Kiddushin 49bקידושין מ״ט ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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49bמ״ט ב

מאי תורה מדרש תורה והני מילי דאמר לה תנינא אבל אמר לה תנא אנא עד דתני הילכתא ספרא וסיפרי ותוספתא

What is the meaning of: Torah, that Rabbi Yoḥanan said? It is homiletic interpretation of the Torah. And this statement applies only if he said to her: I study [taneina]. But if he says to her: I am a tanna [tanna ana], she is not betrothed unless he studies halakha, i.e., Mishna, Sifra and Sifrei, and Tosefta.

ע"מ שאני תלמיד אין אומרים כשמעון בן עזאי וכשמעון בן זומא אלא כל ששואלין אותו בכ"מ דבר אחד בלימודו ואומרו ואפילו במסכתא דכלה על מנת שאני חכם אין אומרים כחכמי יבנה כר' עקיבא וחביריו אלא כל ששואלים אותו דבר חכמה בכל מקום ואומרה

If a man says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a student of Torah, one does not say that he must be a student who is scholarly like Shimon ben Azzai or like Shimon ben Zoma, who were called students despite their great knowledge, as they were never ordained. Rather, it means anyone who, when he is asked one matter in any topic of his studies, responds appropriately and can say what he has learned, and this suffices even if his statement was in the tractate of Kalla. Similarly, if a man says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a scholar, one does not say that he must be like the scholars of Yavne, like Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues. Rather, it is referring to anyone who, when he is asked about a matter of wisdom on any topic related to the Torah, responds appropriately and can say what he has learned.

על מנת שאני גבור אין אומרים כאבנר בן נר וכיואב בן צרויה אלא כל שחביריו מתיראים ממנו מפני גבורתו על מנת שאני עשיר אין אומרים כרבי אלעזר בן חרסום וכרבי אלעזר בן עזריה אלא כל שבני עירו מכבדים אותו מפני עושרו

If a man says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am strong, one does not say that he must be as strong as Abner ben Ner, King Saul’s cousin and general, or as strong as Joab ben Zeruiah, King David’s nephew and general. Rather, it means anyone of whom others are afraid due to his strength. If a man says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am wealthy, one does not say he must be as wealthy as Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsom or as wealthy as Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, but rather it can refer to anyone who is honored by the members of his town due to his wealth.

על מנת שאני צדיק אפילו רשע גמור מקודשת שמא הרהר תשובה בדעתו על מנת שאני רשע אפילו צדיק גמור מקודשת שמא הרהר דבר עבודת כוכבים בדעתו

If one says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a righteous man, then even if he was a completely wicked man she is betrothed, as perhaps in the meantime he had thoughts of repentance in his mind and is now righteous. Similarly, if one says to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a wicked man, then even if he was a completely righteous man she is betrothed, as perhaps he had thoughts of idol worship in his mind, a serious sin that would earn him the label of wicked.

עשרה קבים חכמה ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה ארץ ישראל ואחד כל העולם כולו עשרה קבים יופי ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה ירושלים ואחד כל העולם כולו עשרה קבים עשירות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו רומיים קדמונים ואחד כל העולם כולו י' קבים עניות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה בבל ואחד כל העולם כולו עשרה קבים גסות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה עילם ואחד כל העולם כולו

§ Apropos the discussion with regard to various attributes, the Gemara cites a related statement: Ten kav of wisdom descended to the world; Eretz Yisrael took nine of them and all the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of beauty descended to the world; Jerusalem took nine and all the rest of the world in its entirety took one. Ten kav of wealth descended to the world; Rome took nine and all the rest of the world in its entirety took one. Ten kav of poverty descended to the world; Babylonia took nine and all the rest of the world in its entirety took one. Ten kav of arrogance descended to the world; Eilam took nine and all the rest of the world in its entirety took one.

וגסות לבבל לא נחית והכתי' (זכריה ה, ט) ואשא עיני וארא והנה שתים נשים יוצאות ורוח בכנפיהם ולהנה כנפים ככנפי החסידה ותשאנה את האיפה בין הארץ ובין השמים ואומר אל המלאך הדובר בי אנה המה מוליכות את האיפה ויאמר אלי לבנות לה בית בארץ שנער וא"ר יוחנן זו חנופה וגסות הרוח שירדו לבבל

The Gemara asks: But did arrogance not descend to Babylonia? But isn’t it written: “Then I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings, for they had wings like the wings of a stork. And they lifted up the measure between the earth and the heaven. Then I said to the angel that spoke with me: ‘To where do they take the measure?’ And he said to me: ‘To build her a house in the land of Shinar’” (Zechariah 5:9–11). And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This refers to flattery and arrogance that descended to Babylonia, i.e., Shinar. This indicates that arrogance reached Babylonia as well.

אין להכא נחית ואשתרבובי הוא דאשתרבובי להתם דיקא נמי דקתני לבנות לה בית ש"מ

The Gemara answers: Yes, it descended to here, to Babylonia, and it made its way to there, to Eilam. The language of the verse is also precise, as it teaches: “To build her a house,” which indicates that the original intention was to build a house in Babylonia, but it was not built there. The Gemara comments: Conclude from it that arrogance did not remain in Babylonia.

איני והאמר מר סימן לגסות עניות ועניות בבבל הוא דאיכא מאי עניות עניות דתורה דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ח) אחות לנו קטנה ושדים אין לה וא"ר יוחנן זו עילם שזכתה ללמוד ולא זכתה ללמד

The Gemara further asks: Is that so? But didn’t the Master say: A sign of arrogance is poverty, and there is poverty in Babylonia, and not in Eilam. The Gemara answers: To what kind of poverty is this referring? It is poverty with regard to Torah, which was characteristic of Eilam. As it is written: “We have a little sister, and she has no breasts” (Song of Songs 8:8), and Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This refers to Eilam, whose inhabitants merited to learn but did not merit to teach. They did not produce Torah scholars capable of imparting their wisdom to others.

עשרה קבים גבורה ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו פרסיים וכו' עשרה קבים כנים ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה מדי כו' עשרה קבים כשפים ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה מצרים כו' עשרה קבים נגעים ירדו לעולם ט' נטלו חזירים כו' י' קבים זנות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה ערביא כו'

The Gemara returns to its list of endowments of various groups: Ten kav of strength descended to the world; the Persians took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of lice descended to the world; Media took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of witchcraft descended to the world; Egypt took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of plagues descended to the world; pigs, which carry disease, took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of licentiousness descended to the world; Arabia took nine and the rest of the world took one.

עשרה קבים עזות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה מישן כו' עשרה קבים שיחה ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו נשים כו' עשרה קבים שכרות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו כושים כו' עשרה קבים שינה ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלו עבדים ואחד נטלו כל העולם כולו

Ten kav of brazenness descended to the world; Meishan, near Babylonia, took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of conversation descended to the world; women took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of drunkenness descended to the world; the Kushites took nine and the rest of the world took one. Ten kav of sleep descended to the world; slaves took nine and all the rest of the world in its entirety took one.

מתני׳ ע"מ שאני כהן ונמצא לוי לוי ונמצא כהן נתין ונמצא ממזר ממזר ונמצא נתין בן עיר ונמצא בן כרך בן כרך ונמצא בן עיר על מנת שביתי קרוב למרחץ ונמצא רחוק רחוק ונמצא קרוב

MISHNA: If one said to a woman: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a priest, and he was found to be a Levite; or if he said: A Levite, and he was found to be a priest; or if he said: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a Gibeonite, a people prohibited by rabbinic law from marrying into the congregation, i.e., from marrying a Jew of fit lineage, and he was found to be a mamzer, who is prohibited by Torah law to marry into the congregation; or he said: A mamzer, and he was found to be a Gibeonite; or if he said: Be betrothed to me on the condition that I am a resident of a small town, and he was found to be a resident of a large city; or he said: A resident of a city, and he was found to be a resident of a town; or if he said: Be betrothed to me on the condition that my house is close to the bathhouse, and it was found to be far; or he said: Far from the bathhouse, and it was found to be close, she is not betrothed.

על מנת שיש לו בת או שפחה מגודלת ואין לו או על מנת שאין לו ויש לו על מנת שאין לו בנים ויש לו או על מנת שיש לו ואין לו ובכולם אע"פ שאמרה בלבי היה להתקדש לו אעפ"כ אינה מקודשת וכן היא שהטעתו

Or if he said that she is betrothed to him on the condition that he has a grown daughter or a maidservant, and he does not have one, or on the condition that he does not have one and he has one; or on the condition that he has no sons, and he has sons, or on the condition that he has sons and he does not have sons, then she is not betrothed. And in all these cases, despite the fact that she later stated: I intended to become betrothed to him nevertheless, whether or not he fulfilled the condition, she is not betrothed. And similarly, if it was she who misled him by making the betrothal conditional upon a statement of hers that turned out to be incorrect, the betrothal will not take effect.

גמ׳ ההוא גברא דזבין לנכסיה אדעתא למיסק לארץ ישראל ובעידנא דזבין לא אמר ולא מידי אמר רבא הוי דברים שבלב ודברים שבלב אינם דברים מנא ליה לרבא הא אילימא מהא דתנן

GEMARA: The Gemara relates: There was a certain man who sold his property with the intention of ascending to Eretz Yisrael, but at the time that he sold the property he did not say anything with regard to his intention. Ultimately, he did not ascend to Eretz Yisrael, and he wished to renege on the sale. Rava said: Since he did not explicitly state that he was selling his property on the condition that he ascend to Eretz Yisrael, that is an unspoken matter that remained in the heart, and unspoken matters that remain in the heart are not significant matters. The Gemara asks: From where does Rava learn this principle? If we say it is from that which we learn in a baraita: