Siman 77ע״ז
1 א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת בִּדְבָרִים, שֶׁנּאֱמַר זָכוֹר אֶת יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְשׁוֹ, כְּלוֹמַר זָכְרֵהוּ זְכִירַת שַׁבָּת בַּקִדּוּשׁ. וְצָרִיךְ לְזָכְרֵהוּ בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ וְגַם בִּיצִיאָתוֹ בַּהַבְדָּלָה. וְתִקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁתְּהֵא זְכִירָה עַל כּוֹס יַיִן, בֵּין בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ בֵּין בִּיצִיאָתוֹ (רע"א).

It is a positive Biblical commandment to sanctify the Shabbos day with words, as it is said:1Exodus 20: 8. "Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it," implying that Shabbos should be remembered with kiddush. And you must remember it when it arrives by reciting kiddush, and also when it departs by reciting havdalah. The Sages2Rambam (Shabbos 29: 1). Some Poskim hold that kiddush over wine is also a Biblical obligation [Rashi, Maseches Berachos 20]. ordained that this remembrance should be enacted over a cup of wine, when it arrives and when it departs.3See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, chapter 96: 3.

2 ב

יְכוֹלִין לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכוֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲדַיִן אֵינוֹ לַיְלָה. אַךְ הַנּוֹהֲגִין כָּל יְמוֹת הַחֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל מַעֲרִיב בִּזְמַנָּהּ וּבְשַׁבָּת מַקְדִּימִין (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי בְּסִימָן שֶׁלִפְנֵי זֶה), אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין לֶאֱכוֹל מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ חֲצִי שָׁעָה קֹדֶם צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים. וְלָכֵן אִם אֵין יוֹתֵר מֵחֲצִי שָׁעָה עַד הַלַּיְלָה, צְרִיכִין לְהַמְתִּין עַד הַלַּיְלָה, וְאָז יִקְרְאוּ תְּחִלָּה שָׁלֹשׁ פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַדֵּשׁ. וְאָסוּר לִטְעֹם כְּלוּם וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ.

You may recite kiddush and eat the Shabbos meal even though it is not yet night.4Mishnah Berurah 267: 1 says it is preferable to eat at least one kazayis of bread after nightfall, which is also the ruling of Sefer Chassidim and Maharal. However, those accustomed to pray Maariv at the proper time, during weekdays but who pray earlier on Shabbos, are forbidden to eat after one half-hour before the stars appear.5See Magein Avraham 267: 2. However one should not rebuke those who are lenient. Also see Sha’ar Hatziyun 267: 11. If therefore it is only one-half hour until nightfall, they must wait until nightfall. And then they should first read the three chapters of Shema and after that recite kiddush. It is forbidden to eat anything, even (to drink) water before kiddush.6This is true once it gets dark or if you ushered in the Shabbos while it was yet daytime [Magein Avraham 271: 5]. At twilight it is also forbidden, see Magein Avraham 271: 10. But Daas Torah rules that one may be lenient in case of discomfort from thirst.7You may rinse your mouth with more than a revi’is of water but with other liquids only less than a revi’is. [Peri Megadim 271: 5].

3 ג

מִצְוָה לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל יַיִן יָשָׁן, וּמִצְוָה לִבְרוֹר יַיִן יָפֶה. וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר, יֵשׁ לְהַדֵּר אַחַר יַיִן אָדֹם. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יַיִן כָּשֵׁר כָּרָאוּי מָצוּי, מְקַדְּשִׁין גַּם עַל יַיִן צִמּוּקִים (עַיֵן לעֵיל סִימָן נ"ג סָעִיף ו). וַיְכֻלּוּ, יֵשׁ לוֹמַר מְעֻמָּד. וּמִסְתַּכֵּל בַּנֵּרוֹת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵשֵׁב. וּמִסְתַּכֵּל בַּכּוֹס וּמְבָרֵךְ בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן וַאֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ וְכוּ'. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ יַיִן, מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל הַפַּת וְלֹא עַל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין (רע"א רע"ב).

It is a mitzvah to recite kiddush on old wine and a mitzvah to select fine wine. And if possible you should dignify the kiddush by using red8Raisin wine is preferable to very white wine. [Tashbeitz]. wine. Where suitable9Perhaps the word “suitable” is intended to exclude white wine (see footnote 8) or wine only permissible because of great monetary loss (see Chasam Sofer Responsa, Orach Chaim 65). kosher wine is unavailable you may recite kiddush on raisin10Some hold that the raisins must be crushed first and then allowed to stand for three days. (Shulchan Aruch Harav, 272: 7) and others disagree [Chok Yaakov 472: 22, Peri Megadim 462: 6], and some hold that they should be cut up first (Misgeres Hashulchan on Kitzur, Chapter 53: 6]. wine.11The raisins must be soaked three days. (See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 53: 6). You should say Vayechulu while standing12Shulchan Aruch. See Rema 271: 10. and while looking at the candles;13Maharil. We are not very punctilious about doing this according to Mishnah Berurah and Eliyahu Rabbah. and afterward you should sit down14Tosafos (Maseches Berachos 43a), Rambam (Sukkah 6: 12), Ravad, Gra, Chayei Adam. The Ari z” l stood for the entire kiddush and so do the Kabbalists [see Siddur Sheloh]. and look15Rema 271. The reason for this is to help you concentrate on the kiddush. at the (kiddush) cup and say the berachah Borei peri hagafen [Who creates the fruit of the vine] and Asher Kideshanu [Who sanctified us, etc.]. If you don't have16Even if it is very expensive, you must buy it [Magein Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 272]. wine you may recite kiddush over bread17If you prefer bread to wine you may use it for kiddush in place of wine. See Mishnah Berurah and Biur Halachah 272: 9. A kazayis of bread is sufficient if that is all you have [Chayei Adam 6: 10].18When making kiddush over bread, you must rest your hands on the bread until you complete the kiddush. but not on any other beverage.

4 ד

גַּם הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּקִדּוּשׁ. עַל כֵּן יִשְׁמְעוּ הֵיטֵב אֶת הַקִּדּוּשׁ וְיַעֲנוּ אָמֵן, אֲבָל בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּךְ שְׁמוֹ לֹא יֹאמְרוּ (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ו' סָעִיף ט). וְקָטֹן אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֶּן שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ שֶׁהֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת הָאִשָּׁה, וְלָכֵן תְּקַדֵּשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בְּעַצְמָהּ. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת, תֹּאמַר עִם הַקָּטֹן מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה. וְגַם אִם שׁוֹמַעַת אֶת הַקִּדּוּשׁ מִן הַבַּעַל אוֹ מֵאִישׁ אַחֵר, יוֹתֵר נָכוֹן הוּא שֶׁתֹּאמַר עִם הַמְּקַדֵּשׁ מִלָּה בְּמִלָּה (עַיֵן דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה. וְעַיֵּן בְּשׁלְחָן עָרוּךְ הַתַּנְיָא). (אִם יֵשׁ כַּמָה בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, אֵיךְ יִתְנַהֲגוּ בַּקִּדּוּשׁ, עַיֵן לְקַמָּן סִימָן קל"ה סָעִיף ו') (רע"א).

Women are also obligated to recite kiddush.19See Maseches Berachos 20b. Therefore when necessary they may say kiddush and thereby exempt men but they should not do so in public [Bais Yosef 271. See Taz, Magein Avraham 271: 2]. Therefore they should listen well to the kiddush and answer Amein. But the should not say20For it is an interruption of the berachah. [Dagul Meirevavah, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6: 9]. Many Poskim maintain that it is permitted to say it. [Chikrei Leiv, Beis Aharon etc. See Birkei Yosef. Also see Maharam Schick (Orach Chaim resp. 51)]. Our custom is not to say it, but one need not protest when others say it. Baruch Hu uvaruch shemo [Blessed is He and blessed is His Name.] A minor,21Not found in all editions. even if he is thirteen years old, but is not known to have two pubic hairs, cannot exempt the woman, and therefore the woman should recite kiddush herself.22Magein Avraham. And if she doesn't know how to say it, she should say it word by word with the minor.23Peri Megadim. Also see Magein Avraham 193. Similarly if she hears the kiddush from her husband or another man, it is most proper that she should say it word by word24This applies to a situation where she does not understand the words. Also see Shaarei Teshuvah 296: 3. with the one who recites kiddush. (See Dagul Meirevavah and Shulchan Aruch haTanya.) (If there are several heads of a household in one house, the correct procedure of reciting kiddush is discussed in chapter 135, paragraph 6.)

5 ה

יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ, אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו. וְכֵן יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ רֵיחַ רָע, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַמֵּץ, אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ וְטַעֲמוֹ יַיִן, שֶׁמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן, רַק שֶׁמַּסְרִיחַ קְצָת מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלִי מָאוּס, וְכֵן אִם הוּא מֵרִיחַ אַחַר הֶחָבִית (תוספת שַׁבָּת בשם ש"א) אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו. וְכֵן יַיִן שֶׁעָמַד מְגֻלֶּה אֵיזֶה שָׁעוֹת (אַף עַל גַב דְּהָאִידְנָא לָא קָפְּדֵינָן אַגִלּוּי), אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ הֲיִרְצְךָ אוֹ הֲיִשָּׂא פָּנֶיךָ. יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קְמָחִין, יֵשׁ לְסַנְּנוֹ. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְסַנְּנוֹ, מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו כָּךְ. אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ עָלָיו קְרוּם לָבָן, אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו דְּמִסְּתָמָא פָּג טַעֲמוֹ.

Wine that turned sour should not be used for kiddush.25This applies to the case where it is so sour that people refrain from drinking it [Magein Avraham 272: 3]. This law also applies to wine that has a bad odor, even though it has not turned sour. If its odor and taste is that of wine over which the berachah Borei peri hagafen is said, but it has a slightly disagreeable odor because it was kept in a filthy barrel, or it has the same odor as the barrel,26Shaarei Efraim. it should not be used for kiddush. Similarly, wine that remained uncovered for several hours, (even though nowadays we are not strict27For there is no likelihood that a poisonous snake might have drunk from it. about this) should not be used for kiddush,28See Magein Avraham 272: 1. If it remained uncovered only a short time it might be used since wine was hard to come by (in those times) and also connoisseurs are not particular about it either. See Chayei Adam 6: 7. [as the Prophet says]: "If you offer it now to your governor, will he be pleased with you, or show you favor?"29Malachi 1: 8. Since it is not good enough for a human ruler, it certainly is unsatisfactory for service to Hashem. If the wine is powdery30Not in all editions. it should be strained, and if it can not be strained, it may be used for kiddush as is.31Shulchan Aruch Harav 272: 3, but others hold that it cannot be used. [Derech Hachaim]. But if there is a white film on it, it should not be used for kiddush, because presumably it has lost its flavor.32Shulchan Aruch Harav.

6 ו

מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל וְעַל יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דְּבָשׁ. אַךְ יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עֲלֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן דְּאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לַמִּזְבֵּחַ. עַל כֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר, יֵשׁ לְהַדֵּר אַחַר יַיִן אַחֵר (ער"ב).

Kiddush may be said on boiled wine33Yerushalmi, Rosh (Maseches Bava Basra 97a) Tur. and on wine that has honey [or sugar] in it. But there are those who say34Ritz-Gaus, Rambam (29: 14). that these should not be used for kiddush since they are not fit for use on the Altar.35The Rosh maintains that boiling improves the wine and it is therefore kosher for kiddush even though it is not fit for the altar. Rema 272: 8 upholds our custom of using it when it is superior to the other available wines. But if they are of equal quality, you should be stringent and use the non-boiled wine [Mishnah Berurah]. Therefore if possible an attempt should be made to obtain other wine.

7 ז

הַכּוֹס צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת שָׁלֵם וְנָקִי. וְכָל הַדִּינִים שֶׁהֵן בַּכּוֹס שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן (לְעֵיל סִימָן מ"ה סָעִיף ג' וְסָעִיף ד') יֵשׁ גַּם בַּכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ בֵּין בַּיּוֹם בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה, וְכֵן בַּכּוֹס שֶׁל הַבְדָּלָה. וְטוֹב לְקַדֵּשׁ בַּלַּיְלָה עַל כּוֹס גָּדוֹל שֶׁיְשַׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ לְקִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם וּלְהַבְדָּלָה.

The (kiddush) cup must be whole and clean. All the laws36See Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Chapters 45, 63, and 64. that apply to the cup used for Birkas hamazon apply to the cup used for both the day and night Kiddush and also to the cup used for havdalah. It is good to say kiddush at night over a large cup so that some of it remains for the kiddush of the day and for havdalah.

8 ח

הַחַלּוֹת תִּהְיֶינָה מְכֻסּוֹת בִּשְׁעַת קִדּוּשׁ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְקַדֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן, תִּהְיֶינָה מְכֻסּוֹת בִּשְׁעַת קִּדּוּשׁ זֵכֶר לַמָּן שֶׁהָיָה מְכֻסֶּה בְּטַל מִלְּמַטָּה וּמִלְמַעְלָה.

The challahs should be covered during kiddush,37In order not to shame the bread which was not used for kiddush even though it is more significant than wine in most respects [Tur, Yerushalmi]. and even if you say kiddush over them they should be covered during kiddush in commemoration of the manna which was covered with dew both underneath and from above.38Tur. According to this reason, the challahs should be covered until after Birkas Hamotzi [Mishnah Berurah 271: 41, Chayei Adam].

9 ט

הַמְקַדֵּשׁ, יִשְׁתֶּה מִן הַכּוֹס לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק. וּמִצְוָה שֶׁיִּטְעֲמוּ כֻּלָּם מִכּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה. מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן מֵחֲמַת גֶּדֶר אוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁמַּזִּיק לוֹ וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אֵין לוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן עַל סְמַךְ שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ הַמְסֻבִּין (רעא רעב).

The person who recites kiddush should drink at least a full cheek of wine39Depending on the size of your cheek. But it must be most of a revi’is. See Biur Halachah 271: 13. Also see Toras Refa’el (Shabbos Resp. 9). from the cup without interruption. It is a mitzvah for everyone to taste40[Shulchan Aruch 271: 14]. Even though it is a mitzvah, it is not as important as the mitzvah that requires the one who recites kiddush to drink a cheekful of wine. Therefore if there is not sufficient wine, he should not give the others to taste of the wine [Magein Avraham, Mishnah Berurah]. from the cup of blessing. Someone who does not drink wine because of a vow, or because it is harmful to him, or for similar reasons, should not make kiddush on wine41Magein Avraham 272: 9, Chayei Adam 6: 6, Mishnah Berurah, but Rema, Derech Hachaim, and Shulchan Aruch Harav permit it. and rely on those present to drink it.

10 י

יַיִן שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַסְּעוּדָּה, אֵינוֹ טָעוּן בְּרָכָה לְאַחֲרָיו, דְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן פּוֹטַרְתּוֹ. אַךְ יֵשׁ פּוֹסְקִים דִּסְבִירָא לְהוּ, דְּאֵינוֹ פּוֹטַרְתּוֹ. עַל כֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר, יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַדֵּר, שֶׁלְּאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן יְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס יַיִן וְיִשְׁתֶּה רְבִיעִית, וִיבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה לִפְטוֹר גַּם אֶת הַכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ.

The kiddush wine is a necessary part of the meal, and does not require a [separate] after-berachah, because the Birkas hamazon exempts it.42Even though no wine was consumed during the meal. Mishnah Berurah 272: 38. But there are Poskim43Tur, Shulchan Aruch 272: 10. who hold that Birkas hamazon does not exempt it. Therefore after Birkas hamazon you should endeavor to make a berachah over a cup of wine, and drink a revi'is and say the concluding berachah which will also exempt the wine of kiddush.

11 יא

עַל הַיַּיִן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָּה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁנִּפְטַר בְּבִרְכַּת בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֵן שֶׁבַּקִּדּוּשׁ (ער"ב).

On wine which you drink during the meal you need not say a berachah, for it is exempt with the berachah Borei peri hagafen of kiddush.

12 יב

קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס סָבַר שֶׁהוּא יַיִן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא מַיִם אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה, יַחֲזוֹר וִיקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיָיִן. וְאִם עָמַד לְפָנָיו יַיִן עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן. וְהָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן גַּם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָּה, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ שֵׁנִית, דַּהֲוֵי כְּאִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה יַיִן לְפָנָיו עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אֲבָל הָיָה יַיִן בְּבֵיתוֹ וְהָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָּה, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ וְכוּ' (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן נ"ו סָעִיף ז'), וְאִם הָיָה הַכּוֹס שֶׁל שֵׁכָר אוֹ מֵי דְבַשׁ (מעד) בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא חֲמַר מְדִינָה (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן מ"ה סָעִיף א'), בְּכָל אֹפֶן אֵין צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ שֵׁנִית, אֶלָּא יְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהַכֹּל וְיִשְׁתֶּה. וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַר נְטִילַת יָדַיִם קֹדֶם בְּצִיעַת הַפַּת, גַּם כֵּן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזוֹר וּלְקַדֵּשׁ, אֶלָּא מְבָרֵךְ הַמּוֹצִיא. וַהֲוֵי כְּאִלּוּ קִדֵּשׁ עַל הַפַּת (רע"א).

If you made kiddush on the cup, thinking that it contained wine and then discovered that it contains water or some other beverage, you must repeat the kiddush over wine.44Taz 271: 19, Magein Avraham 271: 32. If there was wine on the table and you also intended to drink wine during the meal, you need not repeat the kiddush,45Taz, Shulchan Aruch Harav. Mishnah Berurah. See Sha’ar Hatziyon 271: 86. because it is considered as though you made kiddush on that wine. And if there was no wine on the table, but there was wine in the house which you intended to drink during the meal, you need not say the berachah, Borei peri hagafen [Who created the fruit of the vine] but only the [berachah] Asher kideshanu, [Who sanctified us.] If the cup contained beer or mead, [and you live] in a place where they are accepted beverages, in any case there is no need to repeat the kiddush,46Chayei Adam. and you should say the berachah Shehakol and drink it. And in places that are accustomed to reciting kiddush after washing the hands, before breaking the bread, there is also no need to repeat kiddush, rather say the berachah Hamotzi and it is considered as though you said kiddush over the bread.47Radvaz, Mishnah Berurah 271: 78

13 יג

גַּם בַּיּוֹם בִּסְעוּדַּת שַׁחֲרִית צָרִיךְ לְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַכּוֹס, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן, וְזֶהוּ הַקִּדּוּשׁ. וְגַם נָשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּקִדּוּשׁ זֶה (פרמ"ג). וְגַם קֹדֶם קִדּוּשׁ זֶה, אָסוּר לִטְעֹם כְּלוּם, וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם, כְּמוֹ בְּקִדּוּשׁ הַלַּיְלָה (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן ח' סָעִיף ב') וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קִדּוּשׁ זֶה גַּם כֵּן עַל הַיַּיִן דַּוְקָא. וְאִם חָבִיב לוֹ יַיִן שָׂרָף וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עָלָיו, גַּם כֵּן יוֹצֵא, אַךְ שֶׁיְהֵא הַכּוֹס מַחֲזִיק רְבִיעִית, וְיִשְׁתֶּה מְלֹא לֻגְמָיו בְּלִֹי הֶפְסֵק וְאִם מְקַדֵּשׁ עַל הַיַּיִן וְרוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת גַּם יַיִן שָׂרָף אוֹ קַאפֶע, (עַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן מ"ט סָעִיף ו').

By day, at the morning meal, you must also recite kiddush over a cup [of wine]. You need say over it only the berachah Borei peri hagafen [Who creates the fruit of the vine] and this is [sufficient for] kiddush. Women are also obligated to say this kiddush. Before this kiddush it is also forbidden to taste any food or even water,48It is, however, permitted to drink water in the morning before Shacharis because you are not yet obligated to say kiddush. A sick person who is permitted to eat and drink before praying should certainly recite the kiddush before eating [Biur Halachah 281]. just as before the kiddush at night.49If you have nothing over which to recite kiddush at night but you expect that it will arrive at night, you should wait until midnight (Chayei Adam, Mishnah Berurah), but for the morning kiddush you need not wait [Mishnah Berurah 289: 10]. It is a mitzvah performed in its perfection when this kiddush is also said specifically over wine. [However], if you prefer whiskey and say kiddush over it, you also fulfill the mitzvah,50Chayei Adam, Mishnah Berurah rule that it is even permitted initially, provided that whiskey is drunk daily by most people. See Magein Avraham 272. but you should be careful [to see] that the cup holds a revi'is51See glossary. and you should drink a full cheek without interruption.52Magein Avraham 194: 4. See Chasam Sofer Resp. 49 and Maharsham (Vol. 1, Resp. 175). If you say kiddush on wine and you also want to drink whiskey or coffee see chapter 49, paragraph 6, regarding the proper berachah.

14 יד

בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה בֵּין בַּיּוֹם, אֵין קִדּוּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְקָרָאתָ לַשַׁבָּת עֹנֶג, וְדָרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה קוֹרֵא לַשַׁבָּת, כְּלוֹמַר, קְרִיאָה דְּקִדּוּשׁ, שָׁם יְהֵא עֹנֶג. וְאִם קִדֵּשׁ בְּבַיִת זֶה וְאוֹכֵל בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם בִּשְׁעַת קִדּוּשׁ הָיָה בְּדַעְתוֹ כֵּן, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ, וְגַם צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ. וְאִם לֹא אָכַל מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַקִּדּוּשׁ, לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי קִדּוּשׁ. וּבַיּוֹם אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכוֹל מִיָּד סְעוּדָּה קְבוּעָה, יָכוֹל לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכוֹל קְצָת פַּת כִּיסָנִין, וְאָז צָרִיךְ לִשְׁתּוֹת מִן הַכּוֹס רְבִיעִית, כְּדֵי לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה עַל הַמִּחְיָה וְעַל פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן. וְזֹאת יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת גַּם קֹדֶם מוּסָף אִם לִבּוֹ חָלוּשׁ (עַיֵן סָעִיף שֶׁאַחַר זֶה) וּמוֹהֵל שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס הַמִּילָה וַעֲדַיִן לֹא קִדֵּשׁ, יִשְׁתֶּה מִן הַכּוֹס כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו וְעוֹד רְבִיעִית (עַיֵן סִימָן שֶלִפְנֵי זֶה סָעִיף ח').

Both at night and during the day53See Rambam (29: 10). kiddush must be recited only at the place where the meal is served, as it is said, "And you will call the Shabbos a delight."54Isaiah 58. And our Rabbis of blessed memory expounded:55Rashbam (Maseches Pesachim 101a). In the place where you call forth the Shabbos, namely with the saying of kiddush, that should be the place of delight.56This implies the Shabbos meal. Therefore, if you say kiddush in one house and eat in another house, even if during kiddush you had this in mind,57Having intention helps only in regard to two places which are under one roof [two different rooms in the same building]. However, initially this should not be practiced because of the objection of Ran (Biur Halachah 273: 1). 58Regarding the question if you can see the place in the other house, from the place where you said kiddush, see Shaar Hatziyun 273: 8. you have not fulfilled the mitzvah of kiddush. You are also required to eat the meal immediately after kiddush. And if you did not eat immediately after kiddush, you did not fulfill the mitzvah of kiddush. By day, even if you do not want to eat the regular meal immediately, you can recite the kiddush, and eat some cake,59This is not the general custom. but then you must drink a revi'is60See glossary. [of wine] from the cup in order to say the berachah Al hamichyah ve'al peri hagafen, [for the food and for the fruit of the vine.] This may also be done before Musaf, if one has a weak heart.61See Rambam (Tefilah 6: 4), Shulchan Aruch 286: 3, etc. and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (following paragraph). One may do this initially (even if he has no weak heart). If one has a weak heart he may do this even if he has nothing over which to say kiddush [Eliyahu Rabbah, Mishnah Berurah 286: 9]. A mohel who must say a berachah on the cup [of wine drunk] at the circumcision and has not yet recited kiddush, should first drink a cheekful from the cup and an additional revi'is.

15 טו

מֻתָּר לִטְעֹם אַחַר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף. וּטְעִימָה, הַיְנוּ פַּת כַּבֵּיצָה וְלֹא יוֹתֵר. וּפֵרוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה, כְּדֵי לִסְעוֹד אֶת הַלֵּב, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְקַדֵּשׁ תְּחִלָּה וְיִשְׁתֶּה כִּמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו וְעוֹד רְבִיעִית יַיִן, (דִּלְעֵת הַצֹּרֶךְ סַמְכִינָן, דְּזֹאת הֲוֵי קִדּוּשׁ בִּמְקוֹם סְעוּדָּה), אוֹ יִשְׁתֶּה רְבִיעִית יַיִן וְיֹאכַל כַּזַּיִת מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן (רע"ג רפ"ו).

You are permitted to taste something after the Shacharis service, before the Musaf service. Tasting is limited to a kebeitzah62See glossary. size piece of bread and no more,63Shulchan Aruch 286: 3. See footnote 59. but you may eat fruit in abundance in order to strengthen yourself. However, you must recite kiddush first and drink a cheekful [of wine] and then an additional revi'is of wine, (for in a time of need this is considered kiddush at the place of the meal).64Shulchan Aruch Harav (273) rules that in time of need, you can rely on drinking only a revi’is. You may drink a revi'is of wine and eat a kazayis of food made of any of the five species of grain as an alternative.

16 טז

כָּל אָדָם מִיִשְֹרָאֵל בֵּין אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה, חַיָּבִים לֶאֱכֹל בְּשַׁבָּת שָׁלֹשׁ סְעוּדּוֹת, אַחַת בַּלַּיְלָה וּשְׁתַּיִם בַּיּוֹם. וְחַיָּב לֶאֱכוֹל בְּכָל סְעוּדָּה פַּת, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּסְעוּדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית יִזָּהֵר מְאֹד לֶאֱכוֹל פַּת דַּוְקָא. (וְכֵיון שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל יָדָיו וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַנְּטִילָה, צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל פַּת כַּבֵּיצָה, עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן מ' סָעִיף א'). לָכֵן יִזָּהֵר כָּל אָדָם, שֶׁלֹּא לְמַלְֹאת כְּרֵסוֹ בִּסְעוּדַּת שַׁחֲרִית, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת שָׁלֹשׁ סְעוּדּוֹת, וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ כְּלָל לֶאֱכוֹל פַּת גְּמוּרָה, יֹאכַל לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת פַּת כִּיסָנִין אוֹ שְׁאָר מַאֲכָל הֶעָשׂוּי מֵחֲמֵשֶת מִינֵי דָּגָן שֶׁמְבָרְכִין עָלָיו בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת, שֶׁהוּא נִקְרָא מָזוֹן. וְאִם גַּם זֹאת אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, יֹאכַל עַל כָּל פָּנִים דְּבָרִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְלַפֵּת בָּהֶם אֶת הַפַּת, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וְדָגִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. וְאִם גַּם זֹאת אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, יֹאכַל עַל כָּל פָּנִים פֵּרוֹת מְבֻשָּׁלִים. זְמַן סְעוּדָּה שְׁלִישִׁית הוּא מִשֶּׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן מִנְחָה גְּדוֹלָה, דְּהַיְנוּ מִשֵּׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה וָאֵילָךְ.

Every Jew, man or woman,65Ran (Maseches Shabbos 117) Rabbeinu Tam. is obligated to eat three meals on Shabbos, one at night and two during the day. You must eat bread at each meal. And even at the third meal you should be very meticulous to eat bread. (And since you wash your hands and say a berachah on washing you must eat a kebeitzah size piece of bread.)66See Shulchan Aruch 291: 1. Magein Avraham (291: 2) holds that the Shabbos meal requires a bit more than a kebeitzah. Mishnah Berurah agrees but rules that, if there is no choice, even a kazayis is enough. Therefore everyone should be careful not to eat to excess at the morning meal in order to fulfill the mitzvah of [eating] three meals.67If you eat when you are too full, it is not considered eating and you have not fulfilled the mitzvah. If eating causes you discomfort, you are not obligated to do so for the meal is for enjoyment. [Shulchan Aruch 291: 1, Mishnah Berurah]. If it is impossible for you to eat bread [at the third meal], you should at least eat cake or some other food made from the five species of grain over which the berachah Borei minei mezonos is said, for this [too] is considered food. And if this is also impossible, you should at least eat things that are usually eaten with bread such as meat or fish or similar things. And if this too is impossible, you should at least eat cooked fruits. The time for eating the third meal is from the time of Minchah Gedolah which is from six and one-half hours [of the day] and after.

17 יז

וְחַיָּב לִבְצוֹעַ בְּכָל סְעוּדָּה עַל שְׁתֵּי כִּכָּרוֹת שְׁלמוֹת, וְאוֹחֵז שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּיָדוֹ בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיא וּבוֹצֵעַ אַחַת מֵהֶן. וְנוֹהֲגִין לִרְשׁוֹם בַּסַכִּין עַל הַכִּכָּר בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִבְצוֹעַ, וְהַטַּעַם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּחֹל צְרִיכִין לַחְתֹּךְ קְצָת סְבִיב הַפַּת קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי בְּסִימָן מ"א סָעִיף גּ', וּבַשַׁבָּת אִי אֶפְשָׁר, מִשּׁוּם דִּבָעֵינָן שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפַּת שְׁלֵמָה בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּרָכָה, וְלָכֵן עַל כָּל פָּנִים רושְׁמִין מְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הֵיכָן יַחְתְּכוּ וְלֹא יִצְטָרְכוּ לְהַפְסִיק הַרְבֵּה וּלְעַיֵּן בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם יַחְתְּכוּ. וְיֵשׁ לְהַנִּיחַ הַכִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁתְּהֵא זוֹ שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִבְצוֹעַ אוֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְהַעֲבִיר עַל הַמִּצְוָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹכֵל כַּמָּה סְעוּדּוֹת צָרִיךְ בְּכָל סְעוּדָּה שְׁתֵּי כִּכָּרוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת. וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמְקַדֵּשׁ בַּיּוֹם בְּשַׁחֲרִית קֹדֶם הַסְּעוּדָּה הַקְּבוּעָה וְאוֹכֵל פַּת כִּיסָנִין, יֵשׁ לָקַחַת שְׁתַּיִם שְׁלֵמוֹת (כֵּן רָאִיתִי לִנְהוֹג אֵצֶל גָּדוֹל אֶחָד).

You are obligated to break bread over two whole loaves at each meal. Both of them should be held in your hand when you make the berachah Hamotzi and then one of them is broken. It is customary to mark the loaf with the knife at the place you want to cut. The reason is because on weekdays you must cut a little around the bread before saying the berachah Hamotzi as it is written in chapter 41, paragraph 3. On Shabbos, however, this cannot be done, because the loaves must be whole when the berachah is said. Therefore you should at least mark the place so that you know the exact spot to cut, without pausing too long before deciding where to cut.68Machatzis Hashekel 274. You should place the loaves in such a way that the one you want to cut is in front of you, so that you will not need to pass over the mitzvah.69If you should pass over one loaf, it looks as if you are ignoring a potential object of a mitzvah. And even if you eat many meals, you must have two whole loaves at each meal.70Rema 291: 4. Similarly, when you say kiddush in the morning before your regular meal, and you have cake, you should also have two whole cakes.71Maharsham (289) disagrees. He holds that if you do this, it will indicate that you are having a regular meal, and you will have to wash, say Hamotzi and Birkas Hamazon.

18 יח

אִם אֵין לְכָל הַמְסֻבִּין בַּשֻּׁלְחָן לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה, אֶלָּא לִפְנֵי אֶחָד, יִבְצַע הוּא לְהוֹצִיא אֶת כֻּלָּם, וְגַם בְּבִרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיא יֵצְאוּ בְּמַה שֶּׁבֵּרֵךְ הַבּוֹצֵע. וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיְבָרֵךְ הַמּוֹצִיא, יֹאמַר: בִּרְשׁוּת מוֹרַי וְרַבּוֹתַי, וּלְאַחַר שֶׁטָּעַם הוּא מִפְּרוּסַת הַמּוֹצִיא, נוֹתֵן לְכָל אֶחָד פְּרוּסָה וְאוֹכְלִים (רע"ד רצ"א).

If all those seated at the table are not provided with two whole loaves, but only one of them [has two loaves], he should break [his two loaves]72See Eshel Avraham (of Betchutch, Poland) (274) that this applies even when the others have not yet washed their hands. Also see Sho’eil Umeishiv (5, Resp. 86). [having in mind to] exempt the others. Similarly, regarding the berachah Hamotzi, they are exempt with his berachah. Before saying the berachah over the loaves, you should say: "With the permission of my teachers and masters." And after you eat from the bread of the motzi, you should give everyone a piece of bread and they too should eat.73Magein Avraham 274. According to Rema 166 and Taz, the others should be given the bread first.

19 יט

אִם לֹא קָרָא הַפָּרָשָׁה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא יֹאכַל שַׁבָּת בְּשַׁחֲרִית עַד שֶׁיִּקְרָאֶהָ, וְאִם לֹא קְרָאָהּ קֹדֶם הָאֲכִילָה, יִקְרָא עַל כָּל פָּנִים קֹדֶם מִנְחָה, וּבְדִיעֲבַד, עַד סוֹף יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי (רפ"ה).

If you did not read the weekly portion of the Torah on Erev Shabbos, you should not eat the Shabbos morning meal until you read it. And if you did not read it before eating, you should at least read it before Minchah. And post facto,74Shulchan Aruch 285: 4. you may read it until Tuesday night.

20 כ

אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בַּשַׁבָּת לְשֵׁם תַּעֲנִית, אֲפִלּוּ זְמַן קָצָר. וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְשֵׁם תַּעֲנִית, אָסוּר עַל כָּל פָּנִים לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַד חֲצוֹת.

It is forbidden to fast on Shabbos for the sake of fasting, even for a short time; and even if not intended as a fast, it is forbidden in any case to fast until noon.75Even if you delay eating because of doing a mitzvah, unless you enjoy it more than eating [Shulchan Aruch Harav 287: 1].

21 כא

אָסוּר לְהִצְטַעֵר, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, עַל אֵיזֶה צָרָה רַחֲמָנָא לִצְלָן, אֶלָּא יְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים מִבַּעַל הָרַחֲמִים.

It is forbidden to grieve, heaven forbid, over any misfortune, may the Merciful One save us, but you should seek mercy from the Merciful One.76Details in Shulchan Aruch 287–288.

22 כב

מִצְוָה לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּפֵרוֹת וּמִגְדָנוֹת וּמִינֵי רֵיחַ, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים מֵאָה בְּרָכוֹת וּמִצְוָה לְעַנְּגוֹ בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא לוֹ לְעֹנֶג, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְקָרָאתָ לַשַׁבָּת עֹנֶג.

It is a mitzvah to partake generously of fruits and delicacies and to enjoy fragrances in order to complete the total of one hundred berachos.77Maseches Menachos 23a Shulchan Aruch 290: 1. It is a mitzvah to delight in everything that gives you delight, as it is said: "And you shall call the Shabbos a delight."78Isaiah 58: 13.

23 כג

אַחַר סְעוּדַּת שַׁחֲרִית, אִם רָגִיל לִישֹׁן, יִישַׁן. אֲבָל אַל יֹאמַר: אִישַׁן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֲנִי צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה אוֹ לָלֶכֶת בַּדֶּרֶךְ בַּלַּיְלָה.

After the morning meal, if you are accustomed to sleep you may do so,79See Ran (Maseches Nedarim 37b). but do not say, "I will sleep [now] because I have to do work or start on a journey at night."80Magein Avraham - Sefer Chassidim.

24 כד

אַחַר כָּךְ קוֹבְעִים לִלְמוֹד תּוֹרָה. בְּפָרָשַׁת שַׁבָּת נֶאֱמַר, וַיַּקְהֵל מֹשֶׁה, וְדָרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ וַיַּקְהֵל, וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר כֵּן בּבְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּה. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמֹשֶׁה, רֵד וַעֲשֵׂה לִי קְהִלוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת בַּשַׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִלְמְדוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֶיךָ לְהַקְהִיל קְהִלּוֹת בְּכָל שַׁבָּת לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה בָּרַבִּים. עוֹד אָמְרוּ, לֹא נִתְּנוּ שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים לְיִשְֹרָאֵל אֶלָּא לַעֲסוֹק בָּהֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, כִּי הַרְבֵּה אֲנָשִׁים טְרוּדִים כָּל יְמִי הַחֹל בִּמְלַאכְתָּם וְאֵין לָהֶם פְּנַאי לַעֲסוֹק בַּתּוֹרָה בִּקְבִיעוּת, וּבְשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁהֵם פְּנוּיִים מִמְּלַאכְתָּם, יְכוֹלִין לַעֲסוֹק בַּתּוֹרָה כָּרָאוּי. לְפִיכָךְ בַּעֲלֵי מְלָאכָה וּבַעֲלֵי בָּתִּים שֶׁאֵינָם עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה כָּל יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ, הֵמָּה מְחֻיָּבִים יוֹתֵר לַעֲסוֹק בַּתּוֹרָה בְּיוֹם שַׁבָּת קֹדֶשׁ, אִישׁ אִישׁ כְּפִי הַשָּׂגָתוֹ וִיכָלְתּוֹ (ר"צ).

After sleeping you should set a time for learning Torah. In the portion of the Torah relating to Shabbos it is said: "And Moshe assembled."81Exodus 35: 1. And our Rabbis82Midrash Tanchuma Beis Yosef 290. of blessed memory expounded: Why does it say in this portion "and he assembled," whereas it is not said thus elsewhere in the entire Torah? The Holy One, blessed is He said to Moshe, Go down, and make for Me large assemblies on Shabbos so that future generations will learn [from you] to gather assemblies every Shabbos to learn Torah in public. They83Yerushalmi Beis Yosef 288. said further, Shabbos and Yom Tov were given to Israel only for the study of Torah, because many people are burdened during the week with their daily tasks, and they have no time to engage in the study of Torah regularly. However on Shabbos and Yom Tov when they are free from their work they can learn Torah properly. Therefore workers and laymen who are not engaged in Torah study during the week, are more obligated to engage in the study of Torah on the holy Shabbos, each man according to his understanding and ability.