אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבִינָא לְרָבָא: הִלְכְתָא מַאי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ, כִּי קִידּוּשׁ: מָה קִידּוּשׁ אַף עַל גַּב דִּמְקַדֵּשׁ בִּצְלוֹתָא מְקַדֵּשׁ אַכָּסָא, אַף הַבְדָּלָה נָמֵי, אַף עַל גַּב דְּמַבְדֵּיל בִּצְלוֹתָא מַבְדֵּיל אַכָּסָא.
There are conflicting opinions with regard to reciting havdala over the cup of wine after reciting it in the Amida prayer. One opinion holds that it is appropriate to recite havdala a second time, while the other holds that it is prohibited. Ravina said to Rava: What is the halakha? Rava said to him: The halakha in the case of havdala is like the halakha in the case of kiddush. Just as in the case of kiddush, although one recited kiddush in the Amida prayer he must, nevertheless, recite kiddush again over the cup of wine, so too with havdala, although one recited havdala in the Amida prayer he must recite havdala again over the cup of wine.
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: בְּ״הוֹדָאָה״.
The mishna states that Rabbi Eliezer says: It is recited in the seventeenth blessing of the Amida prayer, the blessing of thanksgiving.
רַבִּי זֵירָא הֲוָה רְכִיב חֲמָרָא, הֲוָה קָא שָׁקֵיל וְאָזֵיל רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אָבִין בָּתְרֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: וַדַּאי דְּאָמְרִיתוּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִין.
The Gemara cites the conclusion with regard to this halakha by relating a story: Rabbi Zeira was riding a donkey while Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin was coming and walking after him. He said to him: Is it true that you said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer in the case of a Festival that occurs directly after Shabbat? Since in that case, one cannot recite havdala in the blessing of Who graciously grants knowledge, as it is not included in the Amida prayer on the Festival, there is no alternative but to adopt Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling. He said to him: Yes.
הֲלָכָה — מִכְלָל דִּפְלִיגִי?
The Gemara wonders: Saying that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, indicates that his peers dispute his opinion. Where do we find that dispute?
וְלָא פְּלִיגִי? וְהָא פְּלִיגִי רַבָּנַן.
The Gemara rejects this: And don’t they dispute his opinion? Don’t the Rabbis dispute his opinion, as, in their opinion the blessing of havdala is recited in the blessing: Who graciously grants knowledge?
אֵימַר דִּפְלִיגִי רַבָּנַן בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת מִי פְּלִיגִי?
The Gemara replies: Say that the Rabbis dispute Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion during the rest of the days of the year, when the option to recite havdala in the blessing: Who graciously grants knowledge exists, but in the case of a Festival that occurs directly after Shabbat, do they dispute his opinion? The Rabbis would agree with him in that case.
וְהָא פְּלִיג רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא!
The Gemara continues: Doesn’t Rabbi Akiva dispute his opinion? He holds that havdala is recited as an independent fourth blessing, in which case there is a dispute.
אַטּוּ כׇּל הַשָּׁנָה כּוּלָּהּ מִי עָבְדִינַן כְּרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, דְּהַשְׁתָּא נֵיקוּ וְנַעֲבֵיד כְּווֹתֵיהּ?! כׇּל הַשָּׁנָה כּוּלָּהּ מַאי טַעְמָא לָא עָבְדִינַן כְּרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא — דְּתַמְנֵי סְרֵי תַּקּוּן, תְּשַׁסְרֵי לָא תַּקּוּן. הָכָא נָמֵי, שָׁב תַּקּוּן תַּמְנֵי לָא תַּקּוּן.
The Gemara responds: Is that to say that throughout the entire year we act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva in this matter, so that now, on a Festival that occurs directly after Shabbat, we will stand and act in accordance with his opinion? What is the reason that throughout the whole, entire year, we do not act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? Because the Sages instituted eighteen blessings, they did not institute nineteen blessings. Here, too, the Sages instituted seven blessings, they did not institute eight blessings. Therefore, Rabbi Akiva’s opinion is not taken into consideration in this case.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָאו ״הֲלָכָה״ אִתְּמַר, אֶלָּא ״מַטִּין״ אִתְּמַר.
In response to these questions, Rabbi Zeira said to him that it was not that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer that was stated in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, from which one could infer that there was in fact a dispute; rather it was that one is inclined to favor the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer that was stated in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan.
דְּאִתְּמַר, רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַבֵּנוּ: הֲלָכָה, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ: מַטִּין.
As indeed it was stated that there is a dispute among the Sages in this matter. Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said in the name of Rabbeinu, Rav: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. And some say this statement: One is inclined to favor the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.
רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: מוֹדִים. וְרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר: נִרְאִין.
Rabbi Yoḥanan said that there is no dispute here, and the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Eliezer. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that it was established that Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion appears to be correct.
אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: נְקוֹט דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא בִּידָךְ, דְּדָיֵיק וְגָמַר שְׁמַעְתָּא מִפּוּמָּא דְמָרַהּ שַׁפִּיר כְּרַחֲבָא דְפוּמְבְּדִיתָא.
With regard to this difference of opinion Rabbi Zeira said: Take this statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba in your hand, as he is scrupulous and he learned the halakha well from the mouth of its originator, like the Sage Raḥava from the city Pumbedita. Raḥava was famous for the precision with which he would transmit material that he learned from his teacher.
דְּאָמַר רַחֲבָא אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: הַר הַבַּיִת סְטָיו כָּפוּל הָיָה, וְהָיָה סְטָיו לְפָנִים מִסְּטָיו.
The Gemara cites an example: Raḥava said that Rabbi Yehuda said: The Temple Mount was a double stav, and there was a stav within a stav. Here Raḥava used his Rabbi’s language in describing the structure of the Temple and the rows of columns it contained, a row within a row; but he did not employ the common term itzteba, portico, but rather stav, as he heard it from his Rabbi.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: אֲנָא לָא הַאי יָדַעְנָא וְלָא הַאי יָדַעְנָא, אֶלָּא מִדְּרַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל יָדַעְנָא, דְּתַקִּינוּ לַן מַרְגָּנִיתָא בְּבָבֶל.
Rav Yosef said the conclusive halakha on this topic: I don’t know this and I don’t know that, but I do know from the statements of Rav and Shmuel they have instituted a pearl for us in Babylonia. They established a version that combines the first blessing of the Festival with the formula of havdala, parallel to the opinion of the Rabbis who include havdala in the first blessing that follows the first three blessings. They instituted to recite:
״וַתּוֹדִיעֵנוּ ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת מִשְׁפְּטֵי צִדְקֶךָ וַתְּלַמְּדֵנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֻקֵּי רְצוֹנֶךָ, וַתַּנְחִילֵנוּ זְמַנֵּי שָׂשׂוֹן וְחַגֵּי נְדָבָה, וַתּוֹרִישֵׁנוּ קְדוּשַּׁת שַׁבָּת וּכְבוֹד מוֹעֵד וַחֲגִיגַת הָרֶגֶל. בֵּין קְדוּשַּׁת שַׁבָּת לִקְדוּשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתָּ, וְאֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה קִדַּשְׁתָּ. הִבְדַּלְתָּ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֶת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּקְדוּשָּׁתֶךָ. וַתִּתֶּן לָנוּ וְכוּ׳״.
You have made known to us, Lord our God, Your righteous laws,
and taught us to perform Your will’s decrees.
You have given us as our heritage seasons of joy and Festivals of voluntary offerings.
You have given us as our heritage the holiness of Shabbat, the glory of the festival and the festive offerings of the Pilgrim Festivals.
You have distinguished between the holiness of Shabbat and the holiness of the Festival,
and have made the seventh day holy over the six days of work.
You have distinguished and sanctified Your people Israel with Your holiness,
And You have given us, etc.
מַתְנִי׳ הָאוֹמֵר: ״עַל קַן צִיפּוֹר יַגִּיעוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ״, וְ״עַל טוֹב יִזָּכֵר שְׁמֶךָ״, ״מוֹדִים, מוֹדִים״ — מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ.
MISHNA: Concluding the laws of prayer in this tractate, the mishna raises several prayer-related matters. This mishna speaks of certain innovations in the prayer formula that warrant the silencing of a communal prayer leader who attempts to introduce them in his prayers, as their content tends toward heresy. One who recites in his supplication: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird’s nest, as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (Deuteronomy 22:6–7), so too extend Your mercy to us; and one who recites: May Your name be mentioned with the good or one who recites: We give thanks, we give thanks twice, they silence him.
גְּמָ׳ בִּשְׁלָמָא, ״מוֹדִים, מוֹדִים״ מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ — מִשּׁוּם דְּמֶיחְזֵי כִּשְׁתֵּי רָשׁוּיוֹת. וְ״עַל טוֹב יִזָּכֵר שְׁמֶךָ״ נָמֵי, מַשְׁמַע עַל הַטּוֹבָה וְלֹא עַל הָרָעָה, וּתְנַן: חַיָּיב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה. אֶלָּא ״עַל קַן צִפּוֹר יַגִּיעוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ״ מַאי טַעְמָא?
GEMARA: Our mishna cited three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, they silence one who repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears like he is acknowledging and praying to two authorities. And granted that they also silence one who says: May Your name be mentioned with the good, as clearly he is thanking God only for the good and not for the bad, and we learned in a mishna: One is required to bless God for the bad just as he blesses Him for the good. However, in the case of one who recites: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird’s nest, why do they silence him?
פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ תְּרֵי אָמוֹרָאֵי בְּמַעְרְבָא, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבִין וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זְבִידָא: חַד אָמַר: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֵּטִיל קִנְאָה בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְּרֵאשִׁית. וְחַד אָמַר: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מִדּוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רַחֲמִים, וְאֵינָן אֶלָּא גְּזֵרוֹת.
Two amora’im in Eretz Yisrael disputed this question; Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida; one said that this was because he engenders jealousy among God’s creations, as it appears as though he is protesting the fact that the Lord favored one creature over all others. And one said that this was because he transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, into expressions of mercy, when they are nothing but decrees of the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.
הַהוּא דִּנְחֵית קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבָּה וַאֲמַר: אַתָּה חַסְתָּ עַל קַן צִפּוֹר, אַתָּה חוּס וְרַחֵם עָלֵינוּ. אֲמַר רַבָּה: כַּמָּה יָדַע הַאי צוּרְבָּא מֵרַבָּנָן לְרַצּוֹיֵי לְמָרֵיהּ! אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: וְהָא מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ תְּנַן!
The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabba, and said in his prayers: You have shown mercy to the bird’s nest, now have mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this Torah scholar know to appease the Lord, his Master. Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learn in a mishna that they silence him?
וְרַבָּה נָמֵי, לְחַדּוֹדֵי אַבָּיֵי הוּא דְּבָעֵי.
The Gemara explains: And Rabba too held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because he wanted to hone Abaye’s intellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the scholar, but simply to test his nephew, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about that mishna.
הַהוּא דִּנְחֵית קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, אֲמַר ״הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל הַגִּבּוֹר וְהַנּוֹרָא וְהָאַדִּיר וְהָעִזּוּז וְהַיָּראוּי, הֶחָזָק וְהָאַמִּיץ וְהַוַּדַּאי וְהַנִּכְבָּד״.
With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabbi Ḥanina. He extended his prayer and said: God, the great, mighty, awesome, powerful, mighty, awe-inspiring, strong, fearless, steadfast and honored.
הִמְתִּין לוֹ עַד דְּסַיֵּים. כִּי סַיֵּים אֲמַר לֵיהּ: סַיֵּימְתִּינְהוּ לְכוּלְּהוּ שִׁבְחֵי דְמָרָךְ?! לְמָה לִי כּוּלֵּי הַאי? אֲנַן, הָנֵי תְּלָת דְּאָמְרִינַן אִי לָאו דְּאַמְרִינְהוּ מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא, וַאֲתוֹ אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וְתַקְּנִינְהוּ בִּתְפִלָּה — לָא הֲוֵינַן יְכוֹלִין לְמֵימַר לְהוּ, וְאַתְּ אָמְרַתְּ כּוּלֵּי הַאי וְאָזְלַתְּ! מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ אֶלֶף אֲלָפִים דִּינְרֵי זָהָב, וְהָיוּ מְקַלְּסִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשֶׁל כֶּסֶף. וַהֲלֹא גְּנַאי הוּא לוֹ!
Rabbi Ḥanina waited for him until he completed his prayer. When he finished, Rabbi Ḥanina asked him: Have you concluded all of the praises of your Master? Why do I need all of this superfluous praise? Even these three praises that we recite: The great, mighty and awesome, had Moses our teacher not said them in the Torah and had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated them into the Amida prayer, we would not be permitted to recite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a king who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him for silver ones. Isn’t that deprecatory? All of the praises we could possibly lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance God’s honor.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: הַכֹּל בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם, חוּץ מִיִּרְאַת שָׁמַיִם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ שׁוֹאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם לְיִרְאָה״.
Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi Ḥanina concerning principles of faith. And Rabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven. Man has free will to serve God or not, as it is stated: “And now Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your God, to walk in all of His ways, to love Him and to serve the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The Lord asks man to perform these matters because ultimately, the choice is in his hands.
אַטּוּ יִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם מִילְּתָא זוּטַרְתָּא הִיא? וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי: אֵין לוֹ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּבֵית גְּנָזָיו אֶלָּא אוֹצָר שֶׁל יִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״יִרְאַת ה׳ הִיא אוֹצָרוֹ״.
The verse says: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your God. The Gemara asks: Is fear of Heaven a minor matter that it can be presented as if God is not asking anything significant? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina say in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has nothing in his treasury other than a treasure of fear of Heaven, as it is stated: “Fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6). The Lord values and treasures fear of Heaven over all else.
אִין, לְגַבֵּי מֹשֶׁה מִילְּתָא זוּטַרְתָּא הִיא. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: מָשָׁל לְאָדָם שֶׁמְבַקְּשִׁים מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלִי גָּדוֹל, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ — דּוֹמֶה עָלָיו כִּכְלִי קָטָן. קָטָן, וְאֵין לוֹ — דּוֹמֶה עָלָיו כִּכְלִי גָּדוֹל.
The Gemara responds: Indeed, for Moses fear of Heaven is a minor matter. As Rabbi Ḥanina stated: It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he has one, it seems to him like a small vessel because he owns it. However, one who is asked for just a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel. Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter.
״מוֹדִים מוֹדִים״ מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ.
We learned in the mishna if one repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, they silence him.
אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: כׇּל הָאוֹמֵר ״שְׁמַע שְׁמַע״ — כְּאוֹמֵר ״מוֹדִים מוֹדִים״ דָּמֵי.
Rabbi Zeira said: One who repeats himself while reciting Shema and says: Listen Israel, Listen Israel is like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks.
מֵיתִיבִי: הַקּוֹרֵא אֶת שְׁמַע וְכוֹפְלָהּ — הֲרֵי זֶה מְגוּנֶּה. מְגוּנֶּה הוּא דְּהָוֵי, שַׁתּוֹקֵי לָא מְשַׁתְּקִינַן לֵיהּ!
The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema and repeats it, it is reprehensible. One may infer: It is reprehensible, but they do not silence him.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא, דְּאָמַר מִילְּתָא מִילְּתָא וְתָנֵי לַהּ. וְהָא, דְּאָמַר פְּסוּקָא פְּסוּקָא וְתָנֵי לֵיהּ.
The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; this case, where although it is reprehensible when one repeats Shema, they do not silence him, is referring to one who recites and repeats each individual word as he says it. In so doing he ruins the recitation of Shema. However, this case, where Rabbi Zeira holds that one who repeats Shema they silence him, refers to one who recites and repeats an entire verse, as it appears that he is worshiping separate authorities.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב פָּפָּא לְאַבָּיֵי: וְדִילְמָא מֵעִיקָּרָא לָא כַּוֵּון דַּעְתֵּיהּ, וּלְבַסּוֹף כַּוֵּון דַּעְתֵּיהּ?
Rav Pappa said to Abaye with regard to this halakha: And perhaps initially he did not focus his attention on the recitation of Shema, so he repeated it and ultimately he focused his attention as he recited it the second time?
Abaye said to him: