מפני תיקון העולם:
for the betterment of the world, so as not to cause an increase in the theft of sacred Jewish ritual objects in order to sell them for large sums of money.
גמ׳ אמר ליה רב בודיא לרב אשי יתר על כדי דמיהן הוא דאין לוקחין הא בכדי דמיהן לוקחין שמע מינה ס"ת שנמצא ביד עובד כוכבים קורין בו דילמא לגנוז
GEMARA: Rav Budya said to Rav Ashi that one could infer the following from the mishna: It is for more than their actual monetary value that one may not purchase them; however, for their precise value, one may purchase them. Can one learn from the mishna that with regard to a Torah scroll that is found in the possession of a gentile, one can read from it after obtaining it from the gentile, and there is no concern that perhaps the gentile wrote it and it is unfit? Rav Ashi answered: Perhaps this does not mean that the Torah scroll is purchased in order to read from it, but rather in order to inter it and not to use it; however, it is nevertheless purchased so that it will not be desecrated by the gentiles.
אמר רב נחמן נקטינן ספר תורה שכתבו מין ישרף כתבו עובד כוכבים יגנז נמצא ביד מין יגנז נמצא ביד עובד כוכבים אמרי לה יגנז ואמרי לה קורין בו
Rav Naḥman says: We have a tradition that a Torah scroll that was written by a heretic should be burned; a Torah scroll written by a gentile should be interred; a Torah scroll found in the possession of a heretic, and it is not clear who wrote it, should be interred. With regard to a Torah scroll found in the possession of a gentile, some say it should be interred and some say that one may read from it.
ספר תורה שכתבו עובד כוכבים תני חדא ישרף ותניא אידך יגנז ותניא אידך קורין בו
The Gemara asks: With regard to a Torah scroll that was written by a gentile, it is taught in one baraita: It should be burned, and it is taught in another baraita: It should be interred, and it is taught in another baraita: One may read from it. There is a three-fold contradiction concerning the halakha of a Torah scroll written by a gentile.
לא קשיא הא דתניא ישרף ר"א היא דאמר סתם מחשבת עובד כוכבים לעבודת כוכבים
The Gemara explains: This is not difficult: That which is taught in a baraita, that it should be burned, is the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who says: The unspecified intentions of a gentile are for idol worship, and therefore everything he wrote is assumed to be written for the sake of idolatrous worship and must be burned.
והא דתניא יגנז האי תנא הוא דתני רב המנונא בריה דרבא מפשרוניא ס"ת תפלין ומזוזות שכתבן (מין) ומסור עובד כוכבים ועבד אשה וקטן וכותי וישראל מומר פסולין שנאמר (דברים יא, יח) וקשרתם וכתבתם כל שישנו בקשירה ישנו בכתיבה וכל שאינו בקשירה אינו בכתיבה
And that which is taught in a baraita, which said that it should be interred, is the opinion of this tanna, as Rav Hamnuna, son of Rava of Pashronya, taught: A Torah scroll, phylacteries, or mezuzot that were written by a heretic or an informer, a gentile or a slave, a woman or a minor, or a Samaritan or a Jewish apostate, are unfit, as it is stated: “And you shall bind them as a sign on your hand…and you shall write them on the doorposts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:8–9). From this juxtaposition, one can derive the following: Anyone who is included in the mitzva of binding the phylacteries, i.e., one who is both obligated and performs the mitzva, is included in the class of people who may write Torah scrolls, phylacteries, and mezuzot; but anyone who is not included in the mitzva of binding is not included in the class of people who may write sacred texts. This baraita equates the halakha of a Torah scroll written by a gentile to the halakha of Torah scrolls written by these other types of people, which are interred.
והא דתניא קורין בו האי תנא הוא דתניא לוקחין ספרים מן העובדי כוכבים בכל מקום ובלבד שיהיו כתובין כהלכתן ומעשה בעובד כוכבים אחד בצידן שהיה כותב ספרים והתיר רשב"ג ליקח ממנו
And concerning that which is taught in a baraita, i.e., that one may read from it, that baraita is in accordance with the opinion of this following tanna, as it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Avoda Zara 3:6): One may purchase Torah scrolls from gentiles in any location, provided that they are written in accordance with their halakhot. And there was an incident involving a gentile in Tzaidan who would write Torah scrolls, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permitted the Jews to purchase the Torah scrolls from him.
ורשב"ג עיבוד לשמן בעי כתיבה לשמן לא בעי
The Gemara asks: And does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel require that the preparation of the parchment of Torah scrolls, phylacteries, and mezuzot be for their sake, i.e., for the sake of their use in a mitzva, but he does not require that the writing be for their sake?
דתניא ציפן זהב או שטלה עליהן עור בהמה טמאה פסולות עור בהמה טהורה כשרות ואע"פ שלא עיבדן לשמן רבי שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אפילו עור בהמה טהורה פסולות עד שיעבדן לשמן
The Gemara quotes the source that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel requires that the parchment be prepared for their sake: As it is taught in a baraita: If one took phylacteries and coated them with gold or patched them with the skin of a non-kosher animal, then they are unfit. However, if one patched them with the skin of a kosher animal, then they are fit, and this is so even though he did not prepare them, i.e., the skin, for their sake, i.e., for the sake of their use in a mitzva. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even if he patched them with the skin of a kosher animal they are unfit, until he prepares them for their sake. Being that he holds that the parchment needs to be prepared for their sake, their actual writing should certainly be done for their sake.
אמר רבה בר שמואל בגר שחזר לסורו לסורו כ"ש דהוי ליה מין אמר רב אשי שחוזר לסורו משום יראה
Rabba bar Shmuel says: That incident in Tzaidan involved a convert who returned to his previous corrupt ways [suro] by reverting to living like a gentile. He nevertheless remains a Jew. The Gemara asks: If he returned to his previous corrupt ways all the more so should the Torah scroll be rendered unfit, as he is a heretic. Once he learns the Jewish faith and abandons it, he is considered a heretic. Rav Ashi says: This means that he returned to his previous corrupt ways due to fear, and not because he rejected the Jewish faith. He ceased acting like a Jew out of fear of reprisal. Since he is a Jew, it is permitted for him to read from the Torah scrolls that he writes.
תנו רבנן מעלין בדמיהן עד כדי טרפעיק מאי טרפעיק אמר רב ששת איסתירא
§ The Gemara clarifies the halakha from the mishna that one may not purchase sacred items from a gentile for more than their actual value. The Sages taught: One may increase payment beyond their value up to a terapa’ik. The Gemara asks: What is a terapa’ik? Rav Sheshet said: It is an istera, worth one half of a dinar.
ההיא טייעתא דאייתי חייתא דתפילי לקמיה דאביי אמר לה יהבת לי ריש ריש בתמרי אימליא זיהרא שקלא שדתינהו בנהרא אמר לא אבעי לי לזלזולינהו באפה כולי האי:
The Gemara relates: There was a certain Arab merchant woman [taya’ata] who brought a sack [ḥayeta] of phylacteries in front of Abaye. He said to her: Would you give me each pair for a date? She became full of anger, and took the phylacteries and threw them into the river because Abaye offered her such a small amount in exchange for them. Abaye said in remorse: I should not have denigrated the phylacteries so much in her presence, but rather, I should have offered to pay her their actual value.
מתני׳ המוציא את אשתו משום שם רע לא יחזיר משום נדר לא יחזיר רבי יהודה אומר כל נדר שידעו בו רבים לא יחזיר ושלא ידעו בו רבים יחזיר
MISHNA: A man who divorces his wife due to her bad reputation, i.e., he heard that she had committed adultery, may not remarry her, even if it becomes clear that she did not in fact commit adultery. Similarly, if one divorces his wife due to a vow that she took, and he could not live with her under the conditions of her vow, he may not remarry her. Rabbi Yehuda says: If he divorces her due to any vow that the public was aware of, he may not remarry her, but if he divorces her due to a vow that the public was not aware of, he may remarry her.
ר"מ אומר כל נדר שצריך חקירת חכם לא יחזיר ושאינו צריך חקירת חכם יחזיר א"ר אלעזר לא אסרו זה אלא מפני זה
The mishna continues: Rabbi Meir says: If he divorces her due to any vow that requires investigation and dissolution by a halakhic authority, he may not bring remarry her, but if he divorces her due to a vow that does not require investigation and dissolution by a halakhic authority, and is dissolved even without that, he may bring remarry her. Rabbi Elazar said: They prohibited him from remarrying her in this case, where she stated a vow that requires dissolution by a halakhic authority, only due to that case, where she stated a vow that does not require dissolution by a halakhic authority.
אמר ר' יוסי בר' יהודה מעשה בצידן באחד שאמר לאשתו קונם אם איני מגרשיך וגרשה והתירו לו חכמים שיחזירנה מפני תיקון העולם:
Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: There was an incident in Tzaidan involving one man who said to his wife: It is konam, i.e., it is forbidden like an offering, if I do not divorce you, and he divorced her; and the Sages permitted him to remarry her for the betterment of the world.
גמ׳ א"ר יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן והוא שאמר לה משום שם רע אני מוציאך
GEMARA: Rav Yosef bar Minyumi says that Rav Naḥman says: And the halakha stated in the mishna, which says that in certain cases a man who divorces his wife may not remarry her, is only applicable when he said to her explicitly: I am removing you from the house due to your bad reputation,