משנה: הַשּׁוּתָפִין שֶׁרָצוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִיצֶה בֶחָצֵר בּוֹנִין אֶת הַכּוֹתֶל בָּאֶמְצַע. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִבְנוֹת גָּוִיל גָּזִית כְּפִיסִין וּלְבֵינִים בּוֹנִים הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. בַּגָּוִיל זֶה נוֹתֵן ג̇ טְפָחִים וְזֶה נוֹתֵן ג̇ טְפָחִים. בַּגָּזִית זֶה נוֹתֵן טִפְחַיִים וּמֶחֱצָה וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טִפְחַיִים וּמֶחֱצָה. בַּכְּפִיסִין זֶה נוֹתֵן טִפְחַיִים וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טִפְחַיִים. בַּלְּבֵינִים זֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה וְזֶה נוֹתֵן טֶפַח וּמֶחֱצָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל הַכּוֹתֶל הַמָּקוֹם וְהָאֲבָנִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵיהֶן. MISHNAH: Condominium owners1They own separate houses built facing one courtyard; they want to build a wall so that each house opens to its own courtyard. who want to make a separation in the courtyard build the wall in the middle. At a place where commonly one builds with unhewn stones, or hewn stones, or half-bricks2This is the definition of the Babli (3a). In Hab. 2:11 the word means “wood splinter”., or bricks, everything follows local custom3If one of the parties wants to build following local custom, he can force the other party to agree with him.. For unhewn stones, each partner gives three handbreadths. For hewn stones, each gives two and one half handbreadths. For half-bricks, each gives two handbreadths. For bricks, each gives one and a half handbreadths4A wall made of half-bricks is wider than one made of whole bricks since the mortar between the pieces takes up an additional half handbreadth.. Therefore, if the wall collapsed5If a wall collapsed and it is no longer known who built it, one has to assume that it was built following these rules. the place and the stones belong to both of them.
הלכה: הַשּׁוּתָפִין שֶׁרָצוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִיצֶה כול׳. הֵיךְ תַּנִּינָן תַּמָּן. אֵין חוֹלְקִין אֶת הֶחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה. אָֽמְרֵי. תַּמָּן בְּשֶׁאֵין שְׁנֵיהֶן רוֹצִין. בְּרַם הָכָא בְּשֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן רוֹצִין. וַאֲפִילוּ תֵימַר הָכָא בְּשֶׁאֵין שְׁנֵיהֶן רוֹצִין. רָצָה זֶה כוֹפִין לָזֶה. רָצָה זֶה כוֹפִין לָזֶה. אָמַר רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן. כּוֹפִין בַּחֲצֵירוֹת וְאֵין כּוֹפִין בַּגַּגּוֹת. רִבִּי נָסָה סְבַר מֵימַר. בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהִיא לְמַעֲלָה מִן הַגַּג. אֲבָל גַּג שֶׁהוּא לְמַעֲלָה מִן הֶחָצֵר כּוֹפִין. רִבִּי יוֹחָנָן סְבַר מֵימַר. בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהִיא לְמַעֲלָה מִן הַגַּג כּוֹפִין. אֲבָל גַּג שֶׁהוּא לְמַעֲלָה מִן הֶחָצֵר אֵין כּוֹפִין. HALAKHAH: “Condominium owners who want to make a separation,” etc. As we have stated there6Mishnah 7.: “One does not subdivide a courtyard unless each party has four cubits.” They said, there if the two parties do not agree7This is spelled out in Mishnah 7: one party may force the dissolution of a condominium if each party will be left with a legal minimum of space.. But here if both parties agree8It says explicitly that “they wish to make a separation.” In that case they are not bound by minimal conditions (Babli 2b).. And you may even say, here if the two parties do not agree9As explained in the next sentence, “they wish” means “either of them may wish”.. If this one wishes, one forces the other; if the other one wishes, one forces this one. Rebbi Joḥanan said, one forces for courtyards; one does not force for roofs10It is assumed that the parties wish to build the wall in order to insure privacy, so that one party cannot see what the other is doing in his courtyard. The courtyards were always in the back of the houses, not visible from the street. One assumes that both buildings are one-storey houses and that the wall will be built high enough that from one flat roof the neighbor’s courtyard cannot be seen. There remains the question what is meant by “splitting because of the roof.”. Rebbi Nasa wanted to say, in case of a courtyard which is higher than the roof11Two houses built on a hillside; the courtyard of the upper one is higher than the roof of the lower. According to R. Nasa, the owner of the lower house cannot go to court to force the owner of the upper house to build a wall which will guarantee the privacy of the lower house.. But in case of a roof which is higher than the courtyard, one forces12As noted before, the wall must be built high enough that from one flat roof the neighbor’s courtyard cannot be seen.. Rebbi Joḥanan wanted to say, in case of a courtyard which is higher than the roof one forces13In this case, the inhabitants cannot but see what is going on in the lower house. This violates the privacy rights of the inhabitants of the latter; the former can be forced to construct a fence which will bar them from looking down.. But in case of a roof which is higher than the courtyard, one does not force14Since the use of the roof is infrequent, the damage done to the other party by an occasional glance is minor and does not warrant the construction of a fence. The Babli disagrees in the name of Samuel, 2b..