Siman 118קי״ח
1 א

יְהַדֵּר אַחַר יַיִן יָפֶה לְמִצְוֹת אַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּנִּמְצָא יַיִן אָדֹם יָפֶה כְּמוֹ הַלָּבָן, וְגַם הוּא כָּשֵׁר כְּמוֹ הַלָּבָן, מִצְוָה בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבַּלָּבָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם, מַשְׁמַע שֶׁחֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ שֶׁל יַיִן הוּא כְּשֶׁהוּא אָדֹם. וְעוֹד, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ זֵכֶר לְדָּם, שֶׁהָיָה פַּרְעֹה שׁוֹחֵט יַלְדֵי בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל. וּבִמְדִינוֹת שֶׁהָאֻמּוֹת טִפְּשִׁים וּסְכָלִים לְהַעֲלִיל עֲלִילוֹת שְׁקָרִים, נִמְנְעוּ מִלִּקַּח יַיִן אָדֹם לְפֶּסַח (תעב).

You should do your best to obtain choice wine to perform the mitzvah of drinking the Four Cups. If red wine is available, that is, of the same quality as white wine, and its kashrus is as reliable as white wine, the red wine is preferred for the Four Cups, for it is said, "Look not after wine when it is red," (Proverbs 23:31) indicating that wine is most desirable, when it is red. In addition, because it reminds us of the blood, which flowed, when Pharaoh slaughtered innocent Jewish children. In backward and ignorant countries, where people, make slanderous accusations, Jews refrain from using red wine on Pesach.

2 ב

לְצֹרֶךְ טִבּוּל הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהוּא כַּרְפַּס, נוֹהֲגִין הַרְבֵּה לִקַּח פֶּטְרוֹזִילְיָה. וְטוֹב יוֹתֵר לָקַחַת צֶעלֶלער [סֶלֶרִי] שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ טַעַם טוֹב כְּשֶׁהוּא חָי. וְהַמֻּבְחָר הוּא לָקַחַת צְנוֹן.

For the first dipping, which is called karpas, many people follow the custom of using parsley, but it is better to use celery, which tastes good when raw. Best of all is to use radishes.

3 ג

לְצֹרֶךְ מָרוֹר, נוֹהֲגִין לִקַּח תַּמְכָא (קריין) וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא חָרִיף מְאֹד, יְכוֹלִין לְפָרְרוֹ [בְּמִגְרֶרֶת] (ריבאייזען), רַק שֶׁיִּזָהֲרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יָפוּג לְגַמְרֵי. וְיֵשׁ לְפָרְרוֹ כְּשֶׁבָּאִין מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת (וְעַיֵּן לְעֵיל סִימָן צ"ח סָעִיף גּ', שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לְפָרְרוֹ עַל יְדֵי שִׁנּוי) וּבַשַׁבָּת, אֲסוּרִין לְפָרְרוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לְפָרְרוֹ קֹדֶם הַלַּיְלָה, וִיכַסֵּהוּ עַד הַלָיְלָה. אֲבָל יוֹתֵר טוֹב לָקַחַת חֲזֶרֶת שֶׁהִיא חַסָּה [סַלַט] שֶנּוֹחַ לְאָכְלָהּ, וְנִקְרֵאת מָרוֹר, לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁשּׁוֹהָה בַּקַּרְקַע, נַעֲשֶׂה הַקֶּלַח מָר. וְיוֹצְאִין גַּם בְּלַעֲנָה הַנִּקְרָא וֶוערְמוּטָה. (עֳלְשִׁין וְחַרְחֲבִינָא אֵינָם שְׁכִיחִים בִּמְדִינוֹתֵינוּ), כָּל הַמִּינִים שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין בָּהֵם מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְכַזָיִת. וְיוֹצְאִין בֵּין בֶּעָלִים בֵּין בַּקְלָחִין, אֲבָל לֹא בַּשָׁרָשִׁים, דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁרָשִׁים הַקְּטַנִּים הַמִּתְפַּצְּלִים לְכָאן וּלְכָאן. אֲבָל הַשׂרֶשׁ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבּוֹ גְּדֵלִים הֶעָלִים, אַף שֶׁהוּא טָמוּן בַּקַּרְקַע, הֲרֵי הוּא בִּכְלַל קֶלַח. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם טוֹב יוֹתֵר לִטּוֹל הֶעָלִים, וְהַקֶּלַח הַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַקַּרְקַע, כִּי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהוּא בַּקַּרְקַע נִקְרָא שׂרֶשׁ. הֶעָלִים אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם לַחִים, אֲבָל הַקְּלָחִים יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן, בֵּין הֵם לַחִים בֵּין יְבֵשִׁים, אַךְ לֹא בִּמְבֻשָּׁלִין אוֹ כְּבוּשִׁין.

For maror (bitter herbs), it is customary to use horseradish, which, may be grated,1It should never be eaten, when it is whole, because it could be very dangerous to your health and, thus, it is not a mitzvah. (Mishnah Berurah 473:36) because it is very sharp; but you should take care that it does not lose its strength completely. It should be grated, when you return home from the synagogue.2After grating, it should be covered until the beginning of the Seder, in order that it does not lose its strength completely. (Ibid.) (see Ch. 98:3 that the grating should be in an unusual manner). On Shabbos, it is forbidden to grate the maror, but you should grate it before night, and keep it covered until nightfall.3Actually, until the beginning of the Seder. (Ibid.) However, it is preferable to use chazeres, lettuce, which is easier to eat,4Many Poskim maintain that this refers to romaine lettuce. Since, however, small worms are often found in lettuce, unless it is inspected carefully by God-fearing persons, it is better to use the grated horseradish. (Ibid. 473:42) and it is called maror, because when it stays in the ground for a long time, the stem becomes bitter. You can also fulfill the mitzvah with la'anah, (an herb called wormwood).5Mishnah Berurah says, that according to Ramah, wormwood is not acceptable as a species of maror. Others rule that it is. (Ibid. 473:46) (Alashin and charchevina [mentioned in the Mishnah], are not found in our region). All the species, with which you can fulfill the mitzvah (of eating maror), may be combined to make up a kazayis, and you may fulfill your duty with either the leaves or the stems, but not with the roots, that is not with the little roots, that branch out in all directions. But the large root, out of which the leaves grow, although it is hidden in the ground, is considered a stem. Nevertheless, it is better to use the leaves and the stem that is out of the ground, because some authorities hold that the part that grows in the ground is called "root." The leaves are valid only if they are fresh, but the stems are valid whether they are fresh or dried out, but not when they are cooked or pickled.

4 ד

הַחֲרֹסֶת צָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה עָבָה זֵכֶר לַטִּיט. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְטַבֵּל אֶת הַמָּרוֹר, יִשְׁפֹּךְ לְתוֹכָהּ יַיִן אוֹ חֹמֶץ, שֶׁתִּהְיֶה רַכָּה, זֵכֶר לַדָּם, וְגַם שֶׁתְּהֵא רְאוּיָה לְטַבֵּל בָּהּ. יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַחֲרֹסֶת מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה בָּהֶם כְּנֶסֶת יִשְֹרָאֵל, כְּגוֹן תְּאֵנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַּגֶּיהָ. וֶאֱגוֹזִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, אֶל גִּנַּת אֱגוֹז. וּתְמָרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, אֶעֱלֶה בְתָמָר. וְרִמּוֹנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן. וְתַפּוּחִים, זֵכֶר לְמַה שֶׁכָּתוּב, תַּחַת הַתַּפּוּחַ עוֹרַרְתִּיךָ, שֶׁהָיוּ הַנָּשִׁים יוֹלְדוֹת שָׁם בְּנֵיהֶן בְּלֹא עֶצֶב. וּשְׁקֵדִים עַל שֵׁם שֶׁשָּׁקַד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַקֵּץ לַעֲשׂוֹת. וְצָרִיךְ לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכָהּ תְּבָלִין הַדּוֹמִין לְתֶבֶן, כְּגוֹן קִנָּמוֹן וְזַנְגְּבִיל, שֶׁאֵינָן נִדּוֹכִין הָדֵק הֵיטֵב. וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן חוּטִין כְּמוֹ תֶבֶן, זֵכֶר לַתֶּבֶן שֶׁהָיוּ מְגַבְּלִין בְּתוֹךְ הַטִּיט. בַּשַׁבָּת, לֹא יִשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת הַיַּיִן אוֹ הַחֹמֶץ לְתוֹךְ הַחֲרֹסֶת, כִּי צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשִׁנּוּי, וְיִתֵּן אֲת הַחֲרֹסֶת לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן וְהַחֹמֶץ. וְאֶת מֵּי הַמֶלַח (אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁלֹּא חָל יוֹם טוֹב בַּשַׁבָּת) יַעֲשֶׂה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְאִם עוֹשֵׂהוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁנּוּי, שֶׁיִּתֵּן תְּחִלָּה אֶת הַמַּיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַמֶּלַח.

The charoses must have a thick consistency6The charoses should be prepared erev Yom Tov. If, however, you forgot, it may then be made on Yom Tov (Ibid. 473:47) to recall the mortar from which our forefathers had to make bricks. When you are ready to dip the maror into it, you should add a little wine or vinegar to make it soft to represent the blood, and for the additional reason that it should become fit to dip something into it. The charoses should be made from fruits that symbolize the Jewish people; for example: figs, for it is said, "The fig tree has produced its green figs," (Song of Songs 2:13); nuts, because it is said, "I went down to the garden of nuts" (ibid. 6:11); dates, because it is said, "I will ascend the palm tree" (ibid. 7:9); pomegranates, because it is said, "Like a slice of pomegranate" (ibid. 6:7); apples, to commemorate what is written, "Beneath the apple tree I aroused you," (ibid. 8:5) where the women gave birth to their children without pain; and almonds, (shekeidim, singular shakeid), because the Holy One, blessed is He, watched diligently (shakad) to end our bondage. You should put spices in it, that look like straw, such as cinnamon and ginger, that are not finely ground,7According to Maharil, they should not be ground at all, but should be left in long pieces. and have straw-like strands in them, to recall the straw, the Jews used to knead into the mortar. On Shabbos, you should not pour the wine and the vinegar into the charoses, for it must be done in an unusual manner, by putting the charoses into the wine or the vinegar. The salt water, (even when Yom Tov does not occur on Shabbos)8If, however, it does occur on Shabbos, the salt water should be prepared before Shabbos, and not on Shabbos. (Ibid. 473:21, 42) should be prepared on erev Yom Tov). If you do prepare it on Yom Tov, you should do it in an unusual way,9Mishnah Berurah makes no mention of preparing the salt water in an unusual manner on Yom Tov, when it does not occur on Shabbos. It would seem that he maintains that it is permitted to prepare it on Yom Tov in the usual manner. by pouring the water first, and adding the salt later.

5 ה

מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָשׁ, תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה שְׁנֵי מִינֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין, אֶחָד זֵכֶר לְקָרְבַּן פֶּסַח וְאֶחָד זֵכֶר לְקָרְבַּן חֲגִיגָה, שֶׁהָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיָה קַיָּם. וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁאֶחָד מִן הַתַּבְשִׁילִין יִהְיֶה בָּשָׂר, וְיִהְיֶה מִפֶּרֶק הַנִּקְרָא זְרוֹעַ, לְזֵכֶר שֶׁגְּאָלָם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּזְרוֹע נְטוּיָה, וְיִהְיֶה נִצְלֶה עַל הַגֶּחָלִים, זֵכֶר לַפֶּסַח שֶׁהָיָה צְלִי אֵשׁ. וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִהְיֶה בֵּיצָה, מִשּׁוּם דְּבֵיצָה בְּלָשׁוֹן אֲרָמִי בֵּיעָה, כְּלוֹמַר, דְּבָעֵי רַחְמָנָא לְמִפְרַק יָתָנָא בִּדְרָעָא מְרוֹמְמָא, (שֶרָצָה ה' לִפְדּוֹת אוֹתָנוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה). וְעוֹשִׂין הַבֵּיצָה, בֵּין צְלוּיָה בֵּין מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת. וְצָרִיךְ לִצְלֹתָן וּלְבַשְּׁלָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב בְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְאִם שָׁכַח אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שַׁבָּת, יִצְלֶה וִיבַשֵּׁל אוֹתָם בַּלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל צָרִיךְ לְאָכְלָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן. וְכֵן בְּלֵיל שֵׁנִי, יִצְלֵם וִיבַשְּׁלֵם וְיֹאכְלֵם בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי, כִּי אֵין מְבַשְּׁלִין מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא מִיּוֹם טוֹב לְחֹל. וּלְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין בָּשָֹר צָלִי בִּשְׁנֵי לֵילוֹת אֵלּוּ, עַל כֵּן צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכוֹל אֶת הַזְּרוֹעַ דַּוְקָא בַּיּוֹם. וְאַף כְּשֶׁצּוֹלִין אוֹתָן בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֵין לְזָרְקָן אַחַר כָּךְ, אֶלָּא יִתְּנֵם בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי תּוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁמְבַשְּׁלִין וְיֹאכְלֵם (תע"ג).

After the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed, the Sages ordained that there should be two cooked foods on the table, during the reciting of the Haggadah, one to recall the Korban Pesach, (Passover sacrifice), the other to recall the Korban Chagigah (Festival sacrifice), which were offered in the times when the Beis Hamikdash was standing. It is customary that one of the foods should be meat, from the shoulder section,10If you cannot obtain a shoulder piece, you may use other meat, even without a bone. The Poskim write that when a bone is used, there should be some meat on it, to recall the Korban Pesach. (Ibid. 473.27) to recall that the Holy One, blessed is He, redeemed Yisrael, with an outstretched arm. It should be roasted on fire, to recall the Korban Pesach (Passover sacrifice), which was roasted on fire. The second food should be an egg,11According to Mishnah Berurah, you may use two kinds of meat, one roasted, to recall the Korban Pesach, and one boiled, to recall the Korban Chagigah. (Ibid. 473:27) because an egg, in the Aramean language is beiah, that is to say, the Merciful One desired (ba'ei) to redeem us with an outstretched arm. You may prepare the egg, either roasted or boiled, but you must do the roasting or boiling on erev Yom Tov, while it is still daylight. If you forgot to do it (on erev Yom Tov), or if that day occurred on Shabbos, you should roast or boil it at night, but then you must eat it on the first day of Yom Tov. The same goes for the second night; you should roast it or boil it (at night), and you must eat it on the second day of Yom Tov, for you are not permitted to cook on the first day of Yom Tov for the second day, and neither on a Yom Tov for a weekday. Now, since it is customary not to eat roasted meats on the two nights of the seder, you should, therefore, eat the shoulder meat on Yom Tov during the day. Even if you roasted it on erev Yom Tov, you should not throw away (the meat) afterwards, but you should put it into the food that is cooked on the second day and eat it on the second day.

6 ו

יָכִין מוֹשָׁבוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם בְּמַצָּעוֹת נָאִים כְּפִי יְכָלְתּוֹ, וּבְאֹפֶן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהַטּוֹת וּלְהָסֵב בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ. וַאֲפְלּוּ הוּא אִטֵּר, יָסֵב בַּשְּׂמֹאל שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם. גַּם אֶת הַקְּעָרָה יָכִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, כְּדֵי שֶׁמִּיָּד בְּבוֹאוֹ מִבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת יוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַסֵּדֶר בְּלִי עִכּוּב.

You should prepare your seat [at the table] while it is still daytime, with the nicest pillows you can afford, placing them in such a way that you can recline and lean on the left side. Even a left-handed person should recline on the left side. You should also prepare the seder plate while it is still day, in order that immediately on returning home from the synagogue you can begin the seder without delay.

7 ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה טוֹב לְמַעֵט בְּכֵלִים נָאִים זֵכֶר לְחָרְבָּן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח טוֹב לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּכֵלִים נָאִים כְּפִי כֹּחוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לַסְּעֻדָּה, יְסַדְּרֵם יָפֶה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לְנוֹי, זֵכֶר לְחֵרוּת (תע"ב).

Although during the year, it is best to be moderate in displaying fine tableware, so that we remember the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash, nevertheless, on the night of Pesach, it is good to set the table with as many beautiful things as are within your means. Even vessels not used for the meal should be placed on the table for elegant decor, to symbolize freedom.

8 ח

סֵדֶר הַקְּעָרָה כָּךְ הוּא, מַנִּיחַ שָׁלֹשׁ מַצּוֹת עַל הַקְּעָרָה וּפוֹרֵס עֲלֵיהֶם מַפָּה נָאָה, וְעָלֶיהָ מַנִּיחַ אֶת הַזְּרוֹעַ נֶגֶד הַיָּמִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְאֶת הַבֵּיצָה מִשְּׂמאֹל. הַמָּרוֹר לִבְרָכָה, בְּאֶמְצַע. חֲרֹסֶת תַּחַת הַזְּרוֹעַ. כַּרְפַּס, תַּחַת הַבֵּיצָה. וּמָרוֹר לִכְרִיכָה בְּאֶמְצַע כָּזֶה.
זְרוֹעַ בֵּיצָה
מָרוֹר (לברכה)
חֲרֹסֶת כַּרְפַּס
מָרוֹר (לִכְּרִיכָה)

The seder plate is arranged in this manner: You place three matzos on the seder plate, you cover them with a beautiful cloth, you place the shankbone on your right side, and the egg on the left; the maror, over which you say the berachah, you place in the center; the charoses, you place below the shankbone; the karpas below the egg, and the maror, that is eaten together with the matzah, you place in the center; as in the diagram:

9 ט

הַכּוֹסוֹת יִהְיוּ שְׁלֵמִים בְּלִי שׁוּם פְּגִימָה, וּמוּדָחִים יָפֶה, וְיַחְזִיקוּ לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת רְבִיעִית (תע"ב תע"ט תפ"ו).

The wine cups must be whole, without any defect, thoroughly rinsed,12If they are wiped clean, with a cloth, both inside and outside, it is also acceptable. Even though you are not careful, all year, to examine the cups, used for Kiddush, you should take care to do so on the nights of the Seder. (Ibid. 183:1,2) and they must hold no less than a revi'is.13See Glossary.

10 י

מִנְהָגֵנוּ לְלְבּוֹשׁ אֶת הַקִּיטֶל (חָלוּק לָבָן) וִיָכִינוֹ גַּם כֵּן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וּמִי שֶׁהוּא אָבֵל, רַחְמָנָא לִצְלָן, אֵינוֹ לוֹבְשׁוֹ. אֲבָל בַּהֲסִבָּה, חַיָּב. רַק אִם לֹא נָהַג אֲבֵלוּת כְּלָל קֹדֶם יוֹם טוֹב, כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּבַר מֵתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵיסֵב. וְהַלֵּל, אוֹמֵר, כִּי הַהַלֵּל הוּא חִיּוּב.

It is our custom to wear a kittel (a white robe), which should also be prepared, while it is still day. A person, in mourning, God forbid, should not wear it, but he is required to recline. However, if he has observed no mourning at all before Yom Tov, as, for example, if the funeral was held on Yom Tov, then, it is customary that he should not recline. But he must recite Hallel, because the saying of Hallel is mandatory.

11 יא

בֵּן אֵצֶל אָבִיו חַיָּב בַּהֲסִבָּה. אֲבָל תַּלְמִיד אֵצֶל רַבּוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ (תע"ב).

A son, at his father's table, is required to recline, but a student, in the presence of his Rebbe, is not required to recline.