אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק, ״וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם״ — קִייֵּם בָּהֶם, ״וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן יֵצְאוּ בִּרְכֻשׁ גָּדוֹל״ — לֹא קִייֵּם בָּהֶם. that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: “And they will be enslaved and afflicted,” but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: “And afterward, they will leave with great possessions.” As God said to Abraham: “Surely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions” (Genesis 15:13–14).
אָמְרוּ לוֹ: וּלְוַאי שֶׁנֵּצֵא בְּעַצְמֵנוּ! מָשָׁל: לְאָדָם שֶׁהָיָה חָבוּשׁ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם: מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתְךָ לְמָחָר מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִין, וְנוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִכֶּם, הוֹצִיאוּנִי הַיּוֹם, וְאֵינִי מְבַקֵּשׁ כְּלוּם. The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.
״וַיַּשְׁאִלוּם״, אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִשְׁאִילוּם בְּעַל כָּרְחָם. אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי בְּעַל כָּרְחָם דְּמִצְרַיִם, וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי בְּעַל כָּרְחָם דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: “And the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt” (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.
מַאן דְּאָמַר בְּעַל כָּרְחָם דְּמִצְרַיִם — דִּכְתִיב: ״וּנְוַת בַּיִת תְּחַלֵּק שָׁלָל״. מַאן דְּאָמַר בְּעַל כָּרְחָם דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל — מִשּׁוּם מַשּׂוֹי. The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel’s exit from Egypt, as it is written: “And she who tarries at home divides the spoils” (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.
״וַיְנַצְּלוּ אֶת מִצְרָיִם״. אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי מְלַמֵּד שֶׁעֲשָׂאוּהָ כִּמְצוּדָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ דָּגָן, וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר, עֲשָׂאוּהָ כִּמְצוּלָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ דָּגִים. With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.
״אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה״, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמֹשֶׁה, לֵךְ אֱמוֹר לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: אֲנִי הָיִיתִי עִמָּכֶם בְּשִׁעְבּוּד זֶה, וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּכֶם בְּשִׁעְבּוּד מַלְכֻיוֹת. The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God’s name, “and God said to Moses: ‘I will be that I will be,’ and He said: ‘Thus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.
אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, דַּיָּה לַצָּרָה בִּשְׁעָתָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: לֵךְ אֱמוֹר לָהֶם ״אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם״. Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, “I will be has sent me to you.”
״עֲנֵנִי ה׳ עֲנֵנִי״. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ: לָמָה אָמַר אֵלִיָּהוּ עֲנֵנִי שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאָמַר אֵלִיָּהוּ לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, ״עֲנֵנִי״ — שֶׁתֵּרֵד אֵשׁ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וְתֹאכַל כָּל אֲשֶׁר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וַ״עֲנֵנִי״ — שֶׁתַּסִּיחַ דַּעְתָּם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ מַעֲשֵׂה כְשָׁפִים הֵם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְאַתָּה הֲסִבֹּתָ אֶת לִבָּם אֲחוֹרַנִּית״: Having explained the use of the double language of “I will be that I will be,” the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: “Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward” (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will not say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: “And You have turned their hearts backward,” God can restore them to the proper path as well.
מַתְנִי׳ מֵאֵימָתַי קוֹרִין אֶת שְׁמַע בְּשַׁחֲרִית? מִשֶּׁיַּכִּיר בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְלָבָן. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְכָרָתֵי. וְגוֹמְרָהּ, עַד הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר עַד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ מְלָכִים לַעֲמוֹד בְּשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁעוֹת. MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.
הַקּוֹרֵא מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ — לֹא הִפְסִיד, כְּאָדָם הַקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה. While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת לְלָבָן? אִילֵּימָא בֵּין גְּבָבָא דְעַמְרָא חִיוָּרָא לִגְבָבָא דְעַמְרָא דִתְכֵלְתָּא — הָא בְּלֵילְיָא נָמֵי מִידָּע יָדְעִי. אֶלָּא, בֵּין תְּכֵלֶת שֶׁבָּהּ לְלָבָן שֶׁבָּהּ. GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn’t one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.
תַּנְיָא: רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר: מִשֶּׁיַּכִּיר בֵּין זְאֵב לְכֶלֶב. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: בֵּין חֲמוֹר לְעָרוֹד. וַאֲחֵרִים אוֹמְרִים: מִשֶּׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ רָחוֹק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וְיַכִּירֶנּוּ. It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And Aḥerim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.
אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: הֲלָכָה כַּאֲחֵרִים. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: לִתְפִילִּין כַּאֲחֵרִים. לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע כְּוָתִיקִין. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וָתִיקִין הָיוּ גּוֹמְרִין אוֹתָהּ עִם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה. Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.
תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: וָתִיקִין הָיוּ גּוֹמְרִין אוֹתָהּ עִם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּסְמוֹךְ גְּאוּלָּה לִתְפִלָּה, וְנִמְצָא מִתְפַּלֵּל בַּיּוֹם. It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.
אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: מַאי קְרָאָה — ״יִירָאוּךָ עִם שָׁמֶשׁ וְלִפְנֵי יָרֵחַ דּוֹר דּוֹרִים״. Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? “They shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations” (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one’s awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.
הֵעִיד רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן אֶלְיָקִים מִשּׁוּם קְהָלָא קַדִּישָׁא דְבִירוּשָׁלַיִם: כָּל הַסּוֹמֵךְ גְּאוּלָּה לִתְפִלָּה אֵינוֹ נִזּוֹק כָּל הַיּוֹם כּוּלּוֹ. Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.
אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: אִינִי?! וְהָא אֲנָא סְמַכִי וְאִיתְּזַקִי! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בְּמַאי אִיתְּזַקְתְּ — דְּאַמְטֵיִית אָסָא לְבֵי מַלְכָּא. הָתָם נָמֵי מִבְּעֵי לָךְ לְמֵיהַב אַגְרָא לְמִחְזֵי אַפֵּי מַלְכָּא, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: לְעוֹלָם יִשְׁתַּדֵּל אָדָם לָרוּץ לִקְרַאת מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא לִקְרַאת מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבַד, אֶלָּא אֲפִילּוּ לִקְרַאת מַלְכֵי אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁאִם יִזְכֶּה — יַבְחִין בֵּין מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַלְכֵי אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם! Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn’t I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king’s palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira’s responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי אִלָּעָא לְעוּלָּא: כִּי עָיְילַתְּ לְהָתָם שְׁאֵיל בִּשְׁלָמָא דְּרַב בְּרוֹנָא אֲחִי בְּמַעֲמַד כָּל הַחֲבוּרָה, דְּאָדָם גָּדוֹל הוּא וְשָׂמֵחַ בְּמִצְוֹת. זִימְנָא חֲדָא סְמַךְ גְּאוּלָּה לִתְפִלָּה וְלָא פְּסֵיק חוּכָא מִפּוּמֵּיהּ כּוּלֵּיהּ יוֹמָא. Rabbi El’a said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.
הֵיכִי מָצֵי סָמֵיךְ? וְהָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: בַּתְּחִלָּה הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״ה׳ שְׂפָתַי תִּפְתָּח״, וּלְבַסּוֹף הוּא אוֹמֵר: ״יִהְיוּ לְרָצוֹן אִמְרֵי פִי וְגוֹ׳״! In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: “Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory” (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer” (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.
אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: תְּהֵא בִּתְפִלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית. Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.
וְהָא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: אֵיזֶהוּ בֶּן הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא — זֶהוּ הַסּוֹמֵךְ גְּאוּלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁל עַרְבִית! The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.
אֶלָּא אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: תְּהֵא בִּתְפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה. Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only before the afternoon prayer.
רַב אָשֵׁי אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ תֵּימָא אַכּוּלְּהוּ, וְכֵיוָן דְּקַבְעוּהָ רַבָּנַן בִּתְפִלָּה — כִּתְפִלָּה אֲרִיכְתָּא דָּמְיָא. Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that “Lord, open my lips” is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.
דְּאִי לָא תֵּימָא הָכִי, עַרְבִית הֵיכִי מָצֵי סָמֵיךְ, וְהָא בָּעֵי לְמֵימַר ״הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ״! אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן דְּתַקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ — כִּגְאוּלָּה אֲרִיכְתָּא דָּמְיָא. הָכִי נָמֵי כֵּיוָן דְּקַבְעוּהָ רַבָּנַן בִּתְפִלָּה — כִּתְפִלָּה אֲרִיכְתָּא דָּמְיָא. Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn’t one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.
מִכְּדֵי, הַאי ״יִהְיוּ לְרָצוֹן אִמְרֵי פִי״ מַשְׁמַע לִבְסוֹף, וּמַשְׁמַע מֵעִיקָּרָא דְּבָעֵינָא לְמֵימַר. מַאי טַעְמָא תַּקְּנוּהוּ רַבָּנַן לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת? לֵימְרוּ מֵעִיקָּרָא! With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,” can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.
אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן פַּזִּי: הוֹאִיל וְלֹא אֲמָרוֹ דָּוִד אֶלָּא לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת, לְפִיכָךְ תַּקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת. Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.
הָנֵי שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה?! תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה הָוְיָן! The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.
״אַשְׁרֵי הָאִישׁ״ וְ״לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם״ חֲדָא פָּרָשָׁה הִיא. The Gemara answers: “Happy is the man,” the first chapter of Psalms, and “Why are the nations in an uproar,” the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.
דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן פַּזִּי: מֵאָה וְשָׁלֹשׁ פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת אָמַר דָּוִד, וְלֹא אָמַר ״הַלְלוּיָהּ״ עַד שֶׁרָאָה בְּמַפַּלְתָּן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״יִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים מִן הָאָרֶץ וּרְשָׁעִים עוֹד אֵינָם, בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה׳ הַלְלוּיָהּ״. The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya” (Psalms 104:35).
הָנֵי מֵאָה וְשָׁלֹשׁ? מֵאָה וְאַרְבַּע הָוְיָין! אֶלָּא שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ ״אַשְׁרֵי הָאִישׁ״ וְ״לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם״ חֲדָא פָּרָשָׁה הִיא. Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that “Happy is the man” and “Why are the nations in uproar” constitute a single portion.
דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: