Siman 119קי״ט
1 א

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב יְכוֹלִין לְקַדֵּשׁ וְלֶאֱכֹל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, בַּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ כֵן, לְפִי שֶׁמִצְוַת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה הִיא דַּוְקָא בַּלַּיְלָה, כְּמוֹ קָרְבַּן פֶּסַח, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיה וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה. וְכֵן מִצְוַת אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת הִיא דַּוְקָא בַּלָּיְלָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגַּם הַכּוֹס שֶׁל קִדּוּשׁ הוּא אֶחָד מֵאַרְבַּעַת הַכּוֹסוֹת, לָכֵן אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עַד שֶׁהוּא וַדַּאי לָיְלָה. יִלְבַּשׁ אֶת הַקִּיטֶל (חָלוּק לָבָן) וְיִתְיַשֵׁב עַל מושָׁבוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַסֵּדֶר. וּמִצְוָה לְחַלֵּק לַתִּינוֹקוֹת שְׁקֵדִים וֶאֱגוֹזִים וְכַדּוֹמֶה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שִׁנּוּי וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ, וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה יִתְעוֹרְרוּ לִשְׁאוֹל גַּם כֵּן עַל מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר וַהֲסִבָּה. וְתִינוֹק וְתִינֹקֶת שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהֵם יוֹדֵעִים בִּקְּדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב, וּמְבִינִים מַה שֶּׁמְסַפְּרִים מִיצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם, נוֹתְנִים לָהֶם גַּם כֵּן כּוֹס שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. נוֹהֲגִין לִמְזוֹג כּוֹס אֶחָד מִן הַמְסֻבִּין, וְקוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ כּוֹס שֶׁל אֵלִיָּהוּ הַנָּבִיא (תע"ב ת"פ).

Although on every other Shabbos and Yom Tov, you are permitted to say kiddush and eat a meal while it is still day, in order to add from the secular to the holy, on Pesach, you are not permitted to do so. The mitzvah of eating matzah must be performed only at night, as was the case with the Pesach sacrifice, about which it is written, "And they shall eat the meat (of the Korban Pesach) on this night." (Exodus 12:8). The mitzvah of the Four Cups may also be done only after nightfall. Since the cup of wine, over which we say kiddush, is one of the Four Cups, the kiddush should not be said until it is definitely night.1It is required to wait, therefore, until after the appearance of the stars. See glossary. (The person who conducts the seder) puts on the kittel and takes his seat to conduct the seder. It is a mitzvah to distribute almonds, nuts and similar things to the children, so that they notice the change and ask questions, and this will also stimulate them to ask also the reasons for eating matzah, maror and reclining.2These questions are included in the text of the Haggadah, Mah Nishtanah. It is important to keep the children at the table until after Avodim Hayinu is recited and explained to them, because this section of the Haggadah explains the questions, previously asked by the children. (Mishnah Berurah 472:50) Boys and girls who have reached the age of training for mitzvos, that is, who are able to understand the holiness of Yom Tov and understand what is being told about the Exodus from Egypt, should also be given a cup of wine,3It is considered a mitzvah to give them a cup of wine, but it is not required to do so, since many Poskim ruled that the mitzvah of the Four Cups was never ordained for children. (Ibid. 472:46,47) from which they should drink. It is customary to fill an additional cup of wine,4It is not clearly stated, when the Cup of Elijah should be filled. The fact that the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch mentions it, in this paragraph, could indicate that he maintains that it be filled, when the first cups are filled for Kiddush. Mishnah Berurah mentions the filling of the Cup of Elijah, in the paragraph dealing with the text, שֽׁפוֹךְ חֲמָתְךָ (Pour out Your wrath etc.), which comes much later after Birkas Hamazon. (Ibid. 481:10) and it is called "The Cup of Elijah the Prophet."

2 ב

מְשָׁרְתוֹ אוֹ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ, יִמְזְגוּ אֶת הַכּוֹסוֹת. וְכֵן בְּכָל פַּעַם שֶׁמּוֹזְגִין, יִמְזְגוּ הֵם וְלֹא הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ, כְּדֵי לְהַרְאוֹת דֶּרֶךְ חֵרוּת. וְיַזְהִיר לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ, שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ מִכָּל כּוֹס לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת אֶת הָרֹב בְּפַעַם אַחַת, וּמִכּוֹס רְבִיעִי יִשְׁתּוּ רְבִיעִית בְּפַעַם אֶחָת. וִיכַוְּנוּ כֻּלָּם לְמִצְוֹת אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת וְסִפּוּר יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם וַאֲכִילַת מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר, כִּי גַּם הַנָּשִׁים חַיָּבוֹת בְּמִצְוֹת אֵלּוּ, רַק בַּהֲסִבָּה אֵינָן נוֹהֲגוֹת. יַעֲשֶׂה קִדּוּשׁ כַּכָּתוּב בַּהַגָּדָה, וְיִשְׁתֶּה בַּהֲסִבַּת שְׂמֹאל. וְטוֹב אִם אֶפְשָר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדַעַת הַפּוֹסְקִים לִשְׁתּוֹת כּוֹס שָׁלֵם בְּכָל אַרְבַּעַת הַכּוֹסוֹת (תעב תעג תעט).

A servant or a member of the household should fill the cups, and each time the cups are filled, they should fill them, rather than doing it yourself. This conveys an impression of freedom. You should instruct the members of the household to drink at least the greater part of each cup at one time,5If the cup holds only a revi’is, you should, initially, drink the entire cup of wine. From a large cup, some Poskim say that it is sufficient to drink a revi’is, and others say you must drink the greater part of the cup, even though it holds several revi’is. Mishnah Berurah rules, according to the first opinion, but writes, nevertheless, that if you do not intend drinking a large quantity of wine, you should not use a large cup, but, rather, one that holds only a revi’is, in order to conform with the second opinion, as well. (Mishnah Berurah 472:30,33) and of the fourth cup, they should drink a revi'is at one time.6This means that the revi’is should be drunk in the time span of כְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרַס. (kedei achilas peras) (Ibid. 472:34) See glossary. All should have in mind to fulfill the mitzvah of drinking the Four Cups (of wine), and of relating the story of the Exodus, and eating matzah and maror, because women, too, are required to perform these mitzvos, except that they do not recline. You recite the kiddush, as it is written in the Haggadah, and drink the wine while reclining on your left side. It is best, if possible, to follow the opinion of the authorities, and to drink the entire contents of all the Four Cups.

3 ג

אַחַר כָּךְ יִרְחַץ יָדָיו וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן, וּמְנַגְּבָן. וְחוֹתֵךְ מִן הַכַּרְפַּס לְעַצְמוֹ וּלְכָל בְּנֵי בֵּיתוֹ לְכָל אֶחָד פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת, וְטוֹבְלִין בְּמֵי מֶלַח, וּמְבָרְכִין בּוֹרֵא פְּרֵי הָאֲדָמָה, וּמְכַוְּנִין לִפְטֹר בִּבְרָכָה זוֹ גַּם אֶת הַמָּרוֹר, וְאוֹכֵל גַּם כֵּן בַּהֲסִבַּת שְׂמֹאל. אַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמַּצָּה הָאֶמְצָעִית וְחוֹלְקָהּ לִשְׁנֵי חֲלָקִים, וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַחֵלֶק הַגָּדוֹל אֵצֶל מושָׁבוֹ לַאֲפִיקוֹמָן. וְנוֹהֲגִין לְכָרְכוֹ בְּמַפָּה, זֵכֶר לְמַה שֶׁכָּתוּב, מִשְׁאֲרוֹתָם צְרֻרֹת בְּשִׂמְלוֹתָם. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁמְּשִׂימִים אוֹתוֹ כָּךְ עַל שִׁכְמָם, זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצְרָיִם. וּלְפִי שֶׁהָאֲפִיקוֹמָן הוּא בִּמְקוֹם הַפֶּסַח, לָכֵן הוּא חָשׁוּב וְיִהְיֶה הַחֵלֶק הַגָּדוֹל. וְהַחֵלֶק הַקָּטֹן מַחְזִירוֹ לַקְּעָרָה לִמְקוֹמוֹ, וּמְגַלֶּה קְצָת אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת, וּמַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת הַקְּעָרָה, וְאוֹמְרִים, הָא לַחְמָא עַנְיָא דִּי אֲכָלוּ וְכוּ', עַד לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. וְהָאוֹמְרִים כְּהָא לַחְמָא עַנְיָא לֹא יֹאמְרוּ תֵּבַת דִּי.

After that, you should wash your hands,7The reason for washing the hands, at this point, is because the karpas must be dipped in salt water, and before eating food that is dipped in liquid, such as wine, honey, oil, milk, dew, blood or water it is required that you wash your hands. (Ibid. 473:51) without saying the berachah, dry them, and cut the karpas for yourself and for all the members of the household, giving each less than a kazayis.8See glossary. We eat less than a kazayis, because, otherwise, it would be questionable, regarding the saying of the after-berachah. By eating less than a kazayis, we remove ourselves from this problem. According to the Gra, however, if you should eat a kazayis, you should say the after-berachah. (Ibid. 473:53,56) Each dips his portion in salt water and says the berachah Borei peri ha'adamah "Who creates the fruit of the ground." They should have in mind to exempt the maror which will be eaten later with this berachah, and while eating the karpas, they should also recline on the left side.9Mishnah Berurah does not mention the rule that the karpas should be eaten in a reclining position. The person who leads the Seder then takes the middle matzah and breaks it into two parts, placing the larger part near his seat for the afikoman. It is customary to wrap the afikoman in a napkin,10When using a cloth napkin, care must be taken that the napkin was not starched in laundering. (Ibid. 473:59) to recall what is written, "Their leftover dough was wrapped in their clothes" (Exodus 12:34). Some people place it on their shoulders, to recall the Exodus. Since the afikoman takes the place of the Pesach sacrifice, it is most esteemed, and the larger portion of the matzah is set aside for it. The smaller portion, is put back on the seder plate. He then uncovers the matzos slightly, lifts the seder plate, and all declare Ha lachma anya diachalu,11This declaration should be said in a loud voice. (Ibid. 473:61) "This is the bread of affliction, which our forefathers ate etc. to leshanah haba'ah benei chorin, "Next year we shall be free men." Those who say, Keha lachma anya (keha instead of ha), "Such as this bread of affliction," should omit the word di (which).

4 ד

אַחַר כָּךְ מוֹזְגִין כּוֹס שֵׁנִי, וְהַתִּינוֹק שׁוֹאֵל מַה נִשְׁתַּנָּה. וְאִם אֵין תִּינוֹק, יִשְׁאַל בֵּן אַחֵר, אוֹ בִּתּוֹ, אוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמְרִים, עֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ וְכוּ'. וְהַנָּכוֹן לְפָרֵשׁ לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ דִּבְרֵי הַהַגָּדָה בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמְּבִינִים. וְאִם גַּם בְּעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מֵבִין לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, יֹאמַר מִתּוֹךְ הַהַגָּדָה, שֶׁהוּא עִם פֵּרוּשׁ אַשְׁכְּנָז (לוֹעֲזִי), וּלְאַחַר כָּל פִּסְקָא, יֹאמַר בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז (לוֹעֲזִי), וּמִכָּל שֶׁכֵּן הַמַּאֲמָר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה אוֹמֵר וְכוּ', שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לְהָבִין אֶת הַטַּעַם שֶׁל פֶּסַח מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר. כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִוְהִיא שֶׁעָמְדָה וְכוּ', יְכַסֶּה אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת, (שֶׁלֹּא תִרְאֶה הַפַּת בָּשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתָהּ, וְנוֹטְלִין אֶת הַכּוֹס), וְנוֹטְלִין אֶת הַכּוֹסוֹת בִּידֵיהֶם וְאוֹמְרִים וְהִיא שֶׁעָמְדָה וְכוּ' עַד מִיָּדָם, וְחוֹזֵר וּמְגַלֶּה אֶת הַמַּצוֹת. וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְמַצָּה זוֹ, נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמַּחֲצִית הַמַּצָּה שֶׁבַּקְּעָרָה וּמַרְאָהּ לִבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר מַצָּה זוֹ וְכוּ'. וְכֵן בְּמָרוֹר זֶה, מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת הַמָּרוֹר. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹמֵר פֶּסַח שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ אוֹכְלִים וְכוּ' לֹא יַגְבִּיהּ אֶת הַזְּרוֹעַ שֶׁהוּא זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּאִלוּ הִקְדִּישׁוֹ לְכָךְ. וכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִלְפִיכָךְ, מְכַסֶּה אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת, וְנוֹטֵל כָּל אֶחָד אֶת הַכּוֹס בְּיָדוֹ וּמַגְבִּיהוֹ עַד שֶׁחוֹתֵם גָּאַל יִשְֹרָאֵל, וּמְבָרְכִין עַל הַכּוֹס בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָגָּפֶן, וְשׁוֹתִין בַּהֲסִבַּת שְׂמֹאל.

The second cup is now filled, and a child asks: Mah nishtanah "Why is this night different." If there is no child present, then an older son or daughter should ask, or a friend or your wife should ask.12If there is no one present, you must ask these questions of yourself. Even Talmudic scholars must ask each other these questions. (Shulchan Aruch 473:7) Then Avadim hayinu (we were slaves) etc. is said.13The entire Haggadah should be read with great awe and not while reclining. (Mishnah Berurah 473:11) It is proper to explain to the members of the family14The explanations should start with the saying of Ha lachma anya d’achalu (this is the bread of affliction), since this is the beginning of the Haggadah. (Ibid. 473:62,63) the contents of the Haggadah in the language they understand.15It should be explained in language, that will be understood by the women and children, as they too are obligated to fulfill the mitzvah of relating the story of the Exodus from Egypt. (Ibid. 473:64) If you do not understand Hebrew, you should use a Haggadah with a translation, and after completing each paragraph, you should repeat from the translation, and particularly, the declaration, Rabban Gamliel hayah omeir (Rabban Gamliel used to say,) because it is essential to understand the reasons for the Pesach sacrifice, matzah and maror. At Vehi she'amedah (this promise) etc. you should cover the matzos (so that the matzah is not slighted when it seems that we are ignoring it, by lifting only the cup of wine). All take their cups in their hands and say, Vehi she'amedah, to miyadam, (from their hands), when you again uncover the matzos. When you say Matzah zo (this matzah) etc., you should take the half matzah from the seder plate, and show it to the family and say, Matzah zo (this matzah etc.). When saying Maror zeh (this maror), you should lift the maror. However, when saying Pesach shehayu avoseinu ochelim (the Pesach offering which our fathers ate etc.), you should not raise the shankbone, which is a reminder of the Pesach offering, for it might appear as if you had set it apart for a Pesach offering, (which can only be done in the Beis Hamikdash). When saying, Lefichach (Therefore), you should cover the matzos, and each person takes his cup in his hand and raises it, holding it until concluding with Ga'al Yisrael, (Who redeemed Israel). Everyone then says the berachah, Borei peri hagafen, over their cup of wine, and drink the cup, while reclining on the left side.

5 ה

אַחַר כָּךְ רוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶם וּמְבָרְכִין עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם, וּמְבָרֵךְ הַמּוֹצִיא עַל הַמַּצּוֹת. וּלְפִי שֶׁבְּיוֹם טוֹב צָרִיךְ לִבְצוֹעַ עַל שְׁתֵּי כִּכָּרוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת, וּמִצְוַת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה הִיא מִן הַפְּרוּסָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּצָּה נִקְרֵאת לֶחֶם עֹנִי, וְדַרְכּוֹ שֶׁל עָנִי בִּפְרוּסָה, עַל כֵּן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ הַמּוֹצִיא, אוֹחֵז שְׁתֵּי הַמַּצּוֹת הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת בְּיָדָיו וְהַפְּרוּסָה בֵּינֵיהֶן, וּמְבָרֵךְ הַמוֹצִיא, וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַמַּצָּה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה מִיָּדָיו, וְאוֹחֵז רַק בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה וְגַם בַּפְּרוּסָה וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה, וּבוֹצֵעַ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְגַם מִן הַפְּרוּסָה מִכָּל אַחַת כַּזַּיִת, וְכֵן הוּא נוֹתֵן לְכָל אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ וְאוֹכֵל שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד בַּהֲסִבָּה שְׂמָאלִית. וְאִם קָשֶׁה לוֹ לְאָכְלָם בְּפַעַם אַחַת, אוֹכֵל תְּחִלָּה אֶת הַכַּזַּיִת הַמּוֹצִיא, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכַּזַּיִת מִן הַפְּרוּסָה, רַק שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהֶה בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּלָל, וְיֹאכַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן בַּהֲסִבָּה. וְנוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, שֶׁבְּלֵילֵי פֶּסַח אֵין טוֹבְלִין אֶת הַמַּצָּה בְּמֶלַח לֹא שֶׁל הַמּוֹצִיא וְלֹא שֶׁל מַצָּה.

After that, everyone should wash their hands, and say the berachah, Al netilas yadayim, and Hamotzi over the matzos. Since on Yom Tov, we must say Hamotzi over two whole loaves of bread, and the mitzvah of matzah requires that we eat the broken one, because matzah is called "poor man's bread," and a poor man generally eats broken pieces of bread, therefore, when saying Hamotzi, you should take the two whole matzos in your hands and the broken one between them, and recite Hamotzi. You then put down the bottom matzah,16You should, simply, allow the bottom matzah to slip from your hands (rather than putting it down). (Ibid. 475:2) holding only the top, and the broken middle matzah, and say the berachah, Al achilat matzah. You then break off a piece the size of a kazayis, from the top matzah and from the broken middle matzah.17You should break off a kazayis of each matzah, simultaneously. (Shulchan Aruch 475:1) You distribute the same quantity to every member of the family. Then you eat both pieces simultaneously,18It is the consensus of the later Poskim, that it is not necessary to swallow both pieces, simultaneously. So long as you chew them together, you can swallow each kazayis individually. If you find this too difficult, you can swallow each kazayis a little at a time, so long as you consume both kazeisim within the time span of kedei achilas peras (כְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרַס) (See Glossary). (Mishnah Berurah 475:9) while reclining on the left side.19If you did not recline, you should, at least, eat another kazayis while reclining. (Ibid. 472:22) If it is difficult for you to eat both pieces of matzah at the same time, you should first eat the kazayis piece over which you said Hamotzi, and then eat the kazayis piece from the broken matzah. But you should not pause between eating the two pieces, and eat both pieces while reclining. It is the custom in our region, at the seder, not to dip the matzah in salt; neither the matzah, over which Hamotzi is said, nor the one over which Al achilas matzah is said.

6 ו

מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִלְעֹס מַצָּה, מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתָהּ בְּמַיִם לְרַכְּכָהּ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא נִמְחָה לְגַמְרֵי. וּמִי שֶׁהוּא זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְאָכְלָהּ שְׁרוּיָה בְּמַיִם, יָכוֹל לִשְׁרוֹתָהּ בְּיַיִן אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים. כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹרִין אֶת הַמַּצָּה לָצֵאת בָּהּ, צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁרוֹתָהּ מֵעֵת לְעֵת כִּי אָז נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כִּמְבֻשֶׁלֶת וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ. וְגַם צְרִיכִין לִזָּהֵר בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים, שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיד דִּין לֶחֶם. עַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן מ"ח סָעִיף ה'.

If someone is unable to chew the matzah, he is permitted to soak it in water20It is also permitted to have the matzah ground up, so long as it equals a kazayis of unbroken matzo. (Biyur Halachah 461:4) to soften it,21This leniency applies only when a whole matzah is soaked in one piece, but if it is broken into pieces and then soaked until the water becomes discolored from the matzah, it cannot be used to fulfill the mitzvah, as it is no longer considered bread. These rules applies only to soaking, but if the matzah was boiled, or soaked in boiling water, it is not permissible under any circumstances. (Mishnah Berurah 461:17,18,20) provided it is not completely mashed. An elderly or sick person, who cannot eat matzah, when soaked in water, may soak it in wine, or in any other beverage.22A healthy, young person cannot fulfill his obligation, if the matzah was soaked in any liquid, except water. (Ibid. 461:18) When you soak the matzah, with which you want to fulfill the mitzvah (of eating matzah), you must be careful not to soak it for twenty-four hours, for it would then be considered as if it were cooked and you could not fulfill the mitzvah with it. You must also be careful, in other respects, that the matzah should not lose its status as bread. See Chapter 48:5 above.

7 ז

אַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל כַּזַּיִת מָרוֹר, וְכֵן הוּא נוֹתֵן לְכָל אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ, וְטוֹבְלוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת וּמְנַעֵר אֶת הַחֲרֹסֶת מֵעָלָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּטֵּל הַמָּרוֹר, וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר, וְאוֹכְלוֹ בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה. אַחַר כָּךְ נוֹטֵל מִן הַמַּצָּה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה גַּם כֵּן כַּזַּיִת, וְגַם כַּזַּיִת מָרוֹר, וְנָכוֹן לְטָבְלוֹ גַּם כֵּן בַּחֲרֹסֶת וּלְנַעֲרוֹ מֵעָלָיו, וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַמָּרוֹר תּוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה וְאוֹמֵר, כֵּן עָשָׂה הִלֵּל וְכוּ', וְאוֹכֵל בַּהֲסִבָּה. שִׁעוּר כַּזַּיִת כָּתַבְנוּ בַּכְּלָלִים, שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ חֲצִי בֵּיצָה. אָמְנָם יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהוּא קְצָת פָּחוֹת מִכִּשְׁלִישׁ בֵּיצָה. וְכֵיוָן דְּמָרוֹר בַּזְּמַן הַזֶה מִדְּרַבָּנָן, לָכֵן מִי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה עָלָיו לֶאֱכוֹל מָרוֹר יָכוֹל לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דֵּעָה זֹאת לֶאֱכוֹל רַק פָּחוֹת קְצָת מִכְּמוֹ שְׁלִישׁ בֵּיצָה וִיבָרֵךְ עָלָיו (עַיֵן ֹשֻלְחָן עָרוּךְ תַּנְיָא) וּמִי שֶׁהוּא חוֹלֶה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל מָרוֹר כְּלָל, יִלְעוֹס עַל כָּל פָּנִים קְצָת מֵהַמִּינִים שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין בָּהֶם, אוֹ שְׁאָר עֵשֶׂב מַר עַד שֶׁיַּרְגִּישׁ טַעַם מְרִירוּת בְּפִיו לְזֵכֶר בְּעָלְמָא, בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה (תע"ג תע"ה תפ"ו).

You then take a kazayis of maror,23If you are using ground horseradish, you should make sure it is compacted, so that it is a kazayis. If you are using leaves, you must also be certain that it is compacted, as the space between leaves are not considered. (Ibid. 473:36,41) and distribute portions of the same quantity to each member of the family. You dip it in the charoses, and shake off the charoses, so that the maror should not lose its taste, and say the berachah, Al achilas maror, and eat it24See note 18. without reclining.25The maror recalls our slavery, and is, therefore, not eaten in a leisurely manner. You then take a kazayis from the bottom matzah and a kazayis maror. It is also proper to dip (this maror) in charoses and shake it off. You then place the maror between (two pieces of) matzah and say, Kein asa Hillel (This is the way Hillel did it) etc.26Mishnah Berurah questions the custom of reciting this sentence, as it constitutes an interruption between the berachah and the eating. (Ibid. 475:1, Biyur Halachah) and eat it while reclining.27See note 18. The size of a kazayis, as we have written in the general rules, is as much as half an egg.28See Glossary. However, some authorities hold, that it is a little less than one-third of an egg. Since the mitzvah of eating maror is in our days a rabbinical requirement, therefore, a person, who finds it difficult to eat maror, may rely on this (more lenient) opinion, and eat a little less than one third of an egg, and say the berachah over it. A person who is sick and cannot eat maror at all, should, nevertheless, chew a little of any of the species, with which the mitzvah of maror may be fulfilled, or any bitter tasting herb, until he feels a bitter taste in his mouth; just as a token, without saying a berachah.

8 ח

אַחַר כָּךְ אוֹכְלִין הַסְּעוּדָּה. וְיֵשׁ לֶאֱכוֹל כָּל הַסְּעוּדָה בַּהֲסִבָּה. וְנוֹהֲגִין לֶאֱכֹל בֵּיצִים. וְהֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא לְמַלֹאת כְּרֵסוֹ, לְמַעָן יוּכַל לֶאֱכוֹל אֶת הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן כְּמִצְוָתוֹ, וְלֹא לַאֲכִילָה גַּסָּה. וְאֵין אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר צָלִי בִּשְׁתֵּי הַלֵּילוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל עוֹף. וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְּׁלוּהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָלוּהוּ בִּקְּדֵרָה, אֵין אוֹכְלִין. יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכוֹל בַּלֵילוֹת אֵלּוּ שׁוּם טִבּוּל, חוּץ מִשְּׁנֵי טִבּוּלִים שֶׁל מִצְוָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁאֵלּוּ הֵם לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה. לְאַחַר גְּמָר הַסְּעוּדָה אוֹכְלִין אֲפִיקוֹמָן, זֵכֶר לְקָרְבַּן פֶּסַח, שֶׁהָיָה נֶאֱכַל בְּסוֹף הַסְּעוּדָה שֶׁיְהֵא גְּמַר כָּל הַשְּׂבִיעָה. וְיֵשׁ לֶאֱכוֹל כִּשְׁנֵי זֵיתִים, אֶחָד זֵכֶר לַפֶסַח וְאֶחָד זֵכֶר לַמַצָּה, שֶׁהָיְתָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת עִם הַפֶּסַח. וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת, וְאוֹכְלוֹ בַּהֲסִבָּה. וְאַחַר הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, אָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל שׁוּם דָּבָר. אַחַר כָּךְ מוֹזְגִין כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי לְבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן. וְצָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק בּוֹ אִם הוּא נָקִי מִשִׁיוּרֵי כוֹסוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ אִם אֵין בּוֹ שִׁיוּרֵי יַיִן שֶׁשָּׁרָה בּוֹ מַצָּה בִּשְׁעַת הַסְּעוּדָה. כִּי אִם אֵינוֹ נָקִי, צָרִיךְ שְׁטִפָה וַהֲדָחָה (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן מ"ה סָעִיף ד'). וּמִצְוָה לְהַדֵּר שֶׁיְבָרְכוּ בְּזִמּוּן. אֲבָל לֹא יֵלְכוּ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת לְצֹרֶךְ זִמּוּן, כִּי כָל אֶחָד צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁאָכַל. וְנוֹהֲגִין שֶׁבַּעַל הַבַּיִת מְבָרֵךְ בְּזִמּוּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, טוֹב עַיִן הוּא יְבֹרָךְ (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן מה סָעִיף ה), וְהוּא מִקְּרִי טוֹב עַיִן, שֶׁאָמַר, כָּל דִּכְפִין יֵיתֵי וְיֵיכוֹל וְכוּ', וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרְכִין עַל הַכּוֹס וְשׁוֹתִין בַּהֲסִבָה. וְאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת בֵּין כּוֹס זֶה לְכוֹס רְבִיעִי (סִימָן תעב).

After that the meal begins. It is proper to eat the entire meal29Nevertheless, if you reclined only while eating the matzah and drinking the Four Cups of wine, you have fulfilled your obligation. (Ibid. 472:23) while reclining It is customary to eat eggs. It is wise to use good judgment, and not overeat, so that you will be able to eat the afikoman, as required, (with appetite), and not on a full stomach.30If you are so full that any more eating is abhorent, and you eat the Afikoman in such a condition, you have not fulfilled your obligation. (Ibid. 476:6) Roast meat should not be eaten, on the two seder nights, not even roast poultry. Even if it was boiled and then pot roasted, it should not be eaten. Some have the custom not to eat any food dipped in liquid, on the seder nights, except the two required dipped foods, so that it should be prominently recognized that these two are mitzvos. After completing the meal, the afikoman is eaten31Women are also obligated to eat the afikoman. (Ibid. 476:2) to remind us of the Pesach sacrifice,32Since it is a reminder of the Pesach sacrifice, it must be eaten before midnight, as was required of the actual Pesach sacrifice. (Ibid. 476:6) Midnight does not mean 12 P.M., but is dependent on the length of the hours of daylight and night time. which was eaten at the end of the meal so that you should be completely satiated. It is proper to eat two kazeisim (of matzah for the afikoman), one to remind us of the Pesach sacrifice, and the other to recall the matzah that was eaten with the korban Pesach . At any rate, you should not eat less than a kazayis, and you should eat the afikoman, while reclining. After eating the afikoman, it is forbidden to eat anything.33Our Sages ordained this rule, so that the taste of matzo remains with you. If you forgot and did eat something else, you must eat another kazayis of matzo for the afikoman. (Ibid. 476:1) 34You are permitted to drink water. Some Poskim also permit tea. Other drinks, however, that are tasty or sharp, that would remove the taste of matzah are forbidden. (Ibid. 478:2, 481:1) The third cup is then filled for Birkas Hamazon. You must make sure that it is clean, not containing leftover wine, that is to say, nothing is left from the wine, in which matzah may have been soaked during the meal. If it is not clean, it requires washing and rinsing (See Chapter 45:4 above). It is a mitzvah to make an effort to recite Birkas Hamazon with zimun (three males), but you should not go from house to house to look for people required for zimun, because each person is required to say Birkas Hamazon in the place where he has eaten. It is customary for the master of the house to lead the zimun35He takes precedence even over a guest, who is usually accorded the privilege of leading the zimun. (Ibid. 479:13) as it is said: "A man of a good eye shall bless," (Proverbs 22:9) (see Ch. 45:5) and he is called, "A man of good eye," (i.e. a generous person) because he said: "All who are hungry—let them come and eat" etc. After Birkas Hamazon, the berachah is said over the third cup, and you should drink it while reclining. It is forbidden to drink between this cup and the fourth cup.

9 ט

אַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן מוֹזְגִין כּוֹס רְבִיעִי. וְנוֹהֲגִין לִפְתּוֹחַ אֶת הַדֶּלֶת, לְזֵכֶר שֶׁהוּא לֵיל שִׁמּוּרִים, וְאֵין מִתְיָרְאִין מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר. וּבִזְכוּת הָאֱמוּנָה, יָבוֹא מְשִׁיחַ צִדְקֵנוּ, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִשְׁפֹּךְ חֲמָתוֹ עַל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, וְלָכֵן אוֹמְרִים שְׁפֹךְ חֲמָתְךָ וְכוּ'. אַחַר כָּךְ מַתְחִילִין לֹא לָנוּ, וְאוֹמְרִים כַּסֵּדֶר. וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְהוֹדוּ, אִם הֵם שְׁלֹשָׁה, אֲפִלּוּ עִם אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לְחִנּוּךְ, יֹאמַר הוֹדוּ, וְהַשְּׁנַיִם יַעֲנוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים בְּצִבּוּר. מִן הַכּוֹס הָרְבִיעִי, צְרִיכִין לִשְׁתּוֹת רְבִיעִית שְׁלֵמָה, וּמְבָרְכִים אַחֲרָיו בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ גּוֹמְרִין כְּסֵדֶר הַהַגָּדָה. וְאַחַר אַרְבַּעַת הַכּוֹסוֹת אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה רַק מָיִם. אִם אֵין שֵׁנָה חוֹטַפְתּוֹ, יֹאמַר אַחַר הַהַגָּדָה שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים. וְנוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שֶׁעַל הַמִּטָּה, רַק פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמַע (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ע"א סָעִיף ד') וּבִרְכַּת הַמַּפִּיל, לְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁהוּא לֵיל שִׁמּוּרִים מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שְׁמִירָה.

After Birkas Hamazon, the fourth cup is filled. It is the custom to open the door, to remind us that tonight is a night of Divine vigil, and we are not afraid of anything. In the merit of our faith in Hashem, our righteous Mashiach will come, and the Holy One, blessed is He, will pour out his anger on the nations. Therefore, we recite Shefoch chamasecha (Pour out Your anger) etc. After that, we say, Lo lanu (Not for us) and continue reciting the Hallel. When we reach Hodu (Give thanks), if there are three people present, even if they are his wife and children, who have reached the age of training for mitzvos, the leader should say Hodu, and the other two people respond, as it is done in the synagogue. You are required to drink a full revi's36You must do this, in order to be able to recite the after-berachah over the wine; for if you drink less, it is questionable if you should recite the berachah. (Ibid. 472:30) from the fourth cup, after which you say the after-berachah.37This berachah will also exempt the wine of the third cup. (Ibid. 480:7) You then recite the Haggadah to the end. After the fourth cup, it is forbidden to drink any beverage, except water.38See note 34. If you are not too sleepy, you should say Shir hashirim after the Hagadah. It is customary not to say the bedtime Shema, except for the section of Shema and the berachah Hamapil, to indicate that it is a night of divine vigil when Hashem protects us from all evil, and we need no other protection.

10 י

מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּזִּיק לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִדְחֹק אֶת עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, עַל ר' יְהוּדָה בּ"ר אִילָעִי, שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֶה אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל פֶּסַח, וְהָיָה צָרִיךְ לַחֲגוֹר צְדָעָיו עַד שָׁבוּעוֹת. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יָכוֹל לְמָזְגוֹ בְּמַיִם, אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת יֵין צִמּוּקִים (עַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ו) אוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה מֶעד [מֵי דְבַש] אִם הֵם חֲמַר מְדִינָה.

A person, who does not drink wine all year, because it causes him discomfort, nevertheless should make a special effort to drink the Four Cups, as our Rabbis, of blessed memory, relate about Rabbi Yehudah bar Rabbi Ilai, who used to drink the Four Cups of wine on Pesach, and then he would have to wrap his temples until Shavuos (because of the headache the wine gave him). However, such a person may dilute the wine with water, or drink raisin wine, (see Chapter 50:6 above), or he may drink mead, if these are the "beverage of the country"

11 יא

אִם נֶאֱבַד הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹד מַצָּה מֵאֵלּוּ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשֵׁם מַצַּת מִצְוָה, יֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כַּזָיִת. וְאִם לָאו, יֹאכַל מִמַּצָּה אַחֶרֶת כַּזָּיִת.

If the afikoman was lost, and you still have matzah left of those that were made specifically for the mitzvah, you should eat a kazayis of that matzah, otherwise, you should eat a kazayis of any other matzah.

12 יב

מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח לֶאֱכוֹל אֶת הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, אִם נִזְכַּר קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נָטַל מַיִם אַחֲרוֹנִים אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר, הַב לָן וּנְבָרֵךְ, אוֹכְלוֹ וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיא. וְאַף עַל גַּב דְּאַסַּח דַּעְתֵּיה מֵלֶּאֱכוֹל, לֹא חָשִׁיב הֶסַּח הַדַּעַת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְחֻיָּב לֶאֱכוֹל, וְאַתַּכָּא דְּרַחְמָנָא קְסָמְכֵינָן. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לוֹ לִטֹּוֹל יָדָיו וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם. וְאִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן קֹדֶם שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי, יִטּוֹל יָדָיו, וְגַם כֵּן לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם (פרי מגדים), וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמּוֹצִיא, וְיֹאכַל כַּזַּיִת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן, וִיבָרֵךְ עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי וְיִשְׁתֶּה. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִזְכַּר עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן עַל כּוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי, יִשְׁתֶה אֶת הַכּוֹס. וְאִם רָגִיל בְּפַעַם אַחֶרֶת לְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא כוֹס, יִטֹּל יָדָיו וְיֹאכַל אֲפִיקוֹמָן וִיבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן בְּלֹא כוֹס. אֲבָל אִם הוּא נִזְהָר לְבָרֵךְ תָּמִיד בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן עַל הַכּוֹס, וְעַתָּה לֹא יוּכַל לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַכּוֹס, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוֵי מוֹסִיף עַל הַכּוֹסוֹת, לָכֵן לֹא יֹאכַל אֲפִיקוֹמָן, וְיִסְמוֹךְ עַל הַמַּצָּה שֶׁאָכַל תְּחִלָּה (תע"ז).

If you forgot to eat the afikoman; and reminded yourself before saying Birkas Hamazon, although you already had washed your hands at the end of the meal or said, "Come, let us say the blessings," you may eat the afikoman, and do not have to say Hamotzi. And even though you had not intended to eat anymore, this does not constitute a diversion of the mind, since it is your duty to eat the afikoman, and are sitting at Hashem's table, (and must fulfill His will; thus you were not completely distracted). Nevertheless, you should wash your hands, without saying Al netilas yadayim. But if you did not remind yourself, until after saying Birkas Hamazon, before saying Borei peri hagafen over the third cup, then you should wash your hands again, without saying, Al netilas yadayim, and recite the berachah of Hamotzi, eat a kazayis of the afikoman, say Birkas Hamazon; then say the berachah over the third cup, and drink it. But if you only reminded yourself after saying Borei peri hagafen over the third cup, you should drink the cup. If on other occasions you are accustomed to recite Birkas Hamazon, without a cup of wine, you should wash your hands, eat the afikoman, and say Birkas Hamazon without a cup of wine. However, if you are scrupulous, and always says Birkas Hamazon, over a cup of wine, and now cannot do it, because you would be adding to the four cups, (which is forbidden), then you should not eat the afikoman, but rely on the matzah, which you ate before.