Ketubot 64b:6כתובות ס״ד ב:ו
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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64bס״ד ב

מיחזי כשכר שבת

it does appear to be Shabbat wages. Consequently, the Sages decreed that he should not give her money for Shabbat.

אמר ליה ר' חייא בר יוסף לשמואל מה בין מורד למורדת אמר ליה צא ולמד משוק של זונות מי שוכר את מי דבר אחר זה יצרו מבחוץ וזו יצרה מבפנים:

On the same issue, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said to Shmuel: What is the reason for the difference in halakha between a rebellious man and a rebellious woman? According to all opinions, a rebellious wife’s fine is greater than that of a rebellious husband. He said to him: Go and learn from the market of prostitutes. Who hires whose services? Clearly, a man suffers more from lack of sexual intercourse, and therefore the penalty for a rebellious wife is greater. Alternatively, when he desires sexual relations, his inclination is noticeable on the outside, and therefore he feels shame as well as pain. But for her, her inclination is on the inside, and is not obvious.

מתני׳ המשרה את אשתו על ידי שליש לא יפחות לה משני קבין חטין או מארבעה קבין שעורין אמר רבי יוסי לא פסק לה שעורין אלא ר' ישמעאל שהיה סמוך לאדום ונותן לה חצי קב קיטנית וחצי לוג שמן וקב גרוגרות או מנה דבילה ואם אין לו פוסק לעומתן פירות ממקום אחר

MISHNA: If someone feeds his wife by means of a third party serving as a trustee, while the husband himself is not living with her for some reason, he may not give her less than two kav of wheat or four kav of barley a week for her sustenance. Rabbi Yosei said: Only Rabbi Yishmael, who was near Edom, allotted her barley. And he must give her half a kav of legumes, and half a log of oil, and a kav of dried figs or the weight of a maneh of fig cakes. And if he does not have these fruits, he must apportion for her a corresponding amount of fruit from elsewhere.

ונותן לה מטה מפץ ומחצלת ונותן לה כפה לראשה וחגור למתניה ומנעלים ממועד למועד וכלים של חמשים זוז משנה לשנה ואין נותנין לה לא חדשים בימות החמה ולא שחקים בימות הגשמים אלא נותן לה כלים של חמשים זוז בימות הגשמים והיא מתכסה בבלאותיהן בימות החמה והשחקים שלה

And he must give her a bed, a soft mat, and a hard mat. And he must give her a cap for her head, and a belt for her waist, and new shoes from Festival to Festival, i.e., he must buy her new shoes each Festival. And he must purchase garments for her with a value of fifty dinars from year to year. The mishna comments: And he may not give her new clothes, which tend to be thick and warm, in the summer, nor worn garments in the rainy season, as these are too thin and she will be cold. Rather, he should give her clothes at a value of fifty dinars in the rainy season, and she covers herself with these same worn garments in the summer as well. And the leftover, worn clothes belong to her.

נותן לה מעה כסף לצורכה ואוכלת עמו מלילי שבת ללילי שבת ואם אין נותן לה מעה כסף לצורכה מעשה ידיה שלה

In addition to the above, he must give her another silver ma’a coin for the rest of her needs. And she eats with him from Shabbat evening to Shabbat evening. Although he may provide for her sustenance via a third party throughout the week, on Shabbat evening she has the right to eat together with him. And if he does not give her a silver ma’a coin for her needs, her earnings belong to her.

ומה היא עושה לו משקל חמש סלעים שתי ביהודה שהן עשר סלעים בגליל או משקל עשר סלעים ערב ביהודה שהן עשרים סלעים בגליל ואם היתה מניקה פוחתין לה ממעשה ידיה ומוסיפין לה על מזונותיה במה דברים אמורים בעני שבישראל אבל במכובד הכל לפי כבודו:

And what is the fixed amount that she must earn for him? She must spin wool in the weight of five sela of threads of the warp in Judea, which are equivalent to ten sela according to the measurements of the Galilee, or the weight of ten sela of the threads of the woof, which are easier to prepare, in Judea, which are equivalent to twenty sela according to the measurements used in the Galilee. And if she is nursing at the time, the required amount is reduced from her earnings and is added to the sum she receives for her sustenance. In what case is this statement, i.e., all these amounts and measurements, said? With regard to the poorest of Jews, i.e., these are the minimum requirements. However, in the case of a financially prominent man, all the amounts are increased according to his prominence.

גמ׳ מני מתניתין לא רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא ולא ר"ש דתנן וכמה שיעורו מזון שתי סעודות לכל אחד ואחד מזונו לחול ולא לשבת דברי ר"מ רבי יהודה אומר לשבת ולא לחול וזה וזה מתכוונין להקל

GEMARA: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It is not Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka and it is not Rabbi Shimon, as we learned in a mishna (Eiruvin 82b): What is the measure for a joining of Shabbat boundaries [eiruv]? It consists of a quantity of food sufficient for two meals for each and every one of those included in the eiruv. The tanna’im disagree with regard to the definition of these two meals: It is referring to one’s food that he eats on a weekday and not on Shabbat; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is referring to the amount he eats on Shabbat and not on a weekday. And both this Sage, Rabbi Meir, and that Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, intend to be lenient, as Rabbi Meir maintains that people eat more food on Shabbat, whereas Rabbi Yehuda believes that they consume more on a weekday.

ר' יוחנן בן ברוקא אומר ככר הלקוח בפונדיון מארבע סאין לסלע ר"ש אומר שתי ידות לככר משלש ככרות לקב

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka says: Food for two meals is the size of a loaf bought with a pundeyon, which is one forty-eighth of a sela, when four se’a of wheat are sold for a sela. According to this calculation, a pundeyon can purchase one-twelfth of a se’a of wheat, which is equivalent to half of a kav, as there are six kav in a se’a. Therefore, according to Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, one quarter of a kav is sufficient for a single meal. Rabbi Shimon says: Food for two meals is two of three parts of a loaf, when three loaves are prepared from a kav of wheat. According to Rabbi Shimon, therefore, one-ninth of a kav of wheat is sufficient for a meal.

חציה לבית המנוגע וחצי חציה לפסול את הגוייה וחצי חצי חציה לקבל טומאת אוכלין

Having discussed the various opinions with regard to the size of a loaf of bread sufficient for a meal, the mishna states that half of this loaf is the amount called a half [peras], a measure relevant for the halakhot of a leprous house. If one enters a house afflicted with leprosy and remains there long enough to eat this amount of food, the clothes he is wearing become ritually impure. And half of its half, one quarter of a loaf this size, is the amount of ritually impure food that renders the body unfit. In other words, impure food of this amount imparts ritual impurity to the body of the eater and disqualifies him by rabbinic law from eating teruma. And half of one half of its half, one-eighth of this loaf, is the minimum measure of food that is susceptible to ritual impurity as food.

מני אי רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא תמני הויין ואי ר"ש תמני סרי הויין

After the citing the mishna, the Gemara returns to its question: Who is the author of the mishna here, which says a husband must provide two kav of wheat per week for his wife’s sustenance? If it is Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, who maintains that one quarter of a kav is sufficient for a single meal, there are only eight meals in two kav, and the wife requires at least fourteen meals for a week, as it was customary to eat two meals each day. And if it is Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one-ninth of a kav is sufficient for a meal, two kav are enough for eighteen meals, and therefore the mishna requires more than she actually needs.

לעולם ר' יוחנן בן ברוקא וכדאמר רב חסדא צא מהן שליש לחנווני הכא נמי אייתי תילתא שדי עלייהו אכתי תרתי סרי הויין אוכלת עמו לילי שבת

The Gemara answers: Actually, the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, and this is as Rav Ḥisda said in explanation of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka’s opinion: Deduct one-third for the grocer’s markup, as he takes one-third as profit. This adds one half to the total cost. Here, too, bring one-third and add it to the total amount of meals that can be provided by two kav of wheat. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Still, after adjusting the calculation by adding an additional half, a measurement known by the term: Outside third, to the amount of meals that can be eaten from two kav of wheat, they are equal to twelve meals. This is still not sufficient, as the wife requires fourteen. The Gemara answers: She eats with him on Shabbat evening. Consequently, this meal is not included in the amount that must be provided through the third party.

הניחא למאן דאמר אכילה ממש אלא למאן דאמר אכילה תשמיש מאי איכא למימר ועוד תליסר הויין אלא כדאמר רב חסדא צא מהן מחצה לחנווני ה"נ אתיא פלגא ושדי עלייהו

The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who says that when the mishna is referring to eating, it means literal eating. However, according to the one who says that this eating on Shabbat evening is a euphemism, and it is actually referring to conjugal relations, what can be said? And furthermore, even if the meal on Shabbat evening is omitted, they are still thirteen meals that she requires but she has enough for only twelve. Rather, this is as Rav Ḥisda said, with regard to Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka’s opinion: Deduct one-half for the grocer’s markup. So too here, bring a half and add it to the total amount, which means she has enough for sixteen meals, not eight.

קשיא דרב חסדא אדרב חסדא לא קשיא הא באתרא דיהבי ציבי הא באתרא דלא יהבי ציבי

The Gemara asks: This is difficult with regard to one statement of Rav Ḥisda, which seemingly contradicts the other statement of Rav Ḥisda. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This statement, that the grocer’s markup adds one-third to the price, is referring to a place where they also give money as a separate payment for the wood required to bake bread. That statement, that the grocer’s markup adds half, is referring to a place where they do not give money for wood, and therefore the markup must be higher to cover those costs.

אי הכי שיתסרי הויין כמאן כרבי חידקא דאמר ארבע סעודות חייב אדם לאכול בשבת

After reconciling the apparent contradiction between the two statements of Rav Ḥisda, the Gemara returns to the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka. If so, according to the above calculation, there are sixteen meals, which is more than a woman requires in a week. The Gemara suggests: In that case, who is the author of the mishna? Is it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, who said that a person is obligated to eat four meals on Shabbat? Since two meals are eaten on an ordinary weekday, this results in a total of sixteen meals a week.

אפילו תימא רבנן דל חדא לארחי ופרחי

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: You can even say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who maintain that one is obligated to eat only three meals on Shabbat, as you should remove one meal for guests and wayfarers. In other words, the husband cannot give his wife the absolute minimum amount she requires for herself and no more. He must give her enough to provide for the occasional visitor. Consequently, the total sum is somewhat more than was originally assumed.

השתא דאתית להכי אפילו תימא ר' שמעון לרבנן דל תלת לארחי ופרחי לרבי חידקא דל תרתי לארחי ופרחי:

The Gemara adds: Now that you have arrived at this answer, you can even say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who maintains that two kav is sufficient for eighteen meals. This can be explained either by saying that Rabbi Shimon agrees with the opinion of the Rabbis, that one eats three meals on Shabbat, if you remove three meals for guests and wayfarers, or that Rabbi Shimon agrees with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥidka, that four meals are eaten on Shabbat, in which case you must remove two meals for guests and wayfarers. In this manner, the mishna can be reconciled with all opinions.

אמר רבי יוסי לא פסק שעורין וכו': אלא באדום הוא דאכלין שעורים בכולי עלמא לא אכלי ה"ק לא פסק שעורים כפלים בחטין אלא רבי ישמעאל שהיה סמוך לאדום מפני ששעורין אדומיות רעות הן:

§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yosei said: Only Rabbi Yishmael, who was near Edom, allotted her barley. The Gemara asks: But does this indicate that it is only in Edom that they eat barley, whereas in the rest of the world they do not eat barley? This cannot be the case, as barley was eaten by the poor everywhere. The Gemara explains: This is what Rabbi Yosei is saying: Only Rabbi Yishmael, who was near Edom, allotted her a double amount of barley to that of wheat, since Edomite barley is bad, whereas elsewhere the barley is of a higher quality, and therefore the difference between barley and wheat is less marked.

ונותן לה חצי קב קיטנית: ואילו יין לא קתני מסייע ליה לר' אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר

§ The mishna further taught: And he must give her half a kav of legumes as well as oil and fruit. The Gemara comments: And yet wine is not taught in the mishna. This supports the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: