או שניהן יוצאין כלחוץ
or both are leaving it, it is considered like outside the perimeter and the ḥaver may not acquire vessels from him. The reason is that if they are both entering the perimeter they can easily wait until they are inside and then conduct the transaction, and if they are both leaving they should have completed the deal beforehand, and the ḥaver may not make up for this lapse by doing so now.
אמר אביי אף אנן נמי תנינא הקדר שמכר את הקדירות ונכנס לפנים מן המודיעים טעמא דלפנים מן המודיעים הא מודיעים גופה לא מהימן אימא סיפא יצא אינו נאמן הא מודיעים גופה נאמן אלא לאו ש"מ כאן בקדר יוצא וחבר נכנס כאן בששניהן יוצאין או שניהן נכנסין שמע מינה
Abaye said: We, too, learn this in the mishna. For it is taught there: A potter who was selling pots and entered within the Modi’im area is deemed credible, which indicates that the only reason he is deemed credible is that he is inside the Modi’im area, thus implying that in Modi’im itself he is not deemed credible. But now say the latter clause of the mishna: If he left he is not deemed credible, thus implying that in Modi’im itself he is deemed credible, which contradicts the previous inference. Rather, must one not conclude from the mishna the following distinction: Here, in the latter clause, it is referring to a potter who is leaving and a ḥaver who is entering, in which case he is deemed credible; and there, in the first clause, it is referring to a situation where they are both leaving or both entering, in which case he is not deemed credible. Consequently, both inferences from the mishna are upheld. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.
תנא נאמנין בכלי חרס הדקין לקודש אמר ר"ל והוא שניטלין בידו אחת ור' יוחנן אמר אפי' שאין ניטלין בידו אחת
§ A tanna taught in the Tosefta (3:33): All people, including amei ha’aretz, are deemed credible with regard to purity from Modi’im and inward only with regard to small earthenware vessels, and they may be used for sacrificial food. Since these small vessels were needed by all, the Sages deemed the amei ha’aretz credible concerning them. The amora’im discussed the meaning of the term small vessels. Reish Lakish said: It is speaking of those vessels that can be picked up in one hand, but no larger. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even if they cannot be picked up in one hand, they can still be called small vessels.
אמר ר"ל לא שנו אלא ריקנין אבל מלאין לא ורבי יוחנן אמר אפי' מלאים ואפילו אפיקרסותו לתוכו ואמר רבא ומודה ר' יוחנן במשקין עצמן שהן טמאין ואל תתמה שהרי לגין מלא משקין לגין טמאין טומאת שבעה ומשקין טהורין:
Reish Lakish said further: They taught in the baraita only that amei ha’aretz are deemed credible with regard to empty vessels, but if they are full of liquid they are not deemed credible. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even if the jugs are full, and even if his garment [apikarsuto] is inside the vessel, the Sages were not concerned about impurity, as they did not apply their decree to such vessels at all. And Rava said: And Rabbi Yoḥanan concedes with regard to the liquids themselves in the vessel that they are impure, for although the Sages declared the vessels to be pure they did not waive the decree that liquids touched by amei ha’aretz are impure. And do not be perplexed by this apparent contradiction, for there is a similar halakha in a case of an earthenware pitcher full of liquid in a room with a corpse and the pitcher is tightly sealed with another earthenware vessel of an am ha’aretz, where the halakha is that the pitcher is impure with a seven-day impurity, while the liquids remain pure.
מתני׳ הגבאין שנכנסו לתוך הבית וכן הגנבים שהחזירו את הכלים נאמנין לומר לא נגענו ובירושלים נאמנין על הקודש ובשעת הרגל אף על התרומה:
MISHNA: In the case of amei ha’aretz tax collectors who entered a house to collect items for a tax, and similarly thieves who returned the vessels they had stolen, they are deemed credible when they say: We did not touch the rest of the objects in the house, and those items remain pure. And in Jerusalem all people, even amei ha’aretz, are deemed credible with regard to sacrificial food throughout the year, and during a pilgrimage Festival they are deemed credible even with regard to teruma.
גמ׳ ורמינהי הגבאין שנכנסו לתוך הבית הבית כולו טמא ל"ק הא דאיכא נכרי בהדייהו הא דליכא נכרי בהדייהו דתנן אם יש נכרי עמהן נאמנין לומר לא נכנסנו אבל אין נאמנים לומר נכנסנו אבל לא נגענו
GEMARA: And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a different mishna (Teharot 7:6): If amei ha’aretz tax collectors entered a house, the entire house is impure. The Gemara answers: It is not difficult, as that mishna is referring to a situation where there is a gentile with them, in which case they conduct a thorough search in the whole house, and certainly will have touched everything; whereas this mishna deals with a case when there is no gentile with them, and their claim not to have touched anything is therefore accepted. As we learned in a mishna (Teharot 7:6): If there is a gentile with the tax collectors, they are deemed credible if they were to say: We did not enter the house at all; but they are not deemed credible if they were to say: We entered the house but did not touch its vessels.
וכי איכא נכרי בהדייהו מאי הוי ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר חד אמר אימת נכרי עליהן וחד אמר אימת מלכות עליהן מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו נכרי שאינו חשוב:
The Gemara raises a question: And when there is a gentile with them, what of it? Why does this affect the halakha? Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Elazar disputed this issue. One said: The fear of the gentile, who is their senior, is upon them, for they are afraid he might punish them. And one said: The fear of the kingdom, i.e., the government, is upon them, as the gentile might report them to the authorities if they do not carry out a thorough search. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara responds: The practical difference between them is the case of a gentile who is not important, i.e., he does not have senior authority. In that case they are not afraid of him personally, but there is still concern that he might report them to the government authorities.
וכן הגנבים שהחזירו את הכלים: ורמינהי הגנבים שנכנסו לתוך הבית אינו טמא אלא מקום דריסת רגלי הגנבים אמר רב פנחס משמיה (דרב) כשעשו תשובה דיקא נמי דקתני שהחזירו את הכלים ש"מ:
§ It is taught in the mishna: And similarly thieves who returned vessels are deemed credible. And the Gemara raises a contradiction from the following mishna (Teharot 7:6): Concerning the thieves who entered a house, only the place where the feet of the thieves had trodden is impure. The implication is that all the vessels of the section of the house where they had entered are impure, and they are not deemed credible if they say that they did not touch a particular item. Rav Pinḥas said in the name of Rav: The mishna here is referring to a case where the thieves repented, which is why they are deemed credible, whereas the mishna in Teharot is referring to a case in which the thieves did not repent. The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna is also precise, as it teaches: Thieves who returned vessels, which indicates that they repented and made restoration willingly. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is the case.
ובירושלים נאמנין על הקודש: תנא נאמנין על כלי חרס גסין לקודש וכל כך למה שאין עושין כבשונות בירושלים:
§ The mishna teaches: And in Jerusalem all people are deemed credible with regard to sacrificial food. A tanna taught in a baraita: They are deemed credible even with regard to large earthenware vessels for sacrificial food, and not only small ones. And why did the Sages exhibit so much leniency, waiving their regular decrees of impurity within Jerusalem for large vessels and all the way to Modi’im for small vessels? Because there is a principle that potters’ kilns may not be made in Jerusalem, in order to preserve the quality of the air in the city. It is therefore necessary to bring in earthenware vessels from outside the city, and consequently the Sages were lenient concerning such utensils.
ובשעת הרגל אף על התרומה: מנהני מילי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי דאמר קרא (שופטים כ, יא) ויאסף כל איש ישראל אל העיר כאיש אחד חברים הכתוב עשאן כולן חברים:
§ It was taught in the mishna: And during a pilgrimage Festival they are deemed credible even with regard to teruma. The Gemara poses a question: From where are these matters derived, i.e., that there is a difference between Festival days and other periods? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The verse states concerning the incident of the concubine in Gibeah: “And all the men of Israel gathered to the city, like one man, united [ḥaverim]” (Judges 20:11). This verse is interpreted to teach that whenever the entire people of Israel gathers together in a single place, the Torah makes, i.e., considers, all of them ḥaverim. The final word of the phrase, ḥaverim, is a reference to the members of a group dedicated to scrupulous observance of mitzvot, as the term is used by the Sages.
מתני׳ הפותח את חביתו והמתחיל בעיסתו על גב הרגל ר' יהודה אומר יגמור וחכ"א לא יגמור:
MISHNA: In the case of one who opens his barrel of wine for public sale, and similarly one who starts selling his dough during the time of the pilgrimage Festival, and these items perforce come into contact with amei ha’aretz, Rabbi Yehuda says: Since the food was pure, despite its contact with amei ha’aretz, when he began selling it, he may finish selling it in a state of purity even after the Festival, and there is no concern about the contact that has been made by amei ha’aretz during the Festival. But the Rabbis say: He may not finish selling it.
גמ׳ יתיב ר' אמי ורבי יצחק נפחא אקילעא דר' יצחק נפחא פתח חד ואמר מהו שיניחנה לרגל אחר
GEMARA: Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa were once sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa. One of them opened the discussion and said: What is the halakha with regard to the possibility of him leaving his wine for another, subsequent pilgrimage Festival and continuing to sell it at that point? Although according to the Rabbis one may not continue selling it once the Festival has concluded, may he leave the barrel aside until the next Festival, at which point it would once again be able to be sold in purity?
א"ל אידך יד הכל ממשמשין בה ואת אמרת יניחנה לרגל אחר א"ל אטו עד האידנא לאו יד הכל ממשמשין בה א"ל הכי השתא בשלמא עד האידנא טומאת עם הארץ ברגל רחמנא טהרה אלא השתא טמאה היא
The other Sage said to him: Everyone’s hand has touched it, and yet you are saying that perhaps he may leave it for another pilgrimage Festival and then sell it in purity? How could such a possibility even be considered? He said back to him: Is that to say that until now, throughout the Festival, everyone’s hand was not touching it? It was permitted during the Festival despite the fact that everyone was touching it; apparently, their touching did not render it impure at all. He said to him: How can these cases be compared? Granted, until now, the Merciful One declares pure the impurity of the am ha’aretz during the Festival, and consequently his impurity is disregarded, but now that the Festival has passed, the touch of an am ha’aretz is once again considered impure.
נימא כתנאי דתני חדא יניחנה לרגל אחר ותניא אידך לא יניחנה לרגל אחר מאי לאו תנאי היא
The Gemara suggests: Let us say this dispute between amora’im is parallel to a dispute between tanna’im. For it is taught in one baraita: He may leave it for another pilgrimage Festival and then continue to sell it. And it was taught in a different baraita: He may not leave it for another Festival. What, is it not so that this very issue is a dispute between these two tanna’im, the authors of these two baraitot?
לא הא דקתני יניחנה ר' יהודה והא דקתני לא יניחנה רבנן ותסברא הא רבי יהודה יגמור קאמר אלא הא דקתני לא יניחנה רבי יהודה והא דקתני יניחנה רבנן ומאי לא יניחנה שאין צריך להניחה:
The Gemara rejects this suggestion: No, it is possible that this baraita, which teaches that he may leave it, follows the opinion, cited in the mishna, of Rabbi Yehuda, who allows the wine seller to finish selling his wine after the Festival, whereas that baraita, which teaches that he may not leave it, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who prohibit him to finish it. The Gemara questions this conclusion: And how can you understand it that way? Didn’t Rabbi Yehuda say he may finish it after the Festival? Consequently, there would be no need for him to leave it for another Festival. Rather, say as follows: This baraita, which teaches that he may not leave it, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, whereas that baraita, which teaches that he may leave it, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. And what is the meaning of the statement: He may not leave it for another Festival? It means that he has no need to leave it for another Festival, as Rabbi Yehuda maintains he can finish selling it in purity immediately.
מתני׳ משעבר הרגל מעבירין על טהרת עזרה עבר הרגל ליום ששי לא היו מעבירין מפני כבוד השבת רבי יהודה אומר אף לא ביום ה' שאין הכהנים פנויין:
MISHNA: Once the pilgrimage Festival has passed by, the priests pass all the vessels of the Temple courtyard through a process of purification, since they were touched by am ha’aretz priests during the Festival. If the Festival passed by into a Friday, i.e., if the Festival ended on Thursday night, they would not pass the vessels through the purification process on that day, due to the honor of Shabbat, in order to give the priests time to prepare the requirements of Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: They do not even purify them on Thursday, in the event that the Festival ended on Wednesday night, because the priests are not free to do so.
גמ׳ תנא שאין הכהנים פנויין מלהוציא בדשן:
GEMARA: A tanna taught in a baraita, in explanation of Rabbi Yehuda’s words: The priests do not purify the vessels of the Temple courtyard on Thursday, as the priests are not free from removing the ashes. During the Festival days a large quantity of ash would accumulate on the altar, due to the large number of offerings brought at that time. Because they would not remove the ashes on the Festival itself, they would have to remove a very large amount afterward. Consequently, all the priests were kept busy with this task upon the conclusion of the Festival, which did not leave them with enough time to deal with other matters.
מתני׳ כיצד מעבירין על טהרת עזרה מטבילין את הכלים שהיו במקדש ואומרין להם הזהרו
MISHNA: How do they pass all the vessels of the Temple courtyard through a process of purification? They immerse the vessels that were in the Temple. And they say to the am ha’aretz priests who served in the Temple during the Festival: Be careful