Ketubot 7bכתובות ז׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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7bז׳ ב

מיתיבי מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד מאי לאו אפילו אלמנה שנשאת לבחור לא לאלמון אבל לבחור מאי שבעה אי הכי ליתני מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה שנשאת לבחור שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: One recites a benediction for a virgin who marries for seven days and for a widow who marries for one day. What, is it not even in the case of a widow who is married to a bachelor, that one recites the benediction for one day? The Gemara answers: No, it is only in the case of a widow who is married to a widower that the benediction is recited for one day. The Gemara asks: However, one may then infer that in the case of a widow who is married to a bachelor, what is the halakha? The blessing is recited seven days? If so, let the tanna teach the baraita: One recites a benediction for a virgin who marries for seven days, and for a widow who marries a bachelor seven days, and for a widow marrying a widower for one day. Why was the middle case omitted?

מילתא פסיקתא קתני דליכא בתולה דבצרה משבעה וליכא אלמנה דבצרה מיום אחד:

Although the tanna could have included that case in the baraita, he taught categorical matters. He preferred to avoid entering into detail, as there is no virgin for whom the benediction is recited fewer than seven days, and there is no widow for whom the benediction is recited for less than one day. However, there are circumstances where even for a widow the benediction is recited for more than one day.

גופא אמר רב נחמן אמר לי הונא בר נתן תנא מנין לברכת חתנים בעשרה שנאמר (רות ד, ב) ויקח עשרה אנשים מזקני העיר ויאמר שבו פה ורבי אבהו אמר מהכא (תהלים סח, כז) במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל

§ Apropos the source for the benediction of the grooms, the Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Naḥman said: Huna bar Natan said to me that it was taught: From where is it derived that the benediction of the grooms is recited in a quorum of ten men? It is as it is stated: “And he took ten men of the Elders of the city and said: Sit you here, and they sat” (Ruth 4:2). And Rabbi Abbahu said that the source is from here: “In assemblies [mak’helot], bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel” (Psalms 68:27). This verse indicates that a congregation [kahal], which contains at least ten men, blesses God when reciting a benediction related to the source of Israel, i.e., conjugal relations, which will lead to the birth of Jewish children.

ורב נחמן בהאי קרא דרבי אבהו מאי דריש ביה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא היה ר"מ אומר מנין שאפילו עוברים שבמעי אמן אמרו שירה על הים שנאמר במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל ואידך אם כן לימא קרא מבטן מאי ממקור על עסקי מקור

And what does Rav Naḥman derive from this verse from which Rabbi Abbahu derived that halakha? He requires the verse to derive that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Meir would say: From where is it derived that even fetuses in their mother’s womb recited the song at the Red Sea? It is as it is stated in the chapter of Psalms that describes the exodus from Egypt: “In assemblies, bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel.” Even those fetuses that were still in the source, i.e., the womb, joined the assemblies in blessing God. And the other Sage, Rabbi Abbahu says: If that is the meaning, let the verse say: From the belly of Israel. What is the meaning of the term “source”? Clearly, it is referring to matters related to the source of Israel, i.e., the benediction of the grooms, which must be recited in a congregation, a quorum of ten.

ורבי אבהו בהאי קרא דרב נחמן מאי דריש ביה ההוא מיבעי ליה למידרש עמוני ולא עמונית מואבי ולא מואבית דאי סלקא דעתך לברכה לא סגיא דלאו זקנים

And what does Rabbi Abbahu derive from this verse from which Rav Naḥman derived his halakha? He requires the verse stating that Boaz assembled ten men in order to teach that the Torah prohibition with regard to marrying members of the nations of Ammon and Moab is limited to a male Ammonite and not a female Ammonite, and to a male Moabite and not a female Moabite, as, if it would enter your mind that Boaz gathered the men only to recite a benediction, would it not have been sufficient if they were not Elders? From the fact that he convened a quorum of Elders, apparently it was to engage in halakhic discourse and to issue a halakhic ruling.

ואידך אי סלקא דעתך למידרש לא סגיא דלאו עשרה אין לפרסומי מילתא וכדאמר ליה שמואל לרב חנא בגדתאה פוק ואייתי לי בי עשרה ואימא לך באנפייהו המזכה לעובר קנה והלכתא המזכה לעובר לא קנה:

And the other Sage, Rav Naḥman, would reject that proof. If it would enter your mind that he gathered the men in order to teach a halakha, would it not have been sufficient if they were not ten? The Gemara answers: Yes, in fact a quorum of ten is not necessary to issue a halakhic ruling. Nevertheless, Boaz convened ten Elders to publicize the matter, as Shmuel said to Rav Ḥana of Baghdad: Go and bring me an assembly of ten men and I will say to you before them a halakha that I seek to disseminate: With regard to one who transfers ownership of an object to a fetus, the fetus acquires it, although it has not yet entered the world. Boaz too assembled ten Elders to publicize the matter. Apropos the halakha that Shmuel publicized, the Gemara rules: And the halakha is: With regard to one who transfers ownership of an object to a fetus, the fetus does not acquire it.

תנו רבנן מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים ר' יהודה אומר אף בבית האירוסין מברכין אותה

The Sages taught in a baraita: One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, when the bride enters into the wedding canopy. Rabbi Yehuda said: One recites it even in the house of the betrothal, at the time of the betrothal.

אמר אביי וביהודה שנו מפני שמתייחד עמה

Abaye said: And the Sages taught the statement of Rabbi Yehuda in Judea because there the custom was that the groom be secluded with his betrothed, leading to the concern lest he engage in conjugal relations with her. Therefore, the blessing is recited already at that stage.

תניא אידך מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים וברכת אירוסין בבית האירוסין ברכת האירוסין מאי מברך רבין בר רב אדא ורבה בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב יהודה אמרי בא"י אמ"ה אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על העריות ואסר לנו את הארוסות והתיר לנו את הנשואות על ידי חופה וקדושין רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה בא"י מקדש ישראל על ידי חופה וקדושין

It is taught in another baraita: One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, and the benediction of the betrothal in the house of the betrothal. With regard to the benediction of the betrothal, what formula does one recite? Ravin bar Rav Adda and Rabba bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who sanctified us through His mitzvot, and commanded us concerning the forbidden relatives, and prohibited to us those women who are betrothed, and permitted to us those women who are married by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludes the blessing in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord, Who sanctifies Israel by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal.

מאן דלא חתים מידי דהוה אברכת פירות ואברכת מצות ומאן דחתים מידי דהוה אקידושא:

One who does not conclude the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, but instead recites it without a concluding blessing, deems the formula of this blessing just as the formula is in the blessing recited over fruits and the blessing recited over mitzvot, in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appear only at the beginning of the blessing. And one who concludes the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, deems the formula of this blessing just as the formula is in the blessing of kiddush, in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appears both at the beginning and the conclusion of the blessing.

ת"ר מברכין ברכת חתנים בעשרה כל שבעה אמר רב יהודה והוא שבאו פנים חדשות

§ The Sages taught: One recites the benediction of the grooms in a quorum of ten men all seven days of the wedding celebration. Rav Yehuda said: And that is the case only when new faces who did not previously participate in the festivities came to join the celebration.

מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה בא"י אמ"ה

The Gemara asks: What blessings does one recite? Rav Yehuda said that these are the seven blessings: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe,