Berakhot 9b:6ברכות ט׳ ב:ו
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9bט׳ ב

אותו צדיק ועבדום וענו אתם קיים בהם ואחרי כן יצאו ברכש גדול לא קיים בהם

that righteous person, Abraham, will not say: God fulfilled His pronouncement: “And they will be enslaved and afflicted,” but God did not fulfill His pronouncement: “And afterward, they will leave with great possessions.” As God said to Abraham: “Surely you shall know that your descendants will be foreigners in a land that is not theirs, and they will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred years. And also that nation who enslaves them will I judge. And afterward, they will leave with great possessions” (Genesis 15:13–14).

אמרו לו ולואי שנצא בעצמנו משל לאדם שהיה חבוש בבית האסורים והיו אומרים לו בני אדם מוציאין אותך למחר מבית האסורין ונותנין לך ממון הרבה ואומר להם בבקשה מכם הוציאוני היום ואיני מבקש כלום:

The school of Rabbi Yannai continues: Israel said to Moses: If only we could get out ourselves. The Gemara offers a parable to one who was incarcerated in prison, and people would say to him: We promise, we will release you tomorrow and give you much money. He says to them: I beseech you, release me today and I ask for nothing. So too, Israel preferred leaving immediately empty handed rather than leaving later with great riches.

וישאלום אמר רבי אמי מלמד שהשאילום בעל כרחם איכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דמצרים ואיכא דאמרי בעל כרחם דישראל

With regard to the spoils taken from Egypt described in the verse: “And the Lord gave the nation grace in the eyes of Egypt, and they gave them what they requested and they emptied Egypt” (Exodus 12:36), Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that the Egyptians gave them what they requested against their will. There is a dispute with regard to the question: Against whose will? Some say it was given against the will of the Egyptians, and some say it was given against the will of Israel. The proponent of each position cites support for his opinion.

מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דמצרים דכתיב ונות בית תחלק שלל מאן דאמר בעל כרחם דישראל משום משוי:

The one who said that it was given against the will of the Egyptians cites the verse describing Israel’s exit from Egypt, as it is written: “And she who tarries at home divides the spoils” (Psalms 68:13). That which the woman in the verse requested from her counterpart was actually spoils taken against the will of an enemy. The one who said that it was given against the will of Israel, claims that they did not want the vessels because of the burden of carrying a heavy load on a long journey.

וינצלו את מצרים אמר רבי אמי מלמד שעשאוה כמצודה שאין בה דגן וריש לקיש אמר עשאוה כמצולה שאין בה דגים:

With regard to the continuation of the verse: And they emptied Egypt, Rabbi Ami said: This indicates that they made Egypt like a trap in which there is no grain that serves as bait to attract birds. Reish Lakish said: They made Egypt like an abyss in the sea without fish.

אהיה אשר אהיה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור להם לישראל אני הייתי עמכם בשעבוד זה ואני אהיה עמכם בשעבוד מלכיות

The Gemara proceeds to discuss the promise of redemption from Egypt that God made to Moses at the burning bush. When Moses asked God what to say when Israel asks him God’s name, “and God said to Moses: ‘I will be that I will be,’ and He said: ‘Thus you will say unto the children of Israel: I will be has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14). The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses to go and tell Israel: I was with you in this enslavement, and in this redemption, and I will be with you in the enslavement of the kingdoms in the future.

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם דיה לצרה בשעתה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לך אמור להם אהיה שלחני אליכם:

Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, it is enough for them to endure. Let the future suffering be endured at its appointed time. There is no need to mention their future enslavement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with Moses and said to him: Go and tell the children of Israel only that, “I will be has sent me to you.”

ענני ה׳ ענני אמר רבי אבהו למה אמר אליהו ענני שתי פעמים מלמד שאמר אליהו לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם ענני שתרד אש מן השמים ותאכל כל אשר על המזבח וענני שתסיח דעתם כדי שלא יאמרו מעשה כשפים הם שנאמר ואתה הסבת את לבם אחורנית:

Having explained the use of the double language of “I will be that I will be,” the Gemara proceeds to explain the double language employed by Elijah on Mount Carmel: “Answer me, Lord, answer me, that this people will know that You are the Lord, God, and You have turned their hearts backward” (I Kings 18:37). Rabbi Abbahu said: Why did Elijah say answer me twice? This repetition teaches that Elijah said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, answer me that fire will descend from heaven and consume everything that is on the altar, and answer me that You will divert their mind from devising alternative explanations for what they witnessed so that they will say that they were acts of sorcery. As it is stated that Elijah said: “And You have turned their hearts backward,” God can restore them to the proper path as well.

מתני׳ מאימתי קורין את שמע בשחרית משיכיר בין תכלת ללבן רבי אליעזר אומר בין תכלת לכרתי וגומרה עד הנץ החמה רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות

MISHNA: From when does one recite Shema in the morning? From when a person can distinguish between sky-blue [tekhelet] and white.
Rabbi Eliezer says: From when one can distinguish between sky-blue and leek-green.
And one must finish reciting Shema until the end of the period when you rise, i.e., sunrise, when the sun begins to shine.
Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may recite the morning Shema until three hours of the day, which this is still considered when you rise, as that is the habit of kings to rise from their sleep at three hours of the day.

הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה:

While there is a set time frame for the recitation of Shema, one who recites Shema from that time onward loses nothing. Although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of Shema at its appointed time, he is nevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.

גמ׳ מאי בין תכלת ללבן אילימא בין גבבא דעמרא חיורא לגבבא דעמרא דתכלתא הא בליליא נמי מידע ידעי אלא בין תכלת שבה ללבן שבה

GEMARA: The mishna stated that the time for the recitation of the morning Shema begins when one can distinguish between sky-blue and white. The Gemara asks: To what is between sky-blue and white referring? If you say that it means distinguishing between a pile of white wool and a pile of sky-blue wool, wouldn’t one know the difference at night, as well? Rather, it must be a reference to ritual fringes made with sky-blue strings (see Numbers 15:38) along with white strings, and one must be able to distinguish between the sky-blue strings in the ritual fringes and the white strings in the ritual fringes.
With regard to the beginning of the time for the recitation of the morning Shema, a baraita cites additional opinions not cited in the mishna.

תניא רבי מאיר אומר משיכיר בין זאב לכלב רבי עקיבא אומר בין חמור לערוד ואחרים אומרים משיראה את חברו רחוק ארבע אמות ויכירנו

It was taught in a baraita:
Rabbi Meir says that the day begins when one can distinguish between two similar animals, e.g., a wolf and a dog.
Rabbi Akiva provides a different sign, and says that the day begins when there is sufficient light to distinguish between a donkey and a wild donkey.
And Aḥerim say: When one can see another person, who is merely an acquaintance (Jerusalem Talmud) from a distance of four cubits and recognize him.

אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים אמר אביי לתפילין כאחרים לקריאת שמע כותיקין דאמר רבי יוחנן ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה

Rav Huna said: The halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. Abaye said: Regarding the time from which one may don phylacteries, a mitzva incumbent only by day, the halakha is in accordance with Aḥerim. But with regard to the recitation of Shema, one should conduct himself in accordance with the custom of the vatikin, pious individuals who were scrupulous in their performance of mitzvot. As Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise, and one should act accordingly.

תניא נמי הכי ותיקין היו גומרין אותה עם הנץ החמה כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה ונמצא מתפלל ביום

It was also taught in a baraita: The vatikin would conclude the recitation of Shema with sunrise in order to juxtapose the blessing of redemption, which immediately follows the recitation of Shema, with prayer, and pray during the day.

אמר רבי זירא מאי קראה ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים

Regarding this custom of the vatikin, Rabbi Zeira said: What verse is the source for this tradition? “They shall fear You with the sun, and before the moon for all generations” (Psalms 72:5). This verse indicates that one should express one’s awe of Heaven, they shall fear You, immediately before sunrise, with the sun.

העיד רבי יוסי בן אליקים משום קהלא קדישא דבירושלים כל הסומך גאולה לתפלה אינו נזוק כל היום כולו

Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim testified in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem, a title accorded a particular group of Sages who lived there, that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer at sunrise will incur no harm for the entire day.

אמר רבי זירא איני והא אנא סמכי ואיתזקי אמר ליה במאי איתזקת דאמטיית אסא לבי מלכא התם נמי מבעי לך למיהב אגרא למחזי אפי מלכא דאמר רבי יוחנן לעולם ישתדל אדם לרוץ לקראת מלכי ישראל ולא לקראת מלכי ישראל בלבד אלא אפילו לקראת מלכי אומות העולם שאם יזכה יבחין בין מלכי ישראל למלכי אומות העולם

Rabbi Zeira said: Is that so? Didn’t I juxtapose redemption and prayer and nevertheless I was harmed? Rabbi Yosei ben Elyakim asked Rabbi Zeira: How were you harmed? That you brought a myrtle branch to the king’s palace? The Gemara refers to Rabbi Zeira’s responsibility as one of the respected members of the community to participate in a delegation that brought a crown of myrtle as a gift to the king, a dubious honor in which Rabbi Zeira had no interest. However, there, too, you had to pay a price in order to see the face of the king, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One should always strive to run to greet the kings of Israel to witness them in their glory. And not only must one run to greet the kings of Israel, but even to greet the kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privileged to witness the redemption of Israel, he will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world, to see how much greater the Jewish king will be and how his rule will be manifest. Therefore, it was a privilege for Rabbi Zeira that he was allowed to see the face of the king.

אמר ליה רבי אלעא לעולא כי עיילת להתם שאיל בשלמא דרב ברונא אחי במעמד כל החבורה דאדם גדול הוא ושמח במצות זימנא חדא סמך גאולה לתפלה ולא פסיק חוכא מפומיה כוליה יומא

Rabbi El’a said to Ulla before Ulla left for Babylonia: When you go to Babylonia, ask after my brother, Rav Beruna, in the presence of the entire group, as he is a great man who rejoices in mitzvot, and it is only fitting that he should be accorded respect. The Gemara provides proof that he was indeed a great man who rejoiced in mitzvot: Once, Rav Beruna juxtaposed redemption and prayer at sunrise, as per the custom of the vatikin (Tosafot), and laughter and joy did not cease from his mouth for the entire day.

היכי מצי סמיך והא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה הוא אומר ה׳ שפתי תפתח ולבסוף הוא אומר יהיו לרצון אמרי פי וגו׳

In practice, the Gemara asks: How is one able to juxtapose redemption and prayer? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: At the beginning of prayer, one says: “Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory” (Psalms 51:17), and at the end of prayer one says: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You, Lord, my Rock, and my Redeemer” (Psalms 19:15). If so, the first verse is an interruption between redemption and prayer.

אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלה של ערבית

Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse, “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only in the evening prayer but not in the morning prayer.

והא אמר רבי יוחנן איזהו בן העולם הבא זהו הסומך גאולה של ערבית לתפלה של ערבית

The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan say: Who is worthy of a place in the World-to-Come? He who juxtaposes redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer. Therefore, this verse from Psalms should not be recited before the evening prayer either.

אלא אמר רבי אלעזר תהא בתפלת המנחה

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: Let this verse: “Lord, open my lips,” be recited only before the afternoon prayer.

רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא אכולהו וכיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rav Ashi said another explanation: Even if you say that Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that “Lord, open my lips” is recited before all prayers, including the morning and the evening prayers. Since the Sages instituted this verse, it is considered as an extended prayer; it is an inseparable part of the prayers, and if redemption is juxtaposed to this verse, it is no different than if redemption was juxtaposed to prayer directly.

דאי לא תימא הכי ערבית היכי מצי סמיך והא בעי למימר השכיבנו אלא כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא הכי נמי כיון דקבעוה רבנן בתפלה כתפלה אריכתא דמיא

Rabbi Ashi supports his claim: As if you do not say so, how does one juxtapose redemption of the evening prayer to the evening prayer? Mustn’t one recite: Help us lie down [hashkivenu] after redemption? Rather, since the Sages instituted the recitation of: Help us lie down, it is considered as an extended blessing of redemption. So, too, since the Sages instituted this verse in prayer, it is considered as an extended prayer.

מכדי האי יהיו לרצון אמרי פי משמע לבסוף ומשמע מעיקרא דבעינא למימר מאי טעמא תקנוהו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות לימרו מעיקרא

With regard to the verse with which the prayer concludes, the Gemara deliberates: Now, since this verse: “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before You,” can connote the end of prayer, petitioning God that He accept the prayer that was just recited, and it can connote the beginning of the prayer that he wants to recite: May the words of my mouth which I am about to recite be acceptable before You. If so, the question arises: Why did the Sages institute that it is to be recited after the eighteen blessings that constitute the Amida? Let it be recited at the beginning of the prayer.

אמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי הואיל ולא אמרו דוד אלא לאחר שמונה עשרה פרשיות לפיכך תקינו רבנן לאחר שמונה עשרה ברכות

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: This verse is recited after the eighteen blessings comprising the Amida because David only said this verse after eighteen chapters of Psalms (end of ch. 19). Therefore, the Sages instituted to recite it after the eighteen blessings of the Amida.

הני שמונה עשרה תשע עשרה הוין

The Gemara asks: Are these eighteen psalms? They are nineteen chapters that precede that verse.

אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

The Gemara answers: “Happy is the man,” the first chapter of Psalms, and “Why are the nations in an uproar,” the second chapter, constitute a single chapter, so the nineteen chapters are actually eighteen.

דאמר רבי יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי מאה ושלש פרשיות אמר דוד ולא אמר הללויה עד שראה במפלתן של רשעים שנאמר יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה׳ הללויה

The Gemara cites proof that the first two chapters are in fact a single chapter. As Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said: David said one hundred and three chapters, and he did not say Halleluya in any of them until he saw the downfall of the wicked. Only then could David say Halleluya wholeheartedly. As it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).

הני מאה ושלש מאה וארבע הויין אלא שמע מינה אשרי האיש ולמה רגשו גוים חדא פרשה היא

Here too, the Gemara notes that the calculation appears inaccurate: Are these one hundred and three psalms? They are one hundred and four. Rather, conclude from this that “Happy is the man” and “Why are the nations in uproar” constitute a single portion.

דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן

Additional proof that these two chapters comprise a single portion is cited from what Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: