וּמָה טַעַם אָמְרוּ נוֹדְעָה אֵינָהּ מְכַפֶּרֶת שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ מִזְבֵּחַ אוֹכֵל גְּזֵילוֹת And what is the reason that the Sages said that if it is known that the sin-offering was obtained through robbery, it does not effect atonement? It is so that people not say that the altar consumes stolen property.
בִּשְׁלָמָא לְעוּלָּא הַיְינוּ דְּקָתָנֵי חַטָּאת אֶלָּא לְרַב יְהוּדָה מַאי אִירְיָא חַטָּאת אֲפִילּוּ עוֹלָה נָמֵי The Gemara attempts to clarify the two explanations. Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, that the concern stems from the fact that the priests will be distraught, this is the reason that the tanna teaches the halakha with regard to a sin-offering: The priests partake of the meat of a sin-offering. If they find out that they ate an animal that was forbidden to them, i.e., an offering slaughtered counter to halakha, they are likely to become distraught. But according to the opinion of Rav Yehuda, that the concern is about the honor of the altar, why does the mishna mention specifically the case of a sin-offering; shouldn’t the same concern apply to a burnt-offering, as well, as it too is burned on the alter?
לָא מִיבַּעְיָא קָאָמַר לָא מִיבַּעְיָא עוֹלָה דְּכָלִיל הִיא אֶלָּא אֲפִילּוּ חַטָּאת נָמֵי דְּחֵלֶב וָדָם הוּא דְּסָלֵיק לְגַבֵּי מִזְבֵּחַ וְאִידַּךְ כֹּהֲנִים אָכְלִי לֵיהּ אֲפִילּוּ הָכִי גְּזוּר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ מִזְבֵּחַ אוֹכֵל גְּזֵילוֹת The Gemara answers: The mishna is speaking utilizing the style of: It is not necessary, and the mishna should be understood as follows: It is not necessary to teach the halakha in the case of a burnt-offering, which is entirely consumed on the altar. In that case, people will certainly say that the altar consumes stolen property. But even in the case of a sin-offering, where only the fat and the blood go up to be consumed on the altar and the rest is consumed by the priests, even so they issued a decree and said that the stolen sin-offering does not effect atonement, so that people should not say that the altar consumes stolen property.
תְּנַן עַל חַטָּאת הַגְּזוּלָה שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעָה לְרַבִּים שֶׁהִיא מְכַפֶּרֶת מִפְּנֵי תִּיקּוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּשְׁלָמָא לְעוּלָּא נִיחָא אֶלָּא לְרַב יְהוּדָה אִיפְּכָא מִיבְּעֵי לֵיהּ The Gemara further clarifies the two understandings: We learned in the mishna: Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Gudgeda testified about a sin-offering that had been obtained through robbery but that is not publicly known to have been obtained in that manner, and said that it effects atonement for the robber who sacrifices it, for the benefit of the altar. Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, it works out well, as he understands that the Sages instituted that if it was not publicly known that the sin-offering was obtained through robbery, it does effect atonement. But according to the opinion of Rav Yehuda, it should have stated just the opposite, namely, that if it was publicly known that the sin-offering was obtained through robbery, it does not effect atonement.
הָכִי נָמֵי קָאָמַר לָא נוֹדְעָה מְכַפֶּרֶת נוֹדְעָה אֵינָהּ מְכַפֶּרֶת מִפְּנֵי תִּיקּוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ The Gemara answers: That is also what the mishna is saying: If it is not known that the sin-offering was obtained through robbery, it effects atonement, but if this is known, it does not effect atonement, for the benefit of the altar.
מֵתִיב רָבָא גָּנַב וְהִקְדִּישׁ וְאַחַר כָּךְ טָבַח וּמָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶפֶל וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה וְתָנֵי עֲלַהּ בַּחוּץ כִּי הַאי גַוְונָא עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת וְאִי אָמְרַתְּ יֵאוּשׁ כְּדִי לָא קָנֵי כָּרֵת מַאי עֲבִידְתֵּיהּ Rava raises an objection from what was learned in a mishna (Bava Kamma 74a): If one stole an animal and consecrated it, and afterward he slaughtered or sold it, he pays double payment like a thief (see Exodus 22:3), but he does not pay fourfold or fivefold payment, as one must ordinarily pay when he slaughters or sells an ox or a sheep that he stole from another person (Exodus 21:37). And it is taught in a baraita with regard to this mishna: If one slaughtered an animal outside the Temple in a case like this, he is punishable by karet for having sacrificed an offering outside the Temple. And if you say that the owner’s despair of recovering an item that was stolen from him does not by itself enable the thief to acquire the stolen item, what is the relevance of mentioning karet? The punishment of karet should not apply, as the thief cannot consecrate an animal that does not belong to him.
אָמַר רַב שֵׁיזְבִי כָּרֵת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אַחִיכוּ עֲלֵיהּ כָּרֵת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם מִי אִיכָּא אֲמַר לְהוּ רָבָא גַּבְרָא רַבָּה אָמַר מִילְּתָא לָא תְּחוּכוּ עֲלַהּ כָּרֵת שֶׁעַל יְדֵי דִּבְרֵיהֶן בָּאתָה לוֹ אוֹקְמוּהָ רַבָּנַן בִּרְשׁוּתֵיהּ כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלִיחַיַּיב עֲלַהּ Rav Sheizevi said: This means that he is liable to receive karet by rabbinic law. Those who heard this laughed at him. Is there such a thing as karet by rabbinic law? Rava said to them: A great man has spoken, do not laugh at him. What Rav Sheizevi means is karet that comes to him through the words of the Sages, who declared that the thief’s consecration is valid. It is the Sages who placed the animal in his possession, so that he would become liable for it.
אָמַר רָבָא הָא וַודַּאי קָא מִיבַּעְיָא לִי כִּי אוֹקְמוּהָ רַבָּנַן בִּרְשׁוּתֵיהּ מִשְּׁעַת גְּנֵיבָה אוֹ מִשְּׁעַת הֶקְדֵּישָׁהּ לְמַאי נָפְקָא מִינַּהּ לְגִיזּוֹתֶיהָ וּוַלְדוֹתֶיהָ מַאי הֲדַר אָמַר רָבָא מִסְתַּבְּרָא מִשְּׁעַת הֶקְדֵּישָׁהּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חוֹטֵא נִשְׂכָּר Rava said: Although I agree with Rav Sheizevi, this matter is certainly a dilemma for me. When the Sages placed the animal in his possession, did they do so from the time of the theft or from the time of the consecration? What is the difference between these possibilities? There is a difference with regard to its wool and with regard to its offspring. If the animal was placed in his possession from the time of the theft, the wool that it grows and the offspring that it births are his, and he is not required to return them to the animal’s owner. But if the animal becomes his only when he consecrates it, he is required to return them. What is the halakha? Rava then said, in answer to his own question: It stands to reason that the Sages placed the animal in his possession from the time of the consecration. This is so that the sinner not profit from his crime. Otherwise, the thief would benefit from the rabbinic decree that was instituted to increase his liability.
מַתְנִי׳ לֹא הָיָה סִיקָרִיקוֹן בִּיהוּדָה בַּהֲרוּגֵי מִלְחָמָה מֵהֲרוּגֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה וְאֵילָךְ יֵשׁ בָּהּ סִיקָרִיקוֹן כֵּיצַד לָקַח מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִקָּחוֹ בָּטֵל מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן מִקָּחוֹ קַיָּים MISHNA: The law of Sicarii [Sikarikon] did not apply in Judea in the time that people were being killed in the war. From the time that people were being killed in the war and onward, the law of Sicarii did apply there. What is this law of Sicarii? If one first purchased land from a Sicarius, who extorted the field from its prior owners with threats, and afterward the buyer returned and purchased the same field a second time from the prior landowner, his purchase is void. The prior owner of the field can say that he did not actually mean to sell him the field. By contrast, if he first acquired the field from the prior owner and afterward he returned and purchased the same field from a Sicarius, his purchase stands.
לָקַח מִן הָאִישׁ וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִן הָאִשָּׁה מִקָּחוֹ בָּטֵל מִן הָאִשָּׁה וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִן הָאִישׁ מִקָּחוֹ קַיָּים זוֹ מִשְׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה Similarly, if one first purchased from the husband the rights to use a field belonging to his wife, and afterward he returned and purchased the same field from the wife, so that if the husband were to predecease or divorce her, the purchaser would then own it fully, his purchase is void. The woman can claim that she did not wish to quarrel with her husband and to object to the transaction but that in truth she did not agree to the sale. By contrast, if he first acquired the field from the wife, and afterward he returned and purchased the same field from the husband, his purchase stands. This is the initial version of this mishna.
בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶם אָמְרוּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן נוֹתֵן לַבְּעָלִים רְבִיעַ אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדָן לִיקַּח אֲבָל יֵשׁ בְּיָדָן לִיקַּח הֵן קוֹדְמִין לְכׇל אָדָם Later, the court of those who came after the Sages who composed that mishna said: With regard to one who purchased a field from a Sicarius, he must give the prior owner one-fourth of the field’s value. When does this apply? At a time when the prior owner is unable to purchase the field himself. But if he is able to purchase it himself, he precedes anyone else.
רַבִּי הוֹשִׁיב בֵּית דִּין וְנִמְנוּ שֶׁאִם שָׁהֲתָה בִּפְנֵי סִיקָרִיקוֹן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כׇּל הַקּוֹדֵם לִיקַּח זָכָה אֲבָל נוֹתֵן לַבְּעָלִים רְבִיעַ Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi later convened a court, and they counted their votes and determined that if the field remained before, i.e., in the possession of, the Sicarius for twelve months, whoever first purchases the field acquires possession of it, but he must give the prior owner one-fourth of the field’s value.
גְּמָ׳ הַשְׁתָּא בַּהֲרוּגֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה לֹא הָיָה בָּהּ סִיקָרִיקוֹן מֵהֲרוּגֵי מִלְחָמָה וְאֵילָךְ יֵשׁ בָּהּ סִיקָרִיקוֹן GEMARA: The Gemara challenges the mishna’s assertion that the law of Sicarii did not apply in Judea in the time that people were being killed in the war: Now if in the time that people were being killed in the war, there were no Sicarii stealing land, is it possible that from the time that people were being killed in the war and onward there were Sicarii?
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה לֹא דָּנוּ בָּהּ דִּין סִיקָרִיקוֹן קָאָמַר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אַסִּי שָׁלֹשׁ גְּזֵירוֹת גָּזְרוּ גְּזֵרְתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא כֹּל דְּלָא קָטֵיל לִיקְטְלוּהּ מְצִיעֲתָא כֹּל דְּקָטֵיל לַיְיתֵי אַרְבַּע זוּזֵי בָּתְרָיְיתָא כֹּל דְּקָטֵיל לִיקְטְלוּהּ הִלְכָּךְ קַמַּיְיתָא וּמְצִיעֲתָא כֵּיוָן דְּקָטְלִי אַגַּב אוּנְסֵיהּ גָּמַר וּמַקְנֵי Rav Yehuda said: The mishna is saying that in the time that people were being killed in the war they did not apply the law of Sicarii, but rather they would confirm the purchases of land made from the Sicarii. The reason for this is in accordance with what Rabbi Asi said: The gentile authorities issued three decrees during and in the aftermath of the war that ended in the destruction of the Temple. The first decree was that anyone who does not kill a Jew should himself be killed. The second decree was that anyone who kills a Jew should pay four dinars as a fine. The last decree was that anyone who kills a Jew should himself be killed. Therefore, during the time of the first and second decrees, the time when people were being killed in the war, since the gentile would kill Jews, then the owner of the field, owing to the danger posed to his life, would fully transfer ownership of his field to the Sicarius.
בָּתְרָיְיתָא אָמְרִי הָאִידָּנָא לִישְׁקוֹל לִמְחַר תָּבַעְנָא לֵיהּ בְּדִינָא Then, during the time of the last decree, after the time when people were being killed in the war, anybody whose field was stolen by a Sicarius would say to himself: Now let him take the field; tomorrow I will claim it from him in court. Although the gentile had the advantage and could force the owner to give him the field, the assumption is that the owner did not fully transfer possession of the field to him, as he thought that he would still be able to recover it in court.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מַאי דִּכְתִיב אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם מְפַחֵד תָּמִיד וּמַקְשֶׁה לִבּוֹ יִפּוֹל בְּרָעָה אַקַּמְצָא וּבַר קַמְצָא חֲרוּב יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אַתַּרְנְגוֹלָא וְתַרְנְגוֹלְתָּא חֲרוּב טוּר מַלְכָּא אַשָּׁקָא דְרִיסְפַּק חֲרוּב בֵּיתֵּר § Apropos the war that led to the destruction of the Second Temple, the Gemara examines several aspects of the destruction of that Temple in greater detail: Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Happy is the man who fears always, but he who hardens his heart shall fall into mischief” (Proverbs 28:14)? Jerusalem was destroyed on account of Kamtza and bar Kamtza. The place known as the King’s Mountain was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. The city of Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a chariot [rispak].
אַקַּמְצָא וּבַר קַמְצָא חֲרוּב יְרוּשָׁלַיִם דְּהָהוּא גַּבְרָא דְּרָחֲמֵיהּ קַמְצָא וּבְעֵל דְּבָבֵיהּ בַּר קַמְצָא עֲבַד סְעוֹדְתָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְשַׁמָּעֵיהּ זִיל אַיְיתִי לִי קַמְצָא אֲזַל אַיְיתִי לֵיהּ בַּר קַמְצָא The Gemara explains: Jerusalem was destroyed on account of Kamtza and bar Kamtza. This is as there was a certain man whose friend was named Kamtza and whose enemy was named bar Kamtza. He once made a large feast and said to his servant: Go bring me my friend Kamtza. The servant went and mistakenly brought him his enemy bar Kamtza.
אֲתָא אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ דַּהֲוָה יָתֵיב אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִכְּדֵי הָהוּא גַּבְרָא בְּעֵל דְּבָבֵאּ דְּהָהוּא גַּבְרָא הוּא מַאי בָּעֵית הָכָא קוּם פּוֹק אֲמַר לֵיהּ הוֹאִיל וַאֲתַאי שִׁבְקַן וְיָהֵיבְנָא לָךְ דְּמֵי מָה דְּאָכֵילְנָא וְשָׁתֵינָא The man who was hosting the feast came and found bar Kamtza sitting at the feast. The host said to bar Kamtza. That man is the enemy [ba’al devava] of that man, that is, you are my enemy. What then do you want here? Arise and leave. Bar Kamtza said to him: Since I have already come, let me stay and I will give you money for whatever I eat and drink. Just do not embarrass me by sending me out.