Berakhot 39bברכות ל״ט ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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39bל״ט ב

אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא מְבָרֵךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בּוֹצֵעַ

Rather, Rava said: When breaking bread, one recites the blessing over the complete loaf and only afterwards, he breaks it.

נְהַרְדָּעֵי עָבְדִי כְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא וְרַבָּנַן עָבְדִי כְּרָבָא אָמַר רָבִינָא אָמְרָה לִי אֵם אֲבוּךְ עָבֵיד כְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא צָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּכְלֶה בְּרָכָה עִם הַפַּת וְרַבָּנַן עָבְדִי כְּרָבָא וְהִלְכְתָא כְּרָבָא דְּאָמַר מְבָרֵךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בּוֹצֵעַ:

The Gemara relates: The Sages of Neharde’a acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥiyya and would recite the blessing as they were breaking the bread and conclude the blessing as he finished breaking off the piece of bread. And the Rabbis acted in accordance with the opinion of Rava and would recite the blessing before breaking the bread. Ravina said: My mother told me: Your father acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ḥiyya, as Rabbi Ḥiyya said: The blessing must conclude with the beginning of the breaking of the loaf of bread. And the Rabbis acted in accordance with the opinion of Rava. The Gemara concludes: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rava, who said one recites the blessing over the complete loaf and only afterwards he breaks it.

אִיתְּמַר הֵבִיאוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם פְּתִיתִין וּשְׁלֵמִין אָמַר רַב הוּנָא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפְּתִיתִין וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַשְּׁלֵמִין וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שְׁלֵמָה מִצְוָה מִן הַמּוּבְחָר אֲבָל פְּרוּסָה שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׁלֵמָה מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִין דִּבְרֵי הַכֹּל מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפְּרוּסָה שֶׁל חִטִּין וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַשְּׁלֵמָה שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִין

It was stated that there was an amoraic dispute with regard to whether to recite the blessing over a whole loaf of bread or to recite it over a piece of bread: If they brought pieces and whole loaves of bread before those partaking of a meal, Rav Huna said: One may recite the blessing over the pieces and with that blessing exempts the whole loaves as well. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The optimal manner in which to fulfill the mitzva is to recite the blessing over the whole loaf. However, if the piece was of wheat bread and the whole loaf was of barley bread, everyone agrees that one recites a blessing over the piece of wheat bread. Although it is a piece of bread, it is nevertheless of superior quality, and in so doing one exempts the whole loaf of barley bread.

אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בַּר אַבָּא כְּתַנָּאֵי תּוֹרְמִין בָּצָל קָטָן שָׁלֵם אֲבָל לֹא חֲצִי בָּצָל גָּדוֹל רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי אֶלָּא חֲצִי בָּצָל גָּדוֹל מַאי לָאו בְּהָא קָמִיפַּלְגִי דְּמָר סָבַר חָשׁוּב עָדִיף וּמָר סָבַר שָׁלֵם עָדִיף

Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said that the dispute between Rav Huna and Rabbi Yoḥanan is parallel to a tannaitic dispute with regard to the halakhot of teruma. We learned: Even though the onions from which the teruma must be separated are divided equally between the two, one separates teruma from a whole small onion but not from half of a large onion. Rabbi Yehuda says: No, rather, he separates teruma from half of a large onion. What, is it not that they disagree over this point, that one Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, held that the more significant takes precedence; therefore half of a large onion which is of superior quality is preferable, and the first tanna held that the whole item takes precedence?

הֵיכָא דְּאִיכָּא כֹּהֵן כּוּלֵּי עָלְמָא לָא פְּלִיגִי דְּחָשׁוּב עָדִיף כִּי פְּלִיגִי דְּלֵיכָּא כֹּהֵן דִּתְנַן כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּהֵן תּוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה וְכׇל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין כֹּהֵן תּוֹרֵם מִן הַמִּתְקַיֵּים רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אֵין תּוֹרֵם אֶלָּא מִן הַיָּפֶה

The Gemara rejects this comparison: Where there is a priest who can immediately take the teruma from him, everyone agrees that more significant takes precedence. When they disagree is in a case where there is no priest there, as we learned in a mishna: Everywhere that there is a priest, one separates teruma from the best, and whenever there is no priest, one separates teruma from that which will endure, so that when a priest ultimately receives it, he will be able to derive benefit from it. Rabbi Yehuda says: One always separates teruma only from the best, even though it is not the longest-lasting.

אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק וִירֵא שָׁמַיִם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן וּמַנּוּ מָר בְּרֵיהּ דְּרָבִינָא דְּמָר בְּרֵיהּ דְּרָבִינָא מַנִּיחַ פְּרוּסָה בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁלֵמָה וּבוֹצֵעַ

With regard to the dispute between Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rav Huna, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: A God-fearing individual fulfills both. And who is this God-fearing person? Mar, son of Ravina, as the Gemara relates that Mar, son of Ravina, would place the piece inside the whole loaf and break them together.

תָּנֵי תַּנָּא קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק מַנִּיחַ הַפְּרוּסָה בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁלֵמָה וּבוֹצֵעַ וּמְבָרֵךְ אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה שִּׁמְךָ אֲמַר לֵיהּ שַׁלְמַן אֲמַר לֵיהּ שָׁלוֹם אַתָּה וּשְׁלֵמָה מִשְׁנָתְךָ שֶׁשַּׂמְתָּ שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הַתַּלְמִידִים

Similarly, the Gemara relates that the tanna recited a baraita before Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: One places the piece inside the whole loaf, then breaks the bread and recites a blessing. Rav Naḥman said to him: What is your name? He answered: Shalman. Rav Naḥman replied with a pun: You are peace [shalom] and the teaching that you recited is complete [shelema] as by means of this baraita the disputing opinions are reconciled and you established peace among students.

אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא הַכֹּל מוֹדִים בְּפֶסַח שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ פְּרוּסָה בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֵמָה וּבוֹצֵעַ מַאי טַעְמָא לֶחֶם עֹנִי כְּתִיב

This resolution is reinforced in a unique case, as Rav Pappa said: Everyone agrees that while fulfilling the mitzva of eating matza on Passover, one places the piece inside the whole and breaks. What is the reason? With regard to matza the phrase “Bread of affliction” (Deuteronomy 16:3) is written, and the poor typically eat their bread in pieces. Therefore, eating matza on Passover evening, the broken matza is also significant.

אֲמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא וּבְשַׁבָּת חַיָּיב אָדָם לִבְצוֹעַ עַל שְׁתֵּי כִכָּרוֹת מַאי טַעְמָא לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה כְּתִיב

In connection to the various halakhot with regard to breaking bread, especially on Festivals, the Gemara cites another halakha. Rabbi Abba said: And on Shabbat one is obligated to break bread for the meal over two loaves. What is the reason? Because in the Torah portion that discusses gathering manna on Friday for Shabbat, the phrase: “Twice as much bread” (Exodus 16:22) is written. To commemorate this, Shabbat meals are based on two loaves of bread.

אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי חֲזֵינָא לֵיהּ לְרַב כָּהֲנָא דְּנָקֵיט תַּרְתֵּי וּבָצַע חֲדָא רַבִּי זֵירָא הֲוָה בָּצַע אַכּוֹלָּא שֵׁירוּתָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבִינָא לְרַב אָשֵׁי וְהָא קָא מִתְחֲזֵי כְּרַעַבְתָנוּתָא אֲמַר [לֵיהּ] כֵּיוָן דְּכָל יוֹמָא לָא קָעָבֵיד הָכִי וְהָאִידָּנָא קָא עָבֵיד לָא מִתְחֲזֵי כְּרַעַבְתָנוּתָא

With regard to the manner in which these two loaves are to be broken, Rav Ashi said: I saw Rav Kahana who would take two loaves and break one. Rabbi Zeira would break off one large piece from the loaf, and eat from it for the entire Shabbat meal. Ravina said to Rav Ashi about this: Doesn’t it appear gluttonous for one to break off so large a piece? Rav Ashi said to him: Since every other day he does not do so, and today he does, it does not appear gluttonous, but rather in deference to the mitzva of the Shabbat meals.

רַב אַמֵּי וְרַב אַסִּי כִּי הֲוָה מִתְרְמֵי לְהוּ רִיפְתָּא דְעֵרוּבָא מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהּ הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ אָמְרִי הוֹאִיל וְאִתְעֲבִיד בֵּיהּ מִצְוָה חֲדָא נַעֲבֵיד בֵּיהּ מִצְוָה אַחֲרִיתִי

With regard to eating on Shabbat, the Gemara relates: Rav Ami and Rav Asi, when the opportunity to use the bread of the eiruv in the Shabbat meal would present itself, they would recite: Who brings forth bread from the earth over it. They said in explanation: Since one mitzva was performed with it, we will perform another mitzva with it.