Ketubot 8aכתובות ח׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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8aח׳ א

שהכל ברא לכבודו

Who has created all for His glory.

ויוצר האדם

And the second blessing is: Blessed are You…Creator of mankind.

ואשר יצר את האדם בצלמו בצלם דמות תבניתו והתקין לו ממנו בנין עדי עד ברוך אתה ה' יוצר האדם

And the third blessing is: Blessed are You…Who made humanity in His image, in the image of the likeness of His form, and out of His very self formed a building (see Genesis 2:22) for eternity. Blessed are You, Lord, Creator of mankind.

שוש תשיש ותגל העקרה בקבוץ בניה לתוכה בשמחה ברוך אתה ה' משמח ציון בבניה

The fourth blessing is: May the barren city of Jerusalem greatly rejoice and delight with the ingathering of her children within her in joy. Blessed are You, Lord, Who gladdens Zion through her children.

שמח תשמח ריעים האהובים כשמחך יצירך בגן עדן מקדם ברוך אתה ה' משמח חתן וכלה

The fifth blessing is: Bring great joy to these loving friends, as You gave joy to Your creations in Eden in ancient times. Blessed are You, Lord, Who brings joy to the groom and bride.

ברוך אתה ה' אמ"ה אשר ברא ששון ושמחה חתן וכלה גילה רינה דיצה חדוה אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות מהרה ה' אלהינו ישמע בערי יהודה ובחוצות ירושלים קול ששון וקול שמחה קול חתן וקול כלה קול מצהלות חתנים מחופתם ונערים ממשתה נגינתם בא"י משמח חתן עם הכלה

The sixth blessing is: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has created joy and gladness, groom and bride, delight, exultation, happiness, jubilation, love and brotherhood, and peace and friendship. Soon, Lord our God, may there be heard in the cities of Judea and in the streets of Jerusalem the sound of joy and the sound of gladness, the sound of the groom and the sound of the bride, the joyous sound of grooms from their wedding canopy and of young people from their feast of song (see Jeremiah 33:11). Blessed are You, Lord, Who makes the groom rejoice with the bride. Together with the blessing over the wine, these are the seven wedding blessings.

לוי איקלע לבי רבי בהלוליה דר"ש בריה בריך חמש רב אסי איקלע לבי רב אשי בהלוליה דמר בריה בריך שית

The Gemara relates: Levi happened to come to the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi during the wedding celebration of Rabbi Shimon, his son, and recited five of these blessings. Rav Asi happened to come to the house of Rav Ashi during the wedding celebration of Mar, his son, and recited six of these blessings.

לימא בהא קמיפלגי דמ"ס חדא יצירה הואי ומ"ס שתי יצירות הואי

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that they disagree about this: One Sage holds: It was one act of creation with which man was created. And one Sage holds: It was two acts of creation with which man was created. The first opinion, that there was one act of creation, is based on the concept that man was created with two sides, one male and one female. There was no additional act of creation. Man and woman were subsequently separated into two independent beings. Therefore, there is no need for the two blessings: Who created mankind, and: Who created mankind in His image. The second opinion is that there were in fact two separate acts of creation. Therefore, it is appropriate to recite two blessings with regard to the creation of mankind.

לא דכ"ע חדא יצירה הואי מ"ס בתר מחשבה אזלינן ומ"ס בתר מעשה אזלינן כי הא דרב יהודה רמי כתיב (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו וכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם הא כיצד בתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראות שנים ולבסוף נברא אחד

The Gemara rejects that suggestion: No, everyone agrees that it was only one act of creation. However, one Sage holds: It is according to the initial thought that we proceed. And one Sage holds: It is according to the action that we proceed. God’s initial thought was to create man and woman as separate entities. Ultimately, they were created as one entity. That explanation is like the following. Rav Yehuda raises a contradiction. In one verse it is written: “And God created man in His own image” (Genesis 1:27), indicating one act of creation, and in another verse it is written: “Male and female He created them” (Genesis 5:2), indicating two acts. How can this apparent contradiction be resolved? Initially, the thought entered God’s mind to create two, but ultimately only one was actually created.

רב אשי איקלע לבי רב כהנא יומא קמא בריך כולהו מכאן ואילך אי איכא פנים חדשות בריך כולהו ואי לא אפושי שמחה בעלמא הוא מברך שהשמחה במעונו ואשר ברא

The Gemara relates: Rav Ashi happened to come to the house of Rav Kahana to attend a wedding. The first day he recited all seven blessings. From that point forward, if there were new faces present, he recited all the blessings, and if not, he would say: It is merely an extension of the original celebration, and he would recite the blessing: In Whose dwelling is joy, in the zimmun prior to Grace after Meals, and the sixth blessing after Grace after Meals: Who has created.

משבעה ועד שלשים בין אמר להו מחמת הלולא ובין לא אמר להו מחמת הלולא מברך שהשמחה במעונו מכאן ואילך אי אמר להו מחמת הלולא מברך שהשמחה במעונו ואי לא לא

§ Apropos the wedding blessings, the Gemara continues: From seven days after the wedding until the thirtieth day, whether the groom said to the guests that he is inviting them due to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to them that he is inviting them due to the wedding celebration, he recites the blessing: In Whose dwelling is joy. From this point, thirty days after the wedding, forward, if he said to them that he is inviting them due to the wedding celebration [hillula], he recites the blessing: In Whose dwelling is joy, and if not, he doesn’t.

וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפי משמיה דרבא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אמר רב פפא מכי רמו שערי באסינתא איני והא רב פפא איעסק לאבא מר בריה ובריך משעת אירוסין שאני רב פפא דהוה טריח ליה

The Gemara asks: And when the groom said to them that he is inviting them due to the wedding celebration, until when is this blessing recited? Rav Pappi said in the name of Rava: Until twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding. Since his legal status remains that of a groom, the blessing: In Whose dwelling is joy, may be recited. The Gemara asks: And initially, prior to the wedding, from when is that blessing recited? Rav Pappa said: From when they cast barley into the mortar to prepare beer for the wedding. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rav Pappa, involve himself in preparations for the wedding of his son, Abba Mar, and begin reciting the blessing from the time of betrothal? Rav Pappa is different, because the wedding preparations had already been prepared for him, and it was merely a matter of waiting for the designated time to arrive. Therefore, the wedding celebration began for him from the time of betrothal.

רבינא איעסק ליה לבריה בי רב חביבא ובריך משעת אירוסין אמר קים לי בגוייהו דלא הדרי בהו לא אסתייע מילתא והדרי בהו רב תחליפא בר מערבא איקלע לבבל בריך שית אריכתא ולית הלכתא כוותיה

The Gemara relates: Ravina arranged for his son to marry a woman from the house of Rav Ḥaviva and recited the blessing from the time of betrothal. He said: I am certain with regard to them, that they will not retract their commitment and terminate the betrothal, and the wedding will take place on time. Nevertheless, the matter was not to be, and ultimately they retracted their commitment, and the wedding was canceled. The Gemara relates: Rav Taḥlifa, from the West, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, happened to come to Babylonia, and he elaborated on the themes of the wedding blessings and recited six long blessings. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion. Rather, one must adhere to the formula coined by the Sages.

רב חביבא איקלע לבי מהולא בריך שהשמחה במעונו ולית הלכתא כוותיה משום דטרידי דאית ליה צערא לינוקא

It is further related: Rav Ḥaviva happened to come to the house where a circumcision was taking place. He recited the blessing: In Whose dwelling is joy. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion. Since the parents of the baby are anxious, as the baby is experiencing pain, it is not appropriate to recite the blessing under those circumstances.

א"ר נחמן אמר רב חתנים מן המנין ואין אבלים מן המנין מיתיבי חתנים ואבלים מן המנין מתניתא קא רמית עליה דרב רב תנא הוא ופליג איתמר אמר ר' יצחק א"ר יוחנן חתנים מן המנין ואין אבלים מן המנין מיתיבי חתנים ואבלים מן המנין

§ Rav Naḥman said that Rav said: With regard to the quorum of ten required to recite the wedding blessings, grooms are included in the tally. And mourners are not included in the tally for the blessing of the mourners. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Grooms and mourners are included in the tally. The Gemara responds: Are you raising a contradiction from a baraita against the opinion of Rav? Rav himself had tanna status and therefore, unlike later amora’im, could disagree with opinions of tanna’im. It was stated: Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Grooms are included in the tally, but mourners are not included in the tally. The Gemara raises an objection from the baraita cited above: Grooms and mourners are included in the tally.