Siman 15ט״ו
1 א

אַחַר יִשְׁתַּבַּח, אוֹמֵר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חֲצִי קַדִּישׁ. אֵין אוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ וּבָרְכוּ וּקְדֻשָּׁה וְאֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים גְּדוֹלִים. וְאִם לֹא הָיוּ עֲשָׂרָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ יִשְׁתַּבַּח אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁלְמוּ אַחַר כָּךְ, לֹא יֹאמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר קַדִּישׁ, כִּי אֵין אוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ אֶלָּא אַחַר דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּעֲשָׂרָה. וְלָכֵן יַמְתִּינוּ מִלּוֹמַר יִשְׁתַּבַּח עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ עֲשָׂרָה. וִיכוֹלִין לְהַמְתִּין עַד קָרוֹב לַחֲצִי שָׁעָה, וְיוֹתֵר לֹא יַמְתִּינוּ, אֶלָּא יֹאמְרוּ יִשְׁתַּבַּח וְיַמְתִּינוּ. וּכְשֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ עֲשָׂרָה, יֹאמְרוּ תְחִלָּה אֵיזֶה פְּסוּקִים וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם יֹאמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חֲצִי קַדִּישׁ (נ"ג נ"ה ס"ט רל"ד).

After [completing] Yishtabach the chazzan says half-Kaddish.1Kaddish was instituted by the Anshei Knesses Hagedolah (the men of the Great Assembly) as a prayer of praise to offset the profaning of His Name resulting from the destruction of the First Temple and the Land of Israel. We pray that His Name be exalted and sanctified instead. Due to its great and awesome ramifications, our Sages wanted everyone to understand the meaning of this prayer and thus instituted that it be said in the spoken tongue; namely, Aramaic. There are also Kabbalistic reasons for the Kaddish being said in Aramaic. Kaddish, Barechu and Kedushah cannot be said and the Torah cannot be read unless there are ten adult men present. If ten men were not present when Yishtabach was said but, the minyan was completed afterwards, then, the chazzan may not say Kaddish, because Kaddish is said only following something that was said by ten men. They should, therefore, wait to say Yishtabach until ten [men] arrive. They may wait until almost a half-hour. They should not wait longer, but, rather, they should say Yishtabach and then wait. When ten [men] arrive they should first say a few verses, and afterwards the chazzan says half-Kaddish.

2 ב

גָּדוֹל, הַיְנוּ שֶׁעָבְרוּ לוֹ שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְנִכְנַס לִשְׁנַת י"ד, (וְסוֹמְכִין עַל הַחֲזָקָה דְּמִסְּתָמָא הֵבִיא בּ' שְׂעָרוֹת) כְּגוֹן שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּרֹאשׁ חוֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, אֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל עַד רֹאשׁ חוֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, דְּהַיְינוּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה שֶׁל רֹאשׁ חוֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן לְאַחַר י"ג שָׁנִים נַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל. מִי שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר כְּּשֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁנָה פְשׁוּטָה, וּכְשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גָּדוֹל הַשָׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, אֵינוֹ נַּעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל עַד אֲדָר שֵׁנִי. אֲבָל אִם נוֹלַד בְּשָׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת בַּאֲדָר רִאשׁוֹן, נַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל גַּם כֵּן בַּאֲדָר רִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם כְּשֶׁנּוֹלַד הָיְתָה שָׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, וּכְשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גָּדוֹל הִיא שָׁנָה פְּשׁוּטָה, בֵּין שֶׁנּוֹלַד בַּאֲדָר רִאשׁוֹן, בֵּין שֶׁנּוֹלַד בַאֲדָר שֵׁנִי, נַעֲשֶׂה גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם זֶה בַּאֲדָר שֶׁל עַתָּה. וְנִמְצָא כִּי לִפְעָמִים, נַעַר שֶׁנּוֹלַד קוֹדֶם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, יִתְאַחֵר יוֹתֵר לִהְיוֹת גָּדוֹל מֵחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁנּוֹלַד אַחֲרָיו, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ בְּשָׁנָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, זֶה בְּכ' לַאֲדָר רִאשׁוֹן וְזֶה בְּי' לַאֲדָר שֵׁנִי וְהַשָּׁנָה אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשִׂים גְּדוֹלִים הִיא שָׁנָה פְּשׁוּטָה.

An adult, is one whose thirteenth year has passed and he has entered his fourteenth year (we may rely on the assumption that he has probably grown two pubic hairs.)2The sign of the onset of adulthood. For example: If he was born on Rosh Chodesh Nissan, he does not attain adulthood until Rosh Chodesh Nissan; that is, at the beginning of the night of Rosh Chodesh Nissan; thirteen years after birth, he becomes an adult. If he is born in the month of Adar during a regular year3I.e., not a leap year and there is only one Adar. and when reaching adulthood it is a leap year,4I.e., there are two Adars. he does not attain adulthood until the second Adar. But, if he is born on the first Adar of a leap year, he also attains adulthood during the first Adar. If he is born during a leap year and he reaches adulthood during a regular year, regardless of whether he was born during the first Adar or during the second Adar—he attains adulthood on his birthday during the Adar of the present [year]. Thus, at times, the result is that a boy born before his friend, may attain adulthood later than his friend who was born after him. For example: they were both born during a leap year; one on the twentieth of Adar I, and the second on the tenth of Adar II, and the year they attain adulthood is a regular year.5Then the birthday of the first one is the twentieth, whereas the second one’s birthday is on the tenth.

3 ג

צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר, שֶׁלֹּא לִמְנֹת אֵת הָאֲנָשִׁים לְגֻלְגְּלוֹתָם לֵידַע אִם יֵשׁ מִנְיָן, כִּי אָסוּר לִמְנֹת אֵת יִשְֹרָאֵל לְגֻלְגְּלוֹתָם, אֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה דִּכְתִיב וַיְשַׁמַּע שָׁאוּל אֵת הָעָם וַיִפְקְּדֵם בַּטְּלָאִים (פר"ח) וְנוֹהֲגִין לִמְנוֹתָם בַּאֲמִירַת הַפָּסוּק הוֹשִׁיעָה אֵת עַמֶךָ וְגוֹ' שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ עֲשָׂרָה תֵּבוֹת.

Care should be taken not to take a head-count of people to verify whether there is a minyan,6A quorum of ten. because it is forbidden to take a head-count of Jews even for the purpose of a mitzvah, for it is written: "And Saul gathered the nation and counted them by means of lambs."7King Saul told each of them to take a lamb from the king’s flocks, then he proceeded to count the lambs, thereby avoiding the direct counting of the people. See I Samuel 15:4. It is customary to count them by reciting the verse: Hoshiah es amecha etc8Psalms 28:9. which contains ten words.

4 ד

צְרִיכִין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הָעֲשָׂרָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר עִמָּהֶם, אֲבָל אִם מִקְּצָתָם בְּחֶדֶר זֶה וּמִקְּצָתָם בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר, אֵינָם מִצְטָרְפִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָרֹב הֵמָּה בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְהַמִּעוּט בַּעֲזָרָה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֵינָם נִגְרָרִים אַחַר הָרֹב לְהִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם וַאֲפִלּוּ הָעוֹמְדִים עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח מִן הָאֲגַף וְלַחוּץ. דְּהַיְנוּ, כְּשֶׁסּוֹגְרִין אֵת הַדֶּלֶת, נִמְצָא מָקוֹם זֶה לַחוּץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַתָּה הַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם נִדּוֹן כְּלַחוּץ, וְכָל זֹאת לְעִנְיַן צֵרוּף לַעֲשָׂרָה אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה, וְאוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ אוֹ בָּרְכוּ אוֹ קְדֻשָּׁה, אֲזַי כָּל הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ קוֹלָם, יָכוֹל לַעֲנֹת עִמָּהֶם, אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה בָּתִּים מַפְסִיקִים בֵּינֵיהֶם, כִּי אֲפִלּוּ מְחִיצָה שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל, אֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּין יִשְֹרָאֵל לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא שָׁם צוֹאָה אוֹ עֲבוֹדַת גְּלִילִים. (נ"ה)

It is necessary that all ten [men] be in one place and the chazzan with them. If some are in one room and some in another room, they are not considered combined, though the door between them is open. Even if the majority are in the synagogue and the minority are in the vestibule in front of the synagogue, they are not drawn to the majority to be combined with them.9I.e., the minority on the outside remain a separate group and are not combined with the majority to make up a minyan. Even those standing on the threshhold, within the opening on its outer flank, that is—when the door is closed — that place is on the outside, though the door may now be open, nevertheless, it is considered outside. All this applies to combining ten [for a minyan], but, if there were ten and they are saying Kaddish, Barechu or Kedushah, then, whoever hears them may respond with them, even if many houses separate them [from the main minyan], because even an "iron curtain"10Lit. “iron partition.” cannot separate Israel from their Father in Heaven, provided that there was no excrement or idolatry present there.11I.e., between the minyan and those responding.

5 ה

צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מְאֹד, לִשְׁמֹעַ הַקַּדִּישׁ וְלַעֲנֹת אַחֲרָיו בְּכַוָּנָה, וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן בְּאָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵיה רַבָּא, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְכַוֵּן הֵיטֵב, שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹנֶה אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵיה רַבָּא בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ וְכַוָּנָתוֹ, קוֹרְעִין לוֹ גְּזַר דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה, וְיֵשׁ לַעֲנֹת אוֹתוֹ בְּקוֹל רָם, שֶׁבְּקוֹל זֶה שׁוֹבֵר כָּל הַמְקַטְרְגִים, וּמְבַטֵּל כָּל גְּזֵרוֹת קָשׁוֹת, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא יִתֵּן קוֹלוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלוֹצְצוּ עָלָיו בְּנֵי אָדָם וְיִגְרֹם לָהֶם חֵטְא. אוֹמְרִים אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵיה רַבָּא וְכוּ' עִם תֵּבַת יִתְבָּרַךְ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁמַע מִן הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר וְיֹאמַר אָמֵן.

You should take great care to listen to the Kaddish and respond with concentration. Certainly at Amein, yehei shemei rabba … you should concentrate well, for, who ever responds, Amein, yehei shemei rabba … with all his strength and concentration his decree of seventy years is nullified.12Shabbos 119b—i.e. even a decree that was imposed upon him in his youth may be nullified. The response should be loud, because with this sound you can shatter all the indictments13Lit. indicters. and nullify all evil decrees. Nevertheless, you should not overshout so that people will not ridicule you thereby, causing them to sin. Amein,yehei shemei rabba etc. is said along with the word: yisbarach.14Tur and Rambam rule that the response should be only until olmaya. The Shulchan Aruch, however, rules that Yisbarech should also be said. Both customs are prevalent. Afterwards you should listen to the chazzan and respond: Amein.

6 ו

יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִין לַעֲמֹד בְּקַדִּישׁ, אַךְ כָּל קַדִּישׁ שֶׁתָּפְסוּ בַּעֲמִידָה, כְּגוֹן אַחַר הַלֵּל, יֵשׁ לַעֲמֹד עוֹד בּוֹ, עַד לְאַחַר אָמֵן יְהֵא שְׁמֵיה רַבָּא. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לַעֲמֹד תָּמִיד, לְקַדִּישׁ וְלִשְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה, דְּיֵשׁ לִלְמֹד בְּקַל וָחֹמֶר מֵעֶגְלוֹן מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב, דִּכְתִיב וְאֵהוּד בָּא אֵלָיו וְגוֹ' וַיֹּאמֶר אֵהוּד דְּבַר אֱלֹהִים לִי אֵלֶיךָ וַיָּקָם מֵעַל הַכִּסֵּא, וּמָה עֶגְלוֹן מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים קָם לִדְבַר ה', כָּל שֶׁכֵּן אֲנַחְנוּ עַמּוֹ, וְכֵן יֵשׁ לְהַחְמִיר. (נ"ו)

Some authorities maintain that you are not required to stand during Kaddish. But, if you are already standing when Kaddish is to be said for instance, after Halleil,15And one is required to stand during Halleil. you should remain standing until after: Amein, yehei shemei rabba. Others hold the opinion that you should always stand during Kaddish as well as during other prayers of Kedushah.16E.g., Barechu or Kedushah of Shemoneh Esrei. This can be derived by means of a kal v'chomer17Kal vachomer—if a strict rule applies to a lenient law, then it certainly applies to a stringent law. The converse is also true—if a lenient rule applies to a strict law, then it certainly applies to a lenient law. from the case of Eglon, king of Moab, for it is written:18Judges 3:20. "Ehud came to him etc. and Ehud said: 'I have brought you a word of God. ' And he (Eglon) stood up from his throne."19Thus, we see that Eglon rose to hear the word of God. If Eglon King of Moab, who was an idol worshipper, rose [to hear] the word of God, how much more so, [should] we, who are His people. Therefore, it is preferable to be stringent.

7 ז

אִם אֵין ט' שׁוֹמְעִין לְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר, לֹא יֹאמַר כְּלָל קַדִּישׁ, כִּי כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה אֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּפָחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה דְּהַיְנוּ אֶחָד אוֹמֵר וְתִשְׁעָה שׁוֹמְעִים, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶחָד מֵהָעֲשָׂרָה מִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲנֹת עִמָּהֶם מִצְטָרֵף וְהוּא הַדִּין לְב' וְג' וְד', כָּל שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר הָרֹב שֶׁעוֹנִין, אֵין הַמִּעוּט מְעַכֶּבֶת, אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָשֵׁן, צְרִיכִין לְהָקִיצוֹ, כִּי הַיָּשֵׁן אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לַעֲשָׂרָה. (נ"ו)

If there are not nine [men] listening to the chazzan he should not say Kaddish at all because a sacred prayer20E.g. Barechu or Kedushah of Shemoneh Esrei. should not be said with less than ten; that is one reciting and nine listening. Nevertheless, if one of the ten is in the middle of his Shemoneh Esrei although he cannot respond with them he may be counted [in the ten]. The same applies to two, three or four, [who are in mid Shemoneh Esrei] as long as there is a majority responding, then the response of the minority is not a necessity. However, if one of them is asleep, he should be wakened because one who is sleeping cannot be counted in the ten.21In a case of extreme circumstances, a sleeping person may be counted for Kaddish and Kedushah but not for the repetition of Shemoneh Esreh.

8 ח

לְאַחַר שֶׁאָמַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חֲצִי קַדִּישׁ, אוֹמֵר בְּקוֹל רָם בָּרְכוּ אֵת ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ, וְהַצִּבּוּר עוֹנִין בָּרוּךְ ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד, וְהַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר גַּם כֵּן בָּרוּךְ ה' הַמְבֹרָךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד, שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא אֵת עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל, שֶׁאוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרְכוּ, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ. יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲנֹת אַחַר הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר אָמֵן, אֲבָל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לֹא יַעֲנֶה אַחַר אֲמִירַת הַקָּהָל. אִם הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מַאֲרִיךְ בְּנִגּוּן בְּבָרְכוּ, אוֹמְרִים הַקָּהָל יִתְבָּרַךְ וְכו' וְאֵין לְאָמְרוֹ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מְנַגֵן, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר הַתֵּבוֹת, לֹא יֹאמְרוּ כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא יִשְׁמְעוּ מַה שֶּׁהוּא אוֹמֵר. אַף מִי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע מִן הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁאָמַר בָּרְכוּ אֶלָּא שׁוֹמֵעַ שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר עוֹנִין בָּרוּךְ וְכוּ' יָכוֹל גַּם הוּא לַעֲנֹת עִמָּהֶם. (עַיֵּן א"ר קלט סק"ט) (נז קכד קלט קצב).

After the chazzan says half-Kaddish, he says aloud: Barechu es Hashem hamevorach, and the congregation responds: Baruch Hashem hamevorach le'olam va'ed, and the chazzan, as well, repeats: Baruch Hashem hamevorach le'olam va'ed, so that he does not exclude himself from the congregation, by telling them to bless [God] and he himself does not do so. There are some whose custom it is to respond Amein to the chazzan. But the chazzan should not respond after the congregation's blessing. If the chazzan prolongs the melody while saying Barechu, the congregation says Yisbarach etc. [However,] it should be said only while he (the chazzan) sings, but while he says the words, they should say nothing, but rather listen to what he is saying. Even if you did not hear the chazzan saying Barechu but only heard the congregation respond Baruch etc., you may respond along with them.

9 ט

הַקְדֻשָּׁה שֶׁבְּיוֹצֵר יֵשׁ לְהַדֵּר לְאָמְרָהּ בְּצִבּוּר, וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר אוֹמְרָהּ גַּם בִּיחִידוּת. (נ"ט)

The Kedushah of Yotzeir22Yotzer—the first of the two berachos that precede Kerias Shema. should preferably be said with the congregation. But, if this is not possible you may also say it individually.23Generally, Kedushah can only be said communally by the congregation (see para. 1). Therefore, Rambam rules that when praying individually the Kedushah of Yotzeir should be omitted. However, Rosh and others disagree because the text here only relates to the practice of the angels while saying Kedushah: Therefore, it may be said even individually. The poskim generally agree with Rosh in this instance.

10 י

אִם אֵין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת רַק מִנְיָן מְצֻמְצָם, אָסוּר לְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֵם לָצֵאת, וְעַל הַיּוֹצֵא נֶאֱמָר וְעוֹזְבֵי ה' יִכְלוּ. אֲבָל אִם יִשָּׁאֲרוּ עֲשָׂרָה, יְכוֹלִים הַיְתֵרִים לָצֵאת, אִם כְּבָר שָׁמְעוּ בָּרְכוּ, וּקְדֻשָּׁה וְהַקַּדִּישִׁים עַד לְאַחַר עָלֵינוּ. וּבְדִיעֲבַד אִם לֹא נִשְׁאֲרוּ עֲשָׂרָה, יְכוֹלִין לִגְמֹר גַּם בְּלֹא עֲשָׂרָה (רַק שֶׁיִּהְיוּ רֹב מִנְיָן) אֵת הָעִנְיָן שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ בַּעֲשָׂרָה, וְאִם הִתְחִיל הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר לַחְזֹר אֵת הַתְּפִלָּה, גּוֹמֵר הַחֲזָרַת כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה וְאוֹמְרִים קְדֻשָּׁה, וְגַם אוֹמֵר אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בָּרְכֵנוּ בִּבְרָכָה וְכוּ', אֲבָל אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִין אֵת כַּפֵּיהֶם, וְגַם אֵין אוֹמְרִים קַדִּישׁ לְאַחַר הַשְּׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, כִּי הֵמָּה עִנְיָנִים אֲחֵרִים (כָּךְ כָּתַב הַפְּרִי חָדָשׁ וְעוֹד מֵהָאַחֲרוֹנִים ז"ל) וְאִם הִתְחִילוּ לִקְרֹת בַּתּוֹרָה בַּעֲשָׂרָה, וְיָצְאוּ מִקְּצָתָן, גּוֹמְרִין אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה, אֲבָל אֵין מוֹסִיפִין, וְגַם אֵין קוֹרִין לְמַפְטִיר, אֶלָּא הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁבְּמִנְיַן הַקְּרוּאִים, קוֹרֵא אֵת הַהַפְטָרָה בְּלֹא בְּרָכוֹת. (נ"ה קמ"ג)

If there is only an exact minyan, in the synagogue it is prohibited for any of them to leave. Of one who leaves it is said:24Isaiah 1:28. "Those who abandon God will be consumed." But, if ten will remain, the rest may leave if they have already heard Barechu, Kedushah and the Kaddishim after Aleinu. In the event that less than ten were left they may conclude the prayers, even with less than ten (provided that they are a majority of a minyan). If the chazzan had started to repeat the Shemoneh Esrei, he may complete the entire repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei and the congregation may say Kedushah, and he (the chazzan) also says: Elokeinu veilokei avoseinu barecheinu baberachah etc.25These are the Kohanim blessings. However, the kohanim do not bless the congregation.26Lit. “Raise up their hands”—the position of the Kohanim while blessing the congregation. Also, the Kaddish that follows the Shemoneh Esrei is not said27According to Mishnah Berurah, both the half-Kaddish and the whole Kaddish are said. because these are different subjects. If they began the Torah reading with ten men and some [congregants] leave, the reading may be completed, but no additional [aliyahs] are permitted, and no one is called for maftir, but, rather, the last of the allotted olim reads the Haftarah without the berachos.

11 יא

הַשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָגוּן, שֶׁנֶּאֶמַר נָתְנָה עָלַי בְּקוֹלָהּ עַל כֵּן שְׂנֵאתִיהָ, וְאָמְרוּ רז"ל זֶה שְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שֶׁאֵינוֹ הָגוּן וְיוֹרֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּיבָה, וְאֵיזֶה הָגוּן, זֶה שֶׁהוּא רֵיקָן מֵעֲבֵרוֹת, וּפִרְקוֹ נָאֶה, פֵּרוּשׁ, שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא עָלָיו שֵׁם רַע אֲפִלּוּ בְּיַלְדוּתוֹ, וְשֶׁהוּא עָנָו וּמְרֻצֶּה לַקָּהָל, שֶׁיַסְכִּימוּ לִתְפִלָּתוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ נְעִימָה וְקוֹל עָרֵב, שֶׁמּוֹשֵׁךְ הַלֵּב, וְרָגִיל לִקְרֹת בְּתּוֹרָה נְבִיאִים וּכְתוּבִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַפְּסוּקִים שֶׁבַּתְּפִלָּה סְדוּרִים בְּפִיו, וְאִם אֵין מוֹצְאִין מִי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בּוֹ כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ, יִבְחֲרוּ אֵת הַטּוֹב שֶׁבָּהֶם בְּחָכְמָה וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים.

The chazzan must be a worthy person for it is said: [God says of His nation]: "She raises her voice at Me, I therefore, have contempt for her,"28Jeremiah 12:8. and our Rabbis of blessed memory, said, that this refers to an unworthy chazzan who, [nevertheless,] goes down to the Amud.29The Amud is the Reader’s Desk in the synagogue. Who is considered worthy? One who is free of sin and who is respectful, that is, his reputation is untarnished, and was unblemished even during his youth; and one who is humble and acceptable to the congregation so that they agree that he lead the prayers. He should have a pleasant and a sweet voice, which draws [appeals to] the heart, and he should be one who regularly reads the Scriptures, so that the verses in prayer are fluent in his mouth. If a person cannot be found with all these attributes, [then] they (the congregation) should choose one among them who excels in wisdom and good deeds.

12 יב

אֵין לְאָדָם לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְצוֹן הַקָּהָל וְכָל מִי שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת, מֵחֲמַת אַלָּמוּת וְגֵאוּת, אֵין עוֹנִין אָמֵן אַחַר בִּרְכוֹתָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבוֹצֵעַ בֵּרֵךְ נִאֵץ ה'.

No person may pray [at the Amud] against the will of the congregation. If one does pray without permission, through intimidation and arrogance, [the congregation] should not respond: Amein after his berachos, as it is said: "And the brazen utters a blessing, he has mocked Hashem."

13 יג

אֵין מְמַנִּין לִשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר קָבוּעַ אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַלֵּא זְקָנוֹ, אֲבָל בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא, כָּל שֶׁהוּא בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, יָכוֹל לֵירֵד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה.

No one should be appointed a permanent chazzan whose beard is not fully grown. But, on occasion, any male who has passed his thirteenth year may "go down" to the Amud.30I.e., act as the chazzan i.e. beginning with the day of his birthday.