קוֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ עָמַד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּשְׁתָלָן בְּכׇל דּוֹר וָדוֹר וְהֵן הֵן עַזֵּי פָנִים שֶׁבַּדּוֹר
before the creation of the world, but they were not created. The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. The Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by planting a few of them in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation, as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all.
וְרַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר אֲשֶׁר קוּמְּטוּ לִבְרָכָה הוּא דִּכְתִיב אֵלּוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁמְּקַמְּטִין עַצְמָן עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְגַלֶּה לָהֶם סוֹד לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר נָהָר יוּצַק יְסוֹדָם
And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that the verse: “Who were snatched [kumtu]” (Job 22:16), is written for a blessing, as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. These are Torah scholars, who shrivel [mekamtin], i.e., humble, themselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [yesodam] was poured out as a stream” (Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [sod].
אֲמַר לֵיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל לְחִיָּיא בַּר רַב בַּר אַרְיָא תָּא אֵימָא לָךְ מִילְּתָא מֵהָנֵי מִילֵּי מְעַלְּיָיתָא דַּהֲוָה אָמַר אֲבוּךְ כֹּל יוֹמָא וְיוֹמָא נִבְרָאִין מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת מִנְּהַר דִּינוּר וְאָמְרִי שִׁירָה וּבָטְלִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר חֲדָשִׁים לַבְּקָרִים רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ וּפְלִיגָא דְּרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן כׇּל דִּיבּוּר וְדִיבּוּר שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִבְרָא מִמֶּנּוּ מַלְאָךְ אֶחָד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּדְבַר ה׳ שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כׇּל צְבָאָם
Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite song to God and then immediately cease to exist, as it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness” (Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: And this opinion disagrees with that of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: With each and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts” (Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.
כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְבוּשֵׁיהּ כִּתְלַג חִיוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵישֵׁיהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא וּכְתִיב קְוֻצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחוֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב לָא קַשְׁיָא כָּאן בִּישִׁיבָה כָּאן בַּמִּלְחָמָה דְּאָמַר מָר אֵין לְךָ נָאֶה בִּישִׁיבָה אֶלָּא זָקֵן וְאֵין לְךָ נָאֶה בַּמִּלְחָמָה אֶלָּא בָּחוּר
§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: One verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like pure white wool” (Daniel 7:9), and it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven” (Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here the verse in Daniel is referring to when He is in the heavenly academy, while there the verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is at war, for the Master said: There is no finer individual to study Torah in an academy than an old man, and there is no finer individual to wage war than a youth. A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.
כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר כׇּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּינוּר וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר עַד דִּי כׇרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִיב לָא קַשְׁיָא אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לְדָוִד כִּדְתַנְיָא אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לְדָוִד דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי עֲקִיבָא עַד מָתַי אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה שְׁכִינָה חוֹל אֶלָּא אֶחָד לְדִין וְאֶחָד לִצְדָקָה
The Gemara poses another question: One verse states: “His throne was fiery flames” (Daniel 7:9), and another phrase in the same verse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,” implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. One throne is for Him and one is for David, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to this issue: One throne for Him and one for David; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane, by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? Rather, the two thrones are designated for different purposes: One for judgment and one for righteousness.
קַיבְּלַהּ מִינֵּיהּ אוֹ לָא קַיבְּלַהּ מִינֵּיהּ תָּא שְׁמַע אֶחָד לְדִין וְאֶחָד לִצְדָקָה דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה עֲקִיבָא מָה לְךָ אֵצֶל הַגָּדָה כְּלָךְ מִדַּבְּרוֹתֶיךָ אֵצֶל נְגָעִים וְאֹהָלוֹת אֶלָּא אֶחָד לְכִסֵּא וְאֶחָד לִשְׁרַפְרַף כִּסֵּא לֵישֵׁב עָלָיו שְׁרַפְרַף לַהֲדוֹם רַגְלָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדוֹם רַגְלָי
The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva accept this rebuff from him, or did he not accept it from him? The Gemara offers a proof: Come and hear the following teaching of a different baraita: One throne is for judgment and one is for righteousness; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doing occupying yourself with the study of aggada? This is not your field of expertise. Take [kelakh] your words to the topics of plagues and tents. Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the halakhot of the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. Rather, with regard to the two thrones: One throne is for a seat and one is for a small seat. The seat is to sit on, and the small seat is for His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool” (Isaiah 66:1).
כִּי אֲתָא רַב דִּימִי אָמַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה קְלָלוֹת קִילֵּל יְשַׁעְיָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא נִתְקָרְרָה דַּעְתּוֹ עַד שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה יִרְהֲבוּ הַנַּעַר בַּזָּקֵן וְהַנִּקְלֶה בַּנִּכְבָּד
§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. When Rav Dimi came from Israel to Babylonia, he said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed, i.e., he was not satisfied, until he said to them the great curse of the following verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” (Isaiah 3:5).
שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה קְלָלוֹת מַאי נִינְהוּ דִּכְתִיב כִּי הִנֵּה הָאָדוֹן ה׳ צְבָאוֹת מֵסִיר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וּמִיהוּדָה מַשְׁעֵן וּמַשְׁעֵנָה כֹּל מִשְׁעַן לֶחֶם וְכֹל מִשְׁעַן מָיִם גִּבּוֹר וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה שׁוֹפֵט וְנָבִיא וְקוֹסֵם וְזָקֵן שַׂר חֲמִשִּׁים וּנְשׂוּא פָנִים וְיוֹעֵץ וַחֲכַם חֲרָשִׁים וּנְבוֹן לָחַשׁ וְנָתַתִּי נְעָרִים שָׂרֵיהֶם וְתַעֲלוּלִים יִמְשְׁלוּ בָם וְגוֹ׳
The Gemara asks: What are these eighteen curses? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them” (Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.
מַשְׁעֵן אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי מִקְרָא מַשְׁעֵנָה אֵלּוּ בַּעְלֵי מִשְׁנָה כְּגוֹן רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן תֵּימָא וַחֲבֵירָיו פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ רַב פָּפָּא וְרַבָּנַן חַד אָמַר שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה וְחַד אָמַר שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה
The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: “Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues. The Gemara interjects: Rav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. One of them said: They were proficient in six hundred orders of Mishna, and the other one said: In seven hundred orders of Mishna, only six of which remain today.
כֹּל מִשְׁעַן לֶחֶם אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי תַלְמוּד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי וְכֹל מִשְׁעַן מָיִם אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי אַגָּדָה שֶׁמּוֹשְׁכִין לִבּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כַּמַּיִם בְּאַגָּדָה גִּבּוֹר זֶה בַּעַל שְׁמוּעוֹת וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה זֶה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לִישָּׂא וְלִיתֵּן בְּמִלְחַמְתָּהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שׁוֹפֵט זֶה דַּיָּין שֶׁדָּן דִּין אֱמֶת לַאֲמִיתּוֹ נָבִיא כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ קוֹסֵם זֶה מֶלֶךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר קֶסֶם עַל שִׂפְתֵי מֶלֶךְ זָקֵן זֶה שֶׁרָאוּי לִישִׁיבָה
“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled” (Proverbs 9:5). “And every support of water”; these are the masters of aggada, who draw people’s hearts like water by means of aggada. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition, one who masters the halakhot transmitted to him from his rabbis. “And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah, generating novel teachings in the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king. Why is he called a diviner? For it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king” (Proverbs 16:10). “An elder”; this is one fit for the position of head of an academy.
שַׂר חֲמִשִּׁים אַל תִּקְרֵי שַׂר חֲמִשִּׁים אֶלָּא שַׂר חוּמָּשִׁין זֶה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לִישָּׂא וְלִיתֵּן בַּחֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה דָּבָר אַחֵר שַׂר חֲמִשִּׁים כִּדְרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין מַעֲמִידִין מְתוּרְגְּמָן עַל הַצִּבּוּר פָּחוֹת מֵחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּנְשׂוּא פָּנִים זֶה שֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִין פָּנִים לְדוֹרוֹ בַּעֲבוּרוֹ לְמַעְלָה כְּגוֹן רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא לְמַטָּה כְּגוֹן רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ בֵּי קֵיסָר
“A captain of fifty,” do not read it as “sar ḥamishim,” rather read it as “sar ḥumashin”; this is one who knows how to engage in discourse with regard to the five books of [ḥamisha ḥumshei] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty” should be understood in accordance with Rabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From here we learn that one may not appoint a disseminator over the public to transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is less than fifty years of age. “And the man of favor”; this is one for whose sake favor is shown to his generation. The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor above, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor below, for example: Rabbi Abbahu, who would plead Israel’s case in the house of the emperor.
יוֹעֵץ שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְעַבֵּר שָׁנִים וְלִקְבּוֹעַ חֳדָשִׁים וְחָכָם זֶה תַּלְמִיד הַמַּחְכִּים אֶת רַבּוֹתָיו חֲרָשִׁים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁפּוֹתֵחַ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה הַכֹּל נַעֲשִׂין כְּחֵרְשִׁין וְנָבוֹן זֶה הַמֵּבִין דָּבָר מִתּוֹךְ דָּבָר לָחַשׁ זֶה שֶׁרָאוּי לִמְסוֹר לוֹ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁנִּיתְּנָה בְּלַחַשׁ
“The counselor”; this is referring to one who knows how to intercalate years and determine months, due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. “The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wise through his questions. “Charmer [ḥarashim]”; this is referring to one so wise that when he begins speaking matters of Torah, all those listening are as though deaf [ḥershin], as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. “The skillful”; this is one who understands something new from something else he has learned. “Enchanter [laḥash]”; this is referring to one who is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [laḥash], i.e., the secrets of the Torah, transmitted to him.
וְנָתַתִּי נְעָרִים שָׂרֵיהֶם מַאי וְנָתַתִּי נְעָרִים שָׂרֵיהֶם אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁמְּנוֹעָרִין מִן הַמִּצְוֹת
The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: “And I will make children their princes” (Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of “And I will make children [ne’arim] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [menu’arin] of mitzvot; such people will become the leaders of the nation.
וְתַעֲלוּלִים יִמְשְׁלוּ בָּם אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא בַּר יַעֲקֹב תַּעֲלֵי בְּנֵי תַעֲלֵי וְלֹא נִתְקָרְרָה דַּעְתּוֹ עַד שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם יִרְהֲבוּ הַנַּעַר בַּזָּקֵן וְהַנִּקְלֶה בַּנִּכְבָּד אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁמְּנוֹעָרִין מִן הַמִּצְוֹת יִרְהֲבוּ בְּמֵי שֶׁמְּמוּלָּא בְּמִצְוֹת כְּרִמּוֹן וְהַנִּקְלֶה בַּנִּכְבָּד יָבֹא מִי שֶׁחֲמוּרוֹת דּוֹמוֹת עָלָיו כְּקַלּוֹת וְיִרְהֲבוּ בְּמִי שֶׁקַּלּוֹת דּוֹמוֹת עָלָיו כַּחֲמוּרוֹת
“And babes [ta’alulim] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: Ta’alulim means foxes [ta’alei], sons of foxes. In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. And the prophet Isaiah’s mind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” (Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [na’ar]; these are people who are devoid of mitzvot, who will behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [nikleh] against the honorable [nikhbad]”; this means that one for whom major [kaved] transgressions are like minor ones [kalot] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whom even minor transgressions are like major ones in his mind.
אָמַר רַב קַטִּינָא אֲפִילּוּ בִּשְׁעַת כִּשְׁלוֹנָהּ שֶׁל יְרוּשָׁלָיִם לֹא פָּסְקוּ מֵהֶם בַּעֲלֵי אֲמָנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כִּי יִתְפֹּשׂ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו בֵּית אָבִיו שִׂמְלָה לְךָ קָצִין תִּהְיֶה לָנוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם מִתְכַּסִּין כְּשִׂמְלָה יֶשְׁנָן תַּחַת יָדֶךָ
§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. Rav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to exist among its people, as it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, and say: You have a cloak, be our ruler” (Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: Things that people are careful to keep covered as with a cloak, i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, are under your hand, as you are an expert with regard to them.
וְהַמַּכְשֵׁלָה הַזֹּאת מַאי וְהַמַּכְשֵׁלָה הַזֹּאת דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין בְּנֵי אָדָם עוֹמְדִין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִכְשָׁל בָּהֶן יֶשְׁנָן תַּחַת יָדֶךָ יִשָּׂא בַיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר לֹא אֶהְיֶה חוֹבֵשׁ וּבְבֵיתִי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין שִׂמְלָה לֹא תְשִׂימוּנִי קְצִין עָם יִשָּׂא אֵין יִשָּׂא אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת שֵׁם ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא אֶהְיֶה חוֹבֵשׁ לֹא הָיִיתִי מֵחוֹבְשֵׁי בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּבְבֵיתִי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין שִׂמְלָה שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדִי לֹא מִקְרָא וְלֹא מִשְׁנָה וְלֹא גְּמָרָא
What is the meaning of the end of that verse: “And this stumbling block” (Isaiah 3:6)? Things that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them, as they can be understood only with much effort, are under your hand. Although they will approach an individual with these statements, he “shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people” (Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: “Shall swear [yissa],” yissa is none other than an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [tissa] the name of the Lord your God in vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: “I will not be a healer [ḥovesh]” (Isaiah 3:7), which means: I was never one of those who sit [meḥovshei] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possess knowledge of neither the Bible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara. This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.
וְדִלְמָא שָׁאנֵי הָתָם דְּאִי אָמַר לְהוּ גְּמִירְנָא אָמְרִי לֵיהּ אֵימָא לַן הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְמֵימַר גְּמַר וּשְׁכַח מַאי לֹא אֶהְיֶה חוֹבֵשׁ לֹא אֶהְיֶה חוֹבֵשׁ כְּלָל
The Gemara raises a difficulty: But perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us, and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, he would have said that he learned and forgot, thereby avoiding shame. What is the meaning of “I will not be a healer,” which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: I will not be a healer at all, as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.
אִינִי וְהָאָמַר רָבָא לֹא חָרְבָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עַד שֶׁפָּסְקוּ מִמֶּנָּה בַּעֲלֵי אֲמָנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שׁוֹטְטוּ בְּחוּצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּרְאוּ נָא וּדְעוּ וּבַקְשׁוּ בִרְחוֹבוֹתֶיהָ אִם תִּמְצְאוּ אִישׁ אִם יֵשׁ עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט מְבַקֵּשׁ אֱמוּנָה וְאֶסְלַח לָהּ לָא קַשְׁיָא
The Gemara raises another difficulty: Is that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her” (Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: