וַאֲפִילּוּ ״עֲטָרוֹת וְדִיבֹן״. שֶׁכָּל הַמַּשְׁלִים פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתָיו עִם הַצִּבּוּר מֵאֲרִיכִין לוֹ יָמָיו וּשְׁנוֹתָיו.
This applies to every verse, even a verse like: “Atarot and Divon and Yazer and Nimra and Ḥeshbon and Elaleh and Sevam and Nevo and Beon” (Numbers 32:3). While that verse is comprised entirely of names of places that are identical in Hebrew and Aramaic, one is nevertheless required to read the verse twice and its translation once, as one who completes his Torah portions with the congregation is rewarded that his days and years are extended.
רַב בִּיבִי בַּר אַבָּיֵי סָבַר לְאַשְׁלוֹמִינְהוּ לְפָרָשְׁיָיתָא דְּכֹלָּא שַׁתָּא בְּמַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא דְכִפּוּרֵי, תְּנָא לֵיהּ חִיָּיא בַּר רַב מִדִּפְתִּי: כְּתִיב: ״וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב״.
Rav Beivai bar Abaye thought to finish all the Torah portions of the entire year, which he had been unable to complete at their appointed time, on the eve of Yom Kippur when he would have time to do so. But Ḥiyya bar Rav of Difti taught him: It is written with regard to Yom Kippur: “And you shall afflict your souls on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening to evening you shall keep your Sabbath” (Leviticus 23:32).
וְכִי בְּתִשְׁעָה מִתְעַנִּין?! וַהֲלֹא בַּעֲשָׂרָה מִתְעַנִּין! אֶלָּא לוֹמַר לְךָ כָּל הָאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה בִּתְשִׁיעִי, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִילּוּ מִתְעַנֶּה תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי.
The Gemara wonders: And does one fast on the ninth of Tishrei? Doesn’t one fast on the tenth of Tishrei, as the Torah says at the beginning of that portion: “However, on the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement; there shall be a holy convocation for you, and you shall afflict your souls” (Leviticus 23:27)? Rather, this verse comes to tell you: One who eats and drinks on the ninth day of Tishrei in preparation for the fast the next day, the verse ascribes him credit as if he fasted on both the ninth and the tenth of Tishrei. Ḥiyya bar Rav of Difti cited this verse to Rav Beivai bar Abaye to teach him that Yom Kippur eve is dedicated to eating and drinking, not to completing the Torah portions one may have missed throughout the year.
סָבַר לְאַקְדּוֹמִינְהוּ, אָמַר לֵיהּ הָהוּא סָבָא, תְּנֵינָא: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַקְדִּים וְשֶׁלֹּא יְאַחֵר.
When Rav Beivai heard this, he thought to read the Torah portions earlier, before they were to be read by the community. A certain unnamed elder told him, we learned: As long as one does not read the Torah portions earlier or later than the congregation. One must read them together with the congregation.
כְּדַאֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי לִבְנֵיהּ: אַשְׁלִימוּ פָּרָשְׁיוֹתַיְיכוּ עִם הַצִּבּוּר שְׁנַיִם מִקְרָא וְאֶחָד תַּרְגּוּם.
As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi told his sons: Complete your portions with the congregation, the Bible text twice and the translation once.
וְהִזָּהֲרוּ בִּוְרִידִין כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דִּתְנַן: רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁחוֹט אֶת הַוְּרִידִין.
He also advised them: Be careful with the jugular veins, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as we learned in a mishna with regard to the laws of ritual slaughter: Rabbi Yehuda said: Cutting the trachea and esophagus in the ritual slaughter of a bird does not render the bird kosher until he slaughters the jugular veins as well. While this is not halakhically required, it is appropriate to do so to prevent significant amounts of blood from remaining in the bird.
וְהִזָּהֲרוּ בְּזָקֵן שֶׁשָּׁכַח תַּלְמוּדוֹ מֵחֲמַת אוֹנְסוֹ. דְּאָמְרִינַן: לוּחוֹת וְשִׁבְרֵי לוּחוֹת מוּנָּחוֹת בָּאָרוֹן.
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further advised: And be careful to continue to respect an elder who has forgotten his Torah knowledge due to circumstances beyond his control. Even though he is no longer a Torah scholar, he must still be respected for the Torah that he once possessed. As we say: Both the tablets of the Covenant and the broken tablets are placed in the Ark of the Covenant in the Temple. Even though the first tablets were broken, their sanctity obligates one not to treat them with contempt. An elder who forgot the Torah knowledge he once possessed is likened to these broken tablets.
אָמַר לְהוּ רָבָא לִבְנֵיהּ: כְּשֶׁאַתֶּם חוֹתְכִין בָּשָׂר, אַל תַּחְתְּכוּ עַל גַּב הַיָּד. אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: מִשּׁוּם סַכָּנָה. וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: מִשּׁוּם קִלְקוּל סְעוּדָה.
Rava said to his sons three bits of advice: When you cut meat, do not cut it on your hand. The Gemara offers two explanations for this. Some say: Due to the danger that one might accidentally cut his hand, and some say: Due to the fact that it could ruin the meal, as even if one only cut himself slightly, that small amount of blood could still spoil the meat and render it repulsive to eat.
וְאַל תֵּשְׁבוּ עַל מִטַּת אֲרַמִּית, וְאַל תַּעַבְרוּ אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְּלִין. וְאַל תֵּשְׁבוּ עַל מִטַּת אֲרַמִּית, אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי לָא תִּגְנוֹ בְּלָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי דְּלָא תִּנְסְבוּ גִּיּוֹרְתָא. וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי, אֲרַמִּית מַמָּשׁ.
And Rava also advised: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman, and do not pass by a synagogue when the community is praying. The Gemara explains: Some say: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman means one should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as by doing so, it is tantamount to sleeping in the bed of a non-Jew, as his conduct is unbecoming a Jew. Others say: This means that one should not marry a woman who converted, and it is better to marry a woman who was born Jewish. And some say: It literally means that one should not sit on the bed of an Aramean, i.e., a non-Jewish woman.
וּמִשּׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה דְרַב פָּפָּא. דְּרַב פָּפָּא אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי אֲרַמִּית, הוֹצִיאָה לוֹ מִטָּה. אָמְרָה לוֹ: שֵׁב! אָמַר לָהּ: אֵינִי יוֹשֵׁב, עַד שֶׁתַּגְבִּיהִי אֶת הַמִּטָּה. הִגְבִּיהָה אֶת הַמִּטָּה וּמָצְאוּ שָׁם תִּינוֹק מֵת. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: אָסוּר לֵישֵׁב עַל מִטַּת אֲרַמִּית.
This bit of advice was due to an incident involving Rav Pappa. Rav Pappa went to visit an Aramean woman. She took out a bed and she said to him: Sit. He said to her: I will not sit until you lift the sheets covering the bed. She did so and they found a dead baby there. Had Rav Pappa sat upon the bed, he would have been blamed for killing the baby. From that incident, the Sages said: One is prohibited from sitting on the bed of an Aramean woman.
וְאַל תַּעַבְרוּ אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְּלִין — מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: אָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁיַּעֲבוֹר אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְפַּלְּלִין.
And Rava’s third bit of advice was, do not pass behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying. This statement supports the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One is prohibited from passing behind a synagogue while the congregation is praying because they will suspect that he does not want to pray, and it is a show of contempt for the synagogue.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלֵיכָּא פִּתְחָא אַחֲרִינָא, אֲבָל אִיכָּא פִּתְחָא אַחֲרִינָא — לֵית לָן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלֵיכָּא בֵּי כְנִישְׁתָּא אַחֲרִינָא, אֲבָל אִיכָּא בֵּי כְנִישְׁתָּא אַחֲרִינָא — לֵית לָן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא דָּרֵי טוּנָא, וְלָא רָהֵיט, וְלָא מַנַּח תְּפִילִּין, אֲבָל אִיכָּא חַד מֵהָנָךְ — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
Abaye introduced several caveats to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement and said:
We only said this prohibition if there is no other entrance to the synagogue, but if there is another entrance, since it is possible that he will simply use the second entrance, they will not suspect him, and the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition if there is no other synagogue in the city, but if there is another synagogue, the prohibition does not apply.
And we only said this prohibition when he is not carrying a burden, and not running, and not wearing phylacteries. But if one of those factors applies, the prohibition does not apply. If he is carrying a burden or running, clearly he is occupied with his work. If he is wearing phylacteries, it is evident that he is a God-fearing individual and they will not suspect him.
תַּנְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אוֹהֵב אֲנִי אֶת הַמָּדִיִּים, כְּשֶׁחוֹתְכִין אֶת הַבָּשָׂר — אֵין חוֹתְכִין אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי הַשּׁוּלְחָן, כְּשֶׁנּוֹשְׁקִין — אֵין נוֹשְׁקִין אֶלָּא עַל גַּב הַיָּד, וּכְשֶׁיּוֹעֲצִין — אֵין יוֹעֲצִין אֶלָּא בַּשָּׂדֶה.
The Gemara cites a statement from a baraita, along the lines of Rava’s advice to refrain from cutting meat on one’s hands: Rabbi Akiva said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Medes, and we should learn from their practices. When they cut meat, they cut it only on the table and not on their hands; when they kiss, either as a show of affection or honor, they kiss only the back of the hand and do not give the person being kissed an unpleasant feeling; and when they hold counsel, they only hold counsel in the field so others will not hear their secrets.
אָמַר רַב אַדָּא בַּר אַהֲבָה: מַאי קְרָאָה ״וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב וַיִּקְרָא לְרָחֵל וּלְלֵאָה הַשָּׂדֶה אֶל צֹאנוֹ״.
Rav Adda bar Ahava said: From what verse is this derived? From the verse, “And Jacob sent and he called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock” (Genesis 31:4); it was only there in the field that he held counsel with them.
תַּנְיָא אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל: בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אוֹהֵב אֲנִי אֶת הַפַּרְסִיִּים: הֵן צְנוּעִין בַּאֲכִילָתָן, וּצְנוּעִין בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, וּצְנוּעִין בְּדָבָר אַחֵר.
It was taught in a baraita, Rabban Gamliel said: In three aspects of their conduct, I like the Persians: They are a modest people; they are modest in their eating, they are modest in the lavatory, and they are modest in another matter, i.e., sexual relations.
״אֲנִי צִוֵּיתִי לִמְקֻדָּשָׁי״, תָּנֵי רַב יוֹסֵף: אֵלּוּ הַפַּרְסִיִּים הַמְקוּדָּשִׁין וּמְזוּמָּנִין לְגֵיהִנָּם.
While they have been praised here regarding certain specific aspects of their conduct, the Gemara proceeds to offer another perspective on the Persians based on a verse describing the destruction of Babylonia at the hands of the Persian and Medean armies: “I have commanded My consecrated ones; I have also called My mighty ones for My anger, even My proudly exulting ones” (Isaiah 13:3). Rav Yosef taught a baraita: These are the Persians who are consecrated and designated for Gehenna, for they have been sent by God to carry out his mission of anger, and they will be sent to Gehenna.
רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר וְכוּ׳: אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה, אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל.
The Gemara returns to explain the mishna, in which we learned that Rabban Gamliel says: One may recite Shema until dawn. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.
תַּנְיָא: רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי אוֹמֵר פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בַּלַּיְלָה, אַחַת קוֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר וְאַחַת לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, וְיוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַחַת שֶׁל יוֹם וְאַחַת שֶׁל לַיְלָה.
It was taught in a baraita: Based on Rabban Gamliel’s ruling, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said: At times, one recites Shema twice at night, once just before dawn and once just after dawn, and he thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night. According to Rabban Gamliel, the Shema that he recited before dawn fulfills his evening obligation and the Shema that he recited after dawn fulfills his morning obligation.
הָא גוּפָא קַשְׁיָא, אָמְרַתְּ: פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בַּלַּיְלָה, אַלְמָא לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר לֵילְיָא הוּא, וַהֲדַר תָּנֵי: יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַחַת שֶׁל יוֹם וְאַחַת שֶׁל לַיְלָה, אַלְמָא יְמָמָא הוּא!
This Tosefta is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: At times one recites Shema twice at night. Apparently, the time just after dawn is still night. And then you taught: He thereby fulfills his obligation to recite Shema one of the day and one of the night. Apparently, the time in question is considered day, as otherwise, he would not have fulfilled his obligation to recite Shema during the day. There is an internal contradiction with regard to the status of the time just after dawn. Is it considered day or night?
לָא — לְעוֹלָם לֵילְיָא הוּא. וְהָא דְּקָרֵי לֵיהּ ״יוֹם״ — דְּאִיכָּא אִינָשֵׁי דְּקָיְימִי בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא.
The Gemara answers: No, there is no contradiction. Actually, the time just after dawn, when it is still dark, is considered night and the fact that it is referred to here as day is because there are people who rise from their sleep at that time and, if the need arises, it can be characterized as bekumekha, when you rise, despite the fact that it is still night.
אָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי.
Rav Aḥa bar Ḥanina said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai.
אִיכָּא דְּמַתְנֵי לְהָא דְּרַב אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אַהָא. דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בַּיּוֹם, אַחַת קוֹדֶם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, וְאַחַת לְאַחַר הַנֵּץ הַחַמָּה, וְיוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אַחַת שֶׁל יוֹם וְאַחַת שֶׁל לַיְלָה.
Some teach this statement of Rav Aḥa bar Ḥanina, in which he ruled that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, with regard to this halakha, which is stylistically similar to the previous halakha. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: At times, one recites Shema twice during the day, once just before sunrise and once just after sunrise, and he thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema: One, that he recites after sunrise, Shema of the day, and one, that he recites before sunrise, Shema of the night.
הָא גוּפָא קַשְׁיָא. אָמְרַתְּ פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם קוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים בַּיּוֹם, אַלְמָא קוֹדֶם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה יְמָמָא הוּא, וַהֲדַר תָּנֵי יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַחַת שֶׁל יוֹם וְאַחַת שֶׁל לַיְלָה, אַלְמָא לֵילְיָא הוּא!
This baraita is self-contradictory. Initially, you said: “At times one recites Shema twice during the day.” Apparently, the time just before sunrise is considered day. And then you taught: “He thereby fulfills his dual obligation to recite Shema, one of the day and one of the night.” Apparently, the time in question is considered night, as otherwise, he could not thereby fulfill his obligation to recite Shema during the night.
שנים מקרא ואחד תרגום. יש מפרשים והוא הדין ללועזות בלע"ז שלהן הוי כמו תרגום שמפרש לפעמים. כי כמו שהתרגום מפרש לע''ה כך הם מבינים מתוך הלע''ז. ולא נהירא שהרי התרגום מפרש במה שאין ללמוד מן העברי כדאשכחן בכמה דוכתי דאמר רב יוסף (מגילה ד' ג.) אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא ידענא מאי קאמר ע''כ אין לומר בשום לשון בעם שלישית כי אם בלשון תרגום:
Verses twice and translation (Targum, i.e. Aramaic translation) once - Some explain that the requirement [of reading a translation] applies to foreigners in their (native) language, as it is like (Aramaic) Targum that sometimes explains the verses. Because, just as the (Aramaic) Targum explains [the verses] to the Amei Ha'aretz (literally, "People of the Land"), so too, foreigners understand [the translation of the verses] through their native tongue. However, this does not appear [to be a correct], since the (Aramaic) Targum explains items that cannot be understood from the Hebrew, as can be found in many places. [For example], Rabbi Yosef said, (Megillah 3a) "If it were not for the (Aramaic) Targum of this verse, I would not know what it is speaking of." Therefore, one should not recite [the translation] in any language the third time (i.e. after the verses are read in Hebrew twice), except for the language of the (Aramaic) Targum.