מפני שיבה תקום והדרת תקום והדרת פני זקן ומדלא כתב הכי ש"מ חד הוא
Before the hoary head of an elder you shall stand and revere; you shall stand and revere the face of an elder. From the fact that the Merciful One did not write this and thereby divide the two concepts, learn from it that “elder” and “hoary head” are together referring to one type of person.
אמר מר יכול יהדרנו בממון ת"ל תקום והדרת מה קימה שאין בה חסרון כיס אף הידור שאין בו חסרון כיס וקימה לית בה חסרון כיס מי לא עסקינן דקא נקיב מרגניתא אדהכי והכי קאים מקמיה ובטיל ממלאכתו
The Master said previously in the baraita: One might have thought that he should revere him through money, i.e., he is required to give him money in his honor; therefore, the verse states: “You shall stand and you shall revere” (Leviticus 19:32). Just as standing includes no monetary loss, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. The Gemara asks: And does standing include no monetary loss at all? Are we not dealing with a case where he was piercing pearls, a highly remunerative task, and in the meantime he must stand for the elder and thereby neglect his work, which causes him a loss?
אלא אקיש קימה להידור מה הידור שאין בו ביטול אף קימה שאין בה ביטול ואקיש נמי הידור לקימה מה קימה שאין בה חסרון כיס אף הידור שאין בו חסרון כיס מכאן אמרו אין בעלי אומניות רשאין לעמוד מפני תלמידי חכמים בשעה שעוסקין במלאכתם
Rather, the verse juxtaposes standing to reverence: Just as reverence does not include neglect of work, so too, standing does not include neglect of work; therefore, one who is engaged in work is not obligated to stand before an elder. And the verse also juxtaposes reverence to standing: Just as standing includes no monetary loss, as standing applies only when it does not entail neglect of work, as explained previously, so too, reverence is referring to an action that includes no monetary loss. From here the Sages stated: Craftsmen are not permitted to stand before Torah scholars when they are engaged in their work.
ולא והתנן כל בעלי אומניות עומדים מפניהם ושואלים בשלומם ואומרים להם אחינו אנשי מקום פלוני בואכם לשלום א"ר יוחנן מפניהם עומדים מפני תלמידי חכמים אין עומדים
The Gemara asks: And are craftsmen not required to stand before Torah scholars? But didn’t we learn in a mishna (Bikkurim 3:3): When farmers bring their first fruits to Jerusalem, all craftsmen stand before them, and greet them, and say to them: Our brothers from such and such a place, welcome! Since craftsmen would stand even for those engaged in a mitzva, all the more so should they stand for Torah scholars. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: There is no difficulty here, as indeed they stood before those bringing first fruits, and yet they would not stand before Torah scholars.
אמר רבי יוסי בר אבין בוא וראה כמה חביבה מצוה בשעתה שהרי מפניהם עומדים מפני תלמידי חכמים אין עומדים ודלמא שאני התם דא"כ אתה מכשילן לעתיד לבא
Based on this Rabbi Yosei bar Avin says: Come and see how beloved is a mitzva performed in its proper time, as the craftsmen stood before those who were fulfilling a mitzva, whereas they did not stand before Torah scholars. The Gemara responds: This does not prove that the same applies to all mitzvot performed in their proper times, as perhaps it is different there, with regard to the bringing of the first fruits; for if so, i.e., if one does not treat those who bring first fruits with such honor, they will not want to come at all, and you will cause them to stumble and sin in the future. Consequently, the Sages instituted that those bringing first fruits should be treated with special honor. This reasoning does not apply to people performing other mitzvot.
אמר מר יכול יעמוד מפניו מבית הכסא ומבית המרחץ ולא והא ר' חייא הוה יתיב בי מסחותא וחליף ואזיל רבי שמעון בר רבי ולא קם מקמיה ואיקפד ואתא אמר ליה לאבוה שני חומשים שניתי לו בספר תהלים ולא עמד מפני
The Master said previously: One might have thought that one should also stand before an Elder in the lavatory or in the bathhouse; therefore, the verse said: “You shall stand and you shall revere,” which indicates that the mitzva of standing applies only in a place where there is reverence. The Gemara asks: And does one not show honor in a lavatory? But Rabbi Ḥiyya was sitting in a bathhouse and Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi passed by, and he did not stand before him. And Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi became angry and went and said to his father, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: I taught Rabbi Ḥiyya two of the five parts of the book of Psalms, and yet he did not stand before me. This indicates that a display of honor is appropriate even in a bathhouse.
ותו בר קפרא ואמרי לה ר' שמואל בר ר' יוסי הוה יתיב בי מסחותא על ואזיל ר' שמעון בר רבי ולא קם מקמיה ואיקפד ואתא א"ל לאבוה שני שלישי שליש שניתי לו בתורת כהנים ולא עמד מפני ואמר לו שמא בהן יושב ומהרהר
And furthermore, bar Kappara, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Rabbi Yosei, was sitting in a bathhouse. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi entered and passed by, and he did not stand before him. Rabbi Shimon became angry and went and said to his father: I taught him two of the nine parts of Torat Kohanim, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, and yet he did not stand before me. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Shimon: Perhaps he was sitting and contemplating what you taught him and did not see you come in.
טעמא דבהן יושב ומהרהר הא לאו הכי לא
The Gemara explains the proof: The fact that the reason he might have been exempt was that he was sitting and pondering the lessons indicates that if that were not so, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would not have justified such behavior. One must stand before a Sage even in a bathhouse.
לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי
The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: This halakha, that one is not required to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the inner rooms, where everyone is naked; standing in a place of this kind certainly does not bestow honor. That halakha, that one is obligated to stand in a bathhouse, applies to the outer rooms, where people are still dressed. Standing is a sign of respect in these rooms.
ה"נ מסתברא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא דילמא לאונסיה שאני
The Gemara comments: So too, it is reasonable that this is the correct explanation, as Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: One is permitted to contemplate matters of Torah everywhere, except for the bathhouse and the lavatory. Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi suggested that the student might have been sitting and pondering his studies, it can be assumed that the episode occurred in a location where only some of the halakhot governing one’s behavior in a bathhouse apply, i.e., the outer rooms. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps one whose studies are beyond his control is different; it is possible he was so absorbed in Torah study that he forgot that he was in a place where it is prohibited to think about sacred matters.
יכול יעצים עיניו כמי שלא ראהו אטו ברשיעי עסקינן
It is taught in the same baraita: One might have thought that one may close his eyes like one who does not see the elder; therefore, the verse states: “Before the hoary head you shall stand, and you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your God” (Leviticus 19:32). The Gemara expresses surprise at this statement: Is that to say that we are dealing with wicked people who would intentionally act this way to avoid fulfilling a mitzva?
אלא יכול יעצים עיניו מקמי דלימטיה זמן חיובא דכי מטא זמן חיובא הא לא חזי ליה דקאים מקמיה ת"ל תקום ויראת
Rather, this means: One might have thought that one may close his eyes before the obligation to stand arrives, i.e., when the elder is still far off. This would mean that when the obligation does arrive he will not see him, such that he would be required to stand before him. In this manner he thinks that he can avoid the obligation altogether. Therefore the verse states: “You shall stand…and you shall fear,” i.e., one should fear He who knows the secrets of one’s heart.
תנא איזוהי קימה שיש בה הידור הוי אומר זה ד' אמות אמר אביי לא אמרן אלא ברבו שאינו מובהק אבל ברבו המובהק מלא עיניו
§ A Sage taught: What is the type of standing that indicates reverence? You must say that this applies when it is clear that one is standing in the elder’s honor, which is within four cubits of him. Abaye said: We said this halakha, that one must stand within four cubits of the elder, only with regard to one who is not his primary teacher; but for his primary teacher he must stand when he is within his range of vision, i.e., as soon as he sees him, even if he is more than four cubits away.
אביי מכי הוה חזי ליה לאודניה דחמרא דרב יוסף דאתי הוה קאים אביי הוה רכיב חמרא וקא מסגי אגודא דנהר סגיא יתיב רב משרשיא ורבנן באידך גיסא ולא קמו מקמיה אמר להו ולאו רב מובהק אנא אמרו ליה לאו אדעתין:
The Gemara likewise reports that Abaye would stand as soon as he saw the ear of Rav Yosef’s donkey coming toward him. The Gemara relates: Abaye was riding a donkey along the bank of the Sagya River. Rav Mesharshiyya and other rabbis were sitting on the other bank of the river, and they did not stand before him. Abaye said to them: Am I not your primary teacher? You are therefore required to stand before me, despite the fact that I am far away. They said to him: That did not enter our minds, i.e., we did not see you at all.
ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר מנין לזקן שלא יטריח ת"ל זקן ויראת אמר אביי נקטינן דאי מקיף חיי אביי מקיף רבי זירא מקיף
§ It was further stated in the baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where is it derived that an elder should not trouble others to honor him? The verse states: “And you shall revere the face of an elder, and you shall fear your God.” Abaye said: We have a tradition that if a Sage circumnavigates an area so that people will not have to stand before him, he will live a long life. The Gemara relates that Abaye would circumnavigate an area, and likewise Rabbi Zeira would circumnavigate an area.
רבינא הוה יתיב קמיה דר' ירמיה מדיפתי חלף ההוא גברא קמיה ולא מיכסי רישא אמר כמה חציף הא גברא א"ל דלמא ממתא מחסיא ניהו דגיסי בה רבנן
The Gemara cites another incident involving honor one demonstrates for his teacher. Once, when Ravina was sitting before Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti, a certain man passed before him and did not cover his head. Ravina said: How rude is this man, who does not show respect by covering his head in honor of a rabbi. Rabbi Yirmeya of Difti said to him: Perhaps he is from the city of Mata Meḥasya, where rabbis are common and the people living there are consequently not as careful to display honor as those in other places.
איסי בן יהודה אומר מפני שיבה תקום ואפילו כל שיבה במשמע אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה כאיסי בן יהודה ר' יוחנן הוה קאי מקמי סבי דארמאי אמר כמה הרפתקי עדו עלייהו דהני רבא מיקם לא קאי הידור עבד להו
§ It was stated previously that Isi ben Yehuda says that as the verse states: “Before the hoary head you shall stand,” it indicates that even anyone of hoary head is included, not only a Torah scholar. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Isi ben Yehuda. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yoḥanan himself would stand before Aramean, i.e., gentile, elders. He said: How many experiences [harpatkei] have occurred to these individuals. It is appropriate to honor them, due to the wisdom they have garnered from their long lives. Rava would not stand before them, but he displayed reverence to them.
אביי יהיב ידא לסבי רבא משדר שלוחיה רב נחמן משדר גוזאי אמר אי לאו תורה כמה נחמן בר אבא איכא בשוקא
Abaye would extend a hand to elders so that they could lean on him. Rava would send his agent to help them. Rav Naḥman would send officers [goza’ei], his servants, to assist elders. He said: If not for the Torah, how many people named Naḥman bar Abba would there be in the marketplace? In other words, I am not permitted to treat my Torah study lightly by assisting them myself, as I can perform this mitzva through others.
א"ר אייבו אמר ר' ינאי
Rabbi Aivu says that Rabbi Yannai says: