the feathers of a goose wing,191The Maharshal forbids this too. The Rema permits it since they are light and make no grooves. Biur Halachah rules that you may be lenient when doing so in an entirely unusual manner. or something similar, it is permitted even for a Jew.

74 עד

לֹא יְשַׁפְשֵׁף בְּרַגְלוֹ רֹק שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַקַּרְקַע, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִדְרֹס עָלָיו בְּלֹא שִׁפְשׁוּף.

You may not rub saliva on the ground with your foot, but you may step on it without rubbing it.

75 עה

אָסוּר לִפָּנוֹת בִּשְׂדֵה נִיר בַּשַׁבָּת. (וּבְשֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לִכָּנֵס [בּוֹ], וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּחֹל כְּדִלְקַמָּן סִימָן קפ"ג סָעִיף ה').

It is forbidden to relieve yourself in a plowed field on Shabbos. (If it is someone else's field, it is forbidden to enter it [for such a purpose] even on weekdays, as stated in Chapter 183: 5.)

76 עו

מְחִצָּה אֲפִלּוּ הִיא עֲרָאִית, אִם נַעֲשֵׂית לְהַתִּיר אֵיזֶה דָּבָר, אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם טוֹב. וְלָכֵן אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה עַל יְדֵי וִילוֹן, וְכַדּוֹמֶה בִּפְנֵי אוֹר הַנֵּר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ. וְכֵן לִפְנֵי סְפָרִים, כְּדֵי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת צְרָכָיו (עַיֵן לְקַמָּן סִימָן ק"ג סָעִיף ו'). דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּחִצָּה מַתֶּרֶת, הִיא, חוֹלֶקֶת שָׁם רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹת הַסְּפָרִים בִּשְׁנֵי כִּסּוּיִין זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה, שֶׁאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל. וְאִם הַוִּילוֹן הַתָּלוּי לִפְנֵי הַמִּטָּה הָיָה פָּרוּס מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, בֵּין מִן הַצַּד בֵּין מִלְּמַעְלָה, מֻתָּר בַּשַׁבָּת לְפָרְסוֹ כֻּלוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי רַק תּוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרָאי. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהַוִּילוֹן תָּלוּי תָּמִיד בְּקָצֶה אֶחָד מְקֻפָּל, לֹא מִצְטָרֵף לְטֶפַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ לְשֵׁם אֹהֶל. וְכֵן מְּחִיצָה הַמִּתְקַפֶּלֶת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שְׁפַּאנִישׁ ווַאנְד), אָסוּר לְפָתְחָהּ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה פְּתוּחָה קְצָת מֵעֵרֶב שַׁבָּת. אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת מְקֻפֶּלֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַדֹּפֶן רָחָב יוֹתֵר מִטֶּפַח, לֹא מַהֲנֵי. אֲבָל מְחִצָּת עֲרַאי שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה לְהַתִּיר אֵיזֶה דָּבָר, אֶלָּא לְהָגֵן בִּפְנֵי הַחַמָּה, אוֹ בִּפְנֵי הָרוּחַ שֶׁלֹּא יִכַבֶה הַנֵּרוֹת וְכַדּוֹמֶה, מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ.

It is forbidden to make even a temporary partition, on Shabbos or Yom Tov192Tosafos (Maseches Shabbos 125), Shulchan Aruch (315: 1). if it is for the purpose of permitting something. Therefore it is forbidden to make a partition193Ten tefachim high. with a curtain or anything similar to block out the light of a candle in order to permit marital relations,194It is forbidden only when the partition is ten tefachim high and does not block out the light from above, for then marital relations are permitted only because of the partition which acts as a wall separating them from the light. [Because of the “wall,” the light is considered as coming from another room and in such a case, they must be totally covered when engaging in marital relations. In this case the curtain must be tied down so that it will not blow in the wind for otherwise it is not considered a wall. If, however, the partition completely blocks out the candlelight, it permits marital relations not because it serves as a wall, but rather because it covers the light. Therefore you may make such a partition on Shabbos. The same rule applies to sefarim [Magein Avraham (315) and Shulchan Aruch Harav]. Mishnah Berurah (315: 10) agrees that we may be lenient when it is absolutely necessary since the Rambam permits making a temporary wall for this purpose. or in front of seforim in order to have marital relations or (to permit) moving the bowels; for since the partition legalizes [these activities] it creates a separate domain and it is equivalent to making a tent.195It is permitted to make a partition between men and women in order for them to listen to a sermon [Mordechai, Mishnah Berurah (315: 5)]. However, it is permitted to cover the seforim with two coverings, one on top of the other for this does not constitute making a tent. If the curtain that hangs in front of the bed was spread out [at least] one tefach196See Glossary for dimension of tefach. before Shabbos, whether from the side or from the top, it is permitted to spread all of it on Shabbos, because then it is only an addition to a temporary tent. But the ruffled part of the curtain which always hangs at one end [of the bed] is not included in the tefach, because it is not intended to serve as a tent.197More exactly it is not there to serve as a wall [Chayei Adam, Mishnah Berurah (315: 11)]. Similarly, a partition called a "Spanish wall"198Folding wall (accordion type wall). is forbidden to be opened unless it was slightly opened from erev Shabbos.199At least a tefach. But the part that is always folded, even if that part of the wall is more than a tefach, cannot be considered. But a temporary partition that is not made to permit (anything) but rather to serve as a shield from the sun or to prevent wind from blowing out the candle, etc., is permitted.

77 עז

וְאֹהֶל, דְּהַיְנוּ גַּג הַמַּאֲהִיל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה אֶלָּא לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים וְכַדּוֹמֶה, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אֹהֶל עֲרַאי, אִם הוּא טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח בְּרוּם טֶפַח, אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ. וְלָכֵן עֲרִיסָה שֶׁל תִּינוֹק שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים בָּהּ חִשּׁוּקִים שֶׁל עֵץ וּפוֹרְסִין עֲלֵיהֶם סָדִין, אָסוּר לִפְרוֹס אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם טוֹב, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם פָּרוּס טֶפַח, דַּהֲוֵי רַק תּוֹסֶפֶת אֹהֶל עֲרַאי דְּמֻתָּר. וְכֵן אִם הַחֲשּׁוּקִים סְמוּכִין זֶה לָזֶה בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, נֶחְשָׁבִים כָּאֹהֶל, (כִּי הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי הִיא, שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, חָשׁוּב כְּלָבוּד, פֵּרוּשׁ כִּמְחֻבָּר וְסָתוּם), וּמֻתָּר לִפְרוֹס עֲלֵיהֶם סָדִין.

A tent, even if it is made only to shield from the sun or from the rain; and even if it is only a temporary tent, if it is one tefach by one tefach and one tefach high it is forbidden to be made on Shabbos.200This is a rabbinic prohibition, lest you come to make a permanent tent (roof). Therefore, it is forbidden to spread a sheet over a baby's crib that has wooden hoops on the top upon which a sheet is spread, unless at least a tefach was spread before Shabbos, [in which case] the remainder is only an addition to a temporary tent, which is permitted.201It is permitted to open and close the hood of a carriage because it is on hinges and is like opening and closing a door [Chazon Ish (52: 6) also see Rema (627: 3)]. If the hoops were close to each other, and were less than three tefachim apart, they are in themselves considered a tent, (for it is a law given [orally] to Moses on Mount Sinai that any space less than three tefachim is considered lavud, which means connected and closed) and it is permissible to spread a sheet over them.

78 עח

תֵּבָה שֶׁהַכִּסּוּי שֶׁלָּהּ אֵינָהּ מְחֻבֶּרֶת לָהּ בְּצִירִים, אָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי סוֹתֵר אֹהֶל. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְכַסּוֹת בּוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דְּעושֶׁה אֹהֶל. וּכְשֶׁנּוֹתְנִין טַבְלָא עַל חָבִית לִהְיוֹת לְשֻּׁלְחָן, צְרִיכִין לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת הֶחָבִית בַּצַּד הַפָּתוּחַ לְמַטָּה, שֶׁאִם יִתֵּן אֶת הַדַּף עַל הַצַּד הַפָּתוּחַ, הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל.

It is forbidden to remove the cover of a box [trunk] which is not attached with hinges, because it is equivalent to demolishing a tent. And likewise it is forbidden to cover the box with it because it is like making a tent. When placing a board on an [open] barrel to serve as a table, you must place the barrel with its open side on the bottom, because if you place the board on the open side, you will be making a tent.

79 עט

פִּי הֶעָשָׁן (אֲרֻבָּה) (קוימן רויכפאנג) אִם הוּא מִן הַצַּד, שֶׁהַסְּתִימָה הִיא כְּמוֹ תּוֹסֶפֶת מְחִצָּה, מֻתָּר לְסָתְמוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הוּא לְמַעְלָה, אָסוּר לְסָתְמוֹ בַּשַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם טוֹב, מִשּׁוּם דְּעושֶׁה אֹהֶל. וְאִם קְבוּעָה שָׁם דֶּלֶת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל סוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירִים, מֻתָּר לִסְתּוֹם בָּהּ, דְּכֵיון שֶׁהִיא קְבוּעָה שָׁם, הֲוֵי לָהּ כְּדֶלֶת הַסּוֹבֶבֶת עַל צִירִים (עַיֵן פְּרִי מְגָדִים סִימָן שט"ו, אֵשֶׁל אַבְרָהָם סָעִיף קָטָן ז').

If a chimney has its opening on the side, so that closing it is like adding to a partition, it is permissible to close it. But if the opening is on top of the chimney, it is forbidden to close it on Shabbos and Yom Tov because it is like making a tent.202According to Tosafos Shabbos this is only forbidden when the opening is three tefachim wide, but if less than that, lavud applies and it is considered closed and covered already and you may cover it. Mishnah Berurah (315: 20) relies on this. If an iron door is installed there that swings on hinges, it is permissible to close it, for since it is installed there it is like (any) door that swings on hinges.

80 פ

בֶּגֶד שֶׁשּׁוֹטְחִין עַל פְּנֵי חָבִית לְכַסּוֹתָהּ, אִם הֶחָבִית אֵינָהּ מְלֵאָה לְגַמְרֵי, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּין הַמַּשְׁקִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ לְהַכִּסּוּי חָלָל טֶפַח, אֲזַי לֹא יְכַסֶּה אוֹתָהּ עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלָּה, מִשּׁוּם אֹהֶל, אֶלָּא יַנִּיחַ מִקְּצָת פִּיהָ מְגֻלֶּה (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סָעִיף ל"ג).

If a garment was spread over the opening of a barrel203This refers only to a garment specifically used for this purpose. and the barrel is not entirely full, but there is an empty space of tefach between the beverage and the cover, you should not cover it completely because it is like (making) a tent, but rather leave a little of the opening uncovered.

81 פא

כָּל מְחִצָּה אוֹ אֹהֶל שֶׁאֲסוּרִין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ, אִם הוּא עָשׂוּי, אֲסוּרִין לַהֲסִירוֹ, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי סוֹתֵר אֹהֶל.

Any partition or tent which you are forbidden to make [on Shabbos], once it is made, you are forbidden to remove it, for it is like demolishing a tent.

82 פב

אָסוּר לָשֵּׂאת מִכְסֶה הֶעָשׂוּי לְהָגֵן מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים, שֶׁקּוֹרִין שִׁירֶם (שִׁמְשִׁיָה/מִטְרִיָּה) מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל (חיי"א, וְעַיֵּן שע"ת סִימָן ש"א).

It is forbidden to carry a covering that is made to protect from the sun or rain, which is called an umbrella, [because when you open it] it is considered making a tent.

83 פג

כֵּלִים שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל פְּרָקִים תְּחוּבִים זֶה בָּזֶה וְנִפְרְדוּ, אִם דַּרְכָּם לִהְיוֹת תָּמִיד רְפוּיִים, מֻתָּר לְהַחְזִירָם כָּךְ. אֲבָל אִם דַּרְכָּם לִהְיוֹת מְהֻדָּקִים בְּחֹזֶק, אָסוּר לְהַחְזִירָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּרִפְיוֹן. וְכֵן אִם הֵם מְחֻבָּרִים עַל יְדֵי חֲרִיצִים (בְּרָגִים) (שְׁרוֹיף) כֵּיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לִהְיוֹת מְהֻדָּקִים בְּחֹזֶק, אִם הֵם פְּרוּדִים, אָסוּר לְחַבְּרָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּרִפְיוֹן. אַךְ כִּסּוּי כֵּלִים, מֻתָּר לְהָסִירָן וְכֵן לְחַבְּרָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לְקִיּוּם, רַק לְפָתְחָן וּלְסָתְמָן תָּדִיר.

When vessels made of different sections inserted into one another became separated, if they were usually joined loosely, it is permissible to put them back, but if they were usually joined tightly, it is forbidden to put them back even loosely. Similarly if they were joined by means of screws, since they are usually joined tightly, if they became separated, it is forbidden to join them even loosely. However, it is permissible to remove pot covers and to put them on,204Even if they screw on and off. since they are not made to remain there, but rather to be opened and closed constantly.

84 פד

מַכְבֵּשׁ (פרעס) וְהֵם שְׁנֵי לוּחוֹת זֶה עַל זֶה וְכוֹבְשִׁין בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּגָדִים, אִם הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ הוּא שֶׁל בַּעֲל הַבַּיִת, מֻתָּר לְפָתְחוֹ לָקַחַת הַבְּגָדִים לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל אֵין כּוֹבְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ חֹל. וּמַכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל כּוֹבְסִין אוֹ שְׁאָר אֻמָּנִין, אָסוּר לִפְתּוֹחַ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְהֻדָּק בְּחֹזֶק, פְּתִיחָתוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִסְתִירָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה פָּתוּח מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אָסוּר לָקַחַת מִשָּׁם אֶת הַבְּגָדִים בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב גְּזֵרָה, שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לְפָתְחָוֹ עַתָּה.

When a press is made of two boards one on top of the other, between which clothes are pressed, if it is a household press it is permissible to open it to take out clothes needed for Shabbos and Yom Tov. But you may not press clothing in it, for you would be doing it for weekday needs. If it is a launderer's press or that of another craftsman, it is forbidden to be opened, for since it is joined together strongly, opening it is like demolition. Even if the press was opened before Shabbos it is forbidden to take clothing from there on Shabbos or Yom Tov. This is a gezeirah (rabbinic decree) lest you open it on Shabbos.

85 פה

סַפְסַל שֶׁנִּשְׁמְטָה אַחַת מְרַגְלָיו, אָסוּר לְהַחְזִירָהּ, וְגַם אָסוּר לְסָמְכוֹ עַל סַפְסָל אַחֵר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כְּבָר יָשַׁב עָלָיו כָּךְ, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ דַּף עַל סַפְסָלִּים אוֹ עַל חֲתִיכוֹת עֵצִים שֶׁהֱכִינָם מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְכָךְ.

If the leg of a stool came out,205This is a rabbinical decree, lest you put it in tightly, thereby doing the melachah of בּנֶה (building) or מַכָּה בְּפֵּטִישׁ (final hammer blow—completion) [Magein Avraham, Beis Yosef (308)]. it is forbidden to put it back,206If the leg broke or fell out and is no longer useful, you may move the stool and lean it on another stool [Taz, Shulchan Aruch Harav, Mishnah Berurah]. and it is also forbidden to lean the stool on another stool207This ruling is based on Rema (308: 16). Even according to this ruling, if you do not move it you may sit on it as is. [Eliyahu Rabbah, Mishnah Berurah]. unless you previously sat on it in this manner.208For then we do not fear you will put in its leg [Magein Avraham (308: 33)]. However, it is permissible to place a board on stools, or on pieces of wood that you prepared erev Shabbos for that (purpose).

86 פו

כְּלִי הַמּוֹרֶה אֶת הַשָּׁעוֹת (שָעוֹן) (אוהר זייגער), אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוֹלֵךְ, אָסוּר לְהַעֲרִיכוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיק הֲלִיכָתוֹ. וּבְיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי, יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוֹלֵךְ, לְהַעֲרִיכוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַיּוֹם, אֲבָל לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו. וּלְצֹרֶךְ חוֹלֶה, יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אִם אֵינוֹ נִמְצָא אֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי בְּנָקֵל.

It is forbidden to wind even an ongoing clock on Shabbos and Yom Tov to prevent it from stopping.209According to Mishnah Berurah (338: 15) it is also forbidden to shake the watch in order to get it moving again. On the second day of Yom Tov you may be lenient, so long as it is still going. It may be wound [only] for the need of Yom Tov but not for the next day. For a sick person210So that he will know when to take his medicine [Kalkeles Shabbos]. it is permitted in any case,211Even on Shabbos, provided it is still going. if a non-Jew cannot easily be found to do it.212It may be wound for a sick person, by a non-Jew, even if it stopped. See Shulchan Aruch 328: 17, Mishnah Berurah (338: 15). See Shulchan Aruch and Rema (338: 1).

87 פז

אָסוּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל שֶׁל שִׁיר בְּשַׁבָּת בִּכְלִי אוֹ בַּאֵבָרָיו (חוּץ מִבְּפִיו), אֲפִלּוּ לְהַכּוֹת בְּאֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו זוֹ עַל זוֹ אוֹ עַל הַלּוּחַ לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל אוֹ לְקַשְׁקֵשׁ בֶּאֱגוֹז אוֹ בְּזוּג לְתִינוֹק שֶׁלֹּא יִבְכֶּה. וְלֹא מְטַפְחִין יָד עַל יָד, וְלֹא מְרַקְּדִין. וְלִכְבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְטַפֵּחַ וּלְרַקֵּד. וְגַם הָעוֹשֶׂה לְתִינוֹק כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִבְכֶּה, אֵין מוֹחִין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין.

It is forbidden to make a musical sound with an instrument on Shabbos, or with the limbs of your body, (except the mouth). It is even forbidden to snap your fingers, or tap them on a board to make a sound, or to rattle a nut, or to ring a bell to silence a crying child. It is forbidden to clap or to dance.213Shulchan Aruch (339: 3). It is forbidden lest it cause you to fix musical instruments so that they will play. To clap in an irregular manner is permitted but everything else mentioned is prohibited even in an irregular manner [Biur Halachah (339)]. [However] in the honor of the Torah214I.e., such as on Simchas Torah, but for no other Simchah [Mishnah Berurah (339: 8)]. it is permissible to clap and dance. Also if someone does it to silence a crying child, you should not protest for there are (poskim)215Rema (339: 3) —Tosafos. Mishnah Berurah rules that this applies only to clapping and dancing but not to rattling nuts etc. who permit it.

88 פח

קוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שִׁיר, מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ, וְלָכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַקִּישׁ עַל הַדֶּלֶת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתְּחוּ לוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְהַשְׁמִיעַ קוֹל בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, כְּגוֹן לְהַקִּישׁ עַל הַדֶּלֶת בְּטַּבַּעַת הַקָּבוּעָה בָּהּ, אוֹ בְּפַעֲמוֹן הַמְיֻחָד לָזֶה. וְכֵן אוֹתָן כְּלֵי שָׁעוֹת (שְׁעוֹנִים) (אוּהְר זֵייגֶער), שֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיוֹת לְקַשְׁקֵשׁ הַשָּׁעוֹת עַל יְדֵי מַה שֶּׁדּוֹחֲקִין בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁמּוֹשְׁכִין בְּחוּט הַמְיֻחָד לְכָךְ, אֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב.

It is permitted to make non-musical sounds. Therefore it is permissible to knock on a door so that it will be opened for you, and similar things [are also permitted]. Some authorities hold that it is nevertheless forbidden to make noise with a special instrument such as knocking on a door with the knocker attached to it or to ring the bell set up for that purpose.216Biur Halachah rules that you may do so if you have no other means of getting into your house. However, care should be taken to avoid such situations. Similarly, those clocks that are made to strike the hours by means of pressing them, or by pulling a special chain, may not be operated as such on Shabbos or Yom Tov.

89 פט

הַמְשַׁמֵּר פֵּרוֹת אוֹ זְרָעִים מִפְּנֵי חַיָּה וְעוֹף, לֹא יַסְפִּיק כַּף אֶל כַּף, וְלֹא יִטְפַּח כַּפָּיו עַל יְרֵכוֹ, וְלֹא יְרַקֵּד בְּרַגְלָיו כְּדֵי לְהַבְרִיחָם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בַּחֹל.

If you are guarding fruits or grain against animals and birds, you may not clap your hands, nor slap your hands on your thighs, nor stamp your feet to chase them away217Lest you throw a rock at them in a reshus harabbim (public domain—see chapter 81) [Shulchan Aruch (338: 4)]. as you would do on weekdays.218In an irregular manner it is permissible [Mishnah Berurah 338: 17].

90 צ

אֵין שׁוֹחֲקִין בָּאֱגוֹזִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, אֲפִלּוּ מְרֻצָּף, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּנָשִׁים וּקְטַנִּים, לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ, וּמוּטָב שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹגְגִים וְאַל יִהְיוּ מְזִידִים (של"ח).

It is not permitted to play with nuts or the like on the ground, even if covered by a floor.219Shulchan Aruch (338: 5). For fear that holes will be made in the ground. Even if it is not a dirt floor the Sages prohibited it, since it is not an important activity. They prohibited this on all floors for fear that it will be played on a dirt floor [Shulchan Aruch Harav]. You should nevertheless not protest against women and children (who do it), for they will certainly not listen, and it is better that they err unintentionally rather than intentionally.220Rema (338) —Tosafos.

91 צא

בְּעִנְיַן קִפּוּל בְּגָדִים, יֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה חִלּוּקֵי דִּינִים, וְאֵין לְקַפֵּל שׁוּם בֶּגֶד (ש"ב).

In reference to folding clothing221I.e., on its creases. You may fold your tallis but not on its creases. See Shulchan Aruch (302: 3). there are many halachic intricacies and you should (therefore) not fold any garment.

92 צב

טַלִּית שֶׁאָחַז בּוֹ הָאוּר, מֻתָּר לִשְׁפֹּךְ עָלָיו שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם אֵשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם הַמַּשְׁקִים, תִּכָּבֶה, אֲבָל מַיִם, אָסוּר לִשְׁפֹּךְ עָלֶיהָ.

If a garment is caught on fire it is permissible to spill any kind of beverage on the spot which is not yet burning, so that when the fire reaches the wet part it will be extinguished, but it is forbidden to spill water on the garment.222This includes other liquids that clean, for fear that you will squeeze it or because soaking it is like washing it.

93 צג

אֵין מַצִּיעִין אֶת הַמִּטָּה מִשַׁבָּת לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לִישֹׁן עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לִישֹׁן עָלֶיהָ עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵכִין מִשַׁבָּת לְחֹל וְאָסוּר (ש"ב).

You may not make your bed on Shabbos for use after Shabbos. Even if there is still time left in the day during which you can sleep while it is still Shabbos, nevertheless, since it is not your intention to sleep on it until after Shabbos, you are preparing something on Shabbos for weekdays, and this is forbidden.223If the bed is in the living room, it is permissible for it is embarrassing and thus is considered a Shabbos need [Magein Avraham 302: 6].