Berakhot 14b:4ברכות י״ד ב:ד
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14bי״ד ב

״וַה׳ אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת״.

“And the Lord, God, is True” (Jeremiah 10:10).

חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר ״אֱמֶת״, אוֹ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר ״אֱמֶת״?

After the conclusion of the final paragraph of Shema along with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [Hashem Eloheikhem emet],” the question is posed: Does one repeat emet when he begins the blessing of emet veyatziv, or does he not repeat emet?

אָמַר רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר ״אֱמֶת״. רַבָּה אָמַר: אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר ״אֱמֶת״. הָהוּא דִּנְחֵית קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבָּה. שַׁמְעֵיהּ רַבָּה דְּאָמַר ״אֱמֶת״ ״אֱמֶת״ תְּרֵי זִימְנֵי. אֲמַר רַבָּה: כֹּל ״אֱמֶת״ ״אֱמֶת״ תַּפְסֵיהּ לְהַאי.

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He repeats emet. Rabba said: He does not repeat emet. The Gemara relates: This person who descended to lead the service before Rabba, Rabba heard that he said emet, emet twice. Rabba mocked him and said: Every emet, emet has caught this one; he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth.

אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: כַּמָּה מְעַלְּיָא הָא שְׁמַעְתְּתָא, דְּכִי אֲתָא רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יְהוּדָה אֲמַר: אָמְרִי בְּמַעְרְבָא עַרְבִית — ״דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם אֲנִי ה׳ אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֱמֶת״.

Rav Yosef said: How excellent is this tradition that I heard, as when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: In Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayer they do not recite the entire third portion of Shema, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, they say a condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: “Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True” (Numbers 15:38, 41).

אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: מַאי מְעַלְּיוּתָא? וְהָא אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא אָמַר רַב: לֹא יַתְחִיל, וְאִם הִתְחִיל — גּוֹמֵר. וְכִי תֵּימָא ״וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם״ לָא הָוֵי הַתְחָלָה — וְהָאָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר רַב: ״דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל״ לָא הָוֵי הַתְחָלָה, ״וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם״ הָוֵי הַתְחָלָה.

Abaye said to him: What is excellent about this tradition? Didn’t Rav Kahana say that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it? And if you say that: Speak to the children of Israel and say to them, is not considered the beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak say that Rav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is not considered a beginning of the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; and say to them, is considered a beginning.

אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: קָסָבְרִי בְּמַעְרְבָא ״וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם״ נָמֵי לָא הָוְיָא הַתְחָלָה עַד דְּאָמַר ״וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִית״.

Rav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they hold that and say to them, is not considered a beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes.

אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: הִלְכָּךְ, אֲנַן אַתְחוֹלֵי מַתְחֲלִינַן, דְּקָא מַתְחֲלִי בְּמַעְרְבָא, וְכֵיוָן דְּאַתְחֲלִינַן — מִגְמָר נָמֵי גָּמְרִינַן. דְּהָא אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא אָמַר רַב לֹא יַתְחִיל, וְאִם הִתְחִיל גּוֹמֵר.

Abaye said: Therefore, we begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes, since they begin to recite it in Eretz Yisrael. And once we begin to recite it, we complete it as well, as Rav Kahana said that Rav said: One should not begin to recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, but if he does begin, he completes it.

חִיָּיא בַּר רַב אָמַר: אָמַר ״אֲנִי ה׳ אֱלֹהֵיכֶם״, צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר ״אֱמֶת״. לֹא אָמַר ״אֲנִי ה׳ אֱלֹהֵיכֶם״ — אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר ״אֱמֶת״.

Ḥiyya bar Rav said: If in the evening one recited the portion of ritual fringes concluding with: I am the Lord, your God, he must recite: True and Faithful [emet ve’emuna], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, if he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite emet ve’emuna.

וְהָא בָּעֵי לְאַדְכּוֹרֵי יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם!

The Gemara asks: Isn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egypt at night as well?

דְּאָמַר הָכִי: ״מוֹדִים אֲנַחְנוּ לָךְ ה׳ אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁהוֹצֵאתָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּפְדִיתָנוּ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים וְעָשִׂיתָ לָנוּ נִסִּים וּגְבוּרוֹת עַל הַיָּם וְשַׁרְנוּ לָךְ״.

The Gemara responds: In place of reciting emet ve’emuna he said the following shorter passage: We give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You, as this formula includes all of the content comprising emet ve’emuna.

אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קׇרְחָה: לָמָּה קָדְמָה פָּרָשַׁת ״שְׁמַע״ וְכוּ׳.

We learned in the mishna: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of Shema precede that of VeHaya im Shamoa? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot.

תַּנְיָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי אוֹמֵר: בַּדִּין הוּא שֶׁיַּקְדִּים ״שְׁמַע״, לִ״וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ״ — שֶׁזֶּה לִלְמוֹד, וְזֶה לְלַמֵּד. ״וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ״ לְ״וַיֹּאמֶר״ — שֶׁזֶּה לִלְמוֹד, וְזֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת.

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai offers a different explanation for the order of the portions of Shema. He says: By right, Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the Shema includes the directive to learn, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach. Similarly, VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer, the final paragraph of Shema, because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directive to teach, while the portion of ritual fringes includes the directive to perform.

אַטּוּ ״שְׁמַע״ — לִלְמוֹד אִית בֵּיהּ, לְלַמֵּד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לֵית בֵּיהּ?! וְהָא כְּתִיב: ״וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם״, ״וּקְשַׁרְתָּם״, ״וּכְתַבְתָּם״! וְתוּ: ״וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ״ — לְלַמֵּד הוּא דְּאִית בֵּיהּ, וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לֵית בֵּיהּ? וְהָא כְּתִיב: ״וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם״, ״וּכְתַבְתָּם״!

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the portion of Shema contains the directive to learn but it does not contain the directive to teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach them to your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: “And write them on your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? Furthermore, does VeHaya im Shamoa contain the directive to teach but it does not contain the directive to perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?

אֶלָּא הָכִי קָאָמַר: בַּדִּין הוּא שֶׁתִּקְדַּם ״שְׁמַע״ לִ״וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ״, שֶׁזֶּה לִלְמוֹד וּלְלַמֵּד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת. ״וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמוֹעַ״ לְ״וַיֹּאמֶר״, שֶׁזֶּה יֵשׁ בָּהּ לְלַמֵּד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת, ״וַיֹּאמֶר״ אֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּלְבַד.

Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai said as follows: By right, the portion of Shema should precede VeHaya im Shamoa because the portion of Shema includes the directives to learn, to teach, and to perform, while VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform. VeHaya im Shamoa should precede VaYomer because VeHaya im Shamoa includes the directives to teach and to perform, while VaYomer only includes the directive to perform.

וְתִיפּוֹק לֵיהּ מִדְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קׇרְחָה! חֲדָא וְעוֹד קָאָמַר, חֲדָא: כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עוֹל מִצְוֹת, וְעוֹד — מִשּׁוּם דְּאִית בַּהּ הָנֵי מִילֵּי אַחְרָנְיָיתָא.

The Gemara asks: Let him derive this, that the portion of Shema is recited first, from the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. The Gemara responds: He stated one reason and another. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: One reason the portion of Shema is recited first is so that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; and the second reason is because the portion of Shema contains these other elements as well.

רַב מְשִׁי יְדֵיהּ, וּקְרָא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, וְאַנַּח תְּפִילִּין וְצַלִּי. וְהֵיכִי עָבֵיד הָכִי? וְהָתַנְיָא הַחוֹפֵר כּוּךְ לְמֵת בַּקֶּבֶר — פָּטוּר מִקְּרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּמִן הַתְּפִלָּה וּמִן הַתְּפִילִּין וּמִכׇּל מִצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע — עוֹלֶה וְנוֹטֵל יָדָיו, וּמַנִּיחַ תְּפִילִּין, וְקוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, וּמִתְפַּלֵּל.

The Gemara relates: Rav washed his hands, recited Shema, donned phylacteries, and prayed in that order. The Gemara asks: How could he do that? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: One who digs a grave for the dead in the wall of the family burial cave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. When the appointed time for the recitation of Shema arrives, he emerges from the cave, washes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites Shema, and prays.

הָא גוּפָא קַשְׁיָא, רֵישָׁא אָמַר פָּטוּר, וְסֵיפָא חַיָּיב?!

Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: This baraita itself is difficult; it appears to be contradictory. The first clause of the baraita stated that one digging a grave is exempt from the recitation of Shema, and the latter clause stated that he is obligated to emerge and recite Shema

הָא לָא קַשְׁיָא: סֵיפָא בִּתְרֵי, וְרֵישָׁא בְּחַד.

The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. The latter clause of the baraita refers to a case of two individuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite Shema while the other continues digging. The first clause of the baraita refers to a case of one individual digging alone, who may not stop.

מִכׇּל מָקוֹם קַשְׁיָא לְרַב. רַב כְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה סְבִירָא לֵיהּ, דְּאָמַר עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹל מִצְוֹת.

In any case, this baraita contradicts Rav in terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who said that the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven takes precedence and should come first, followed by the acceptance of the yoke of the mitzvot. Therefore, Rav first recited Shema, and only then donned phylacteries.

אֵימַר דַּאֲמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קׇרְחָה — לְהַקְדִּים קְרִיאָה לִקְרִיאָה, קְרִיאָה לַעֲשִׂיָּה מִי שָׁמְעַתְּ לֵיהּ?!

The Gemara challenges: Say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said to give precedence to recitation of the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over recitation of other portions. But did you hear him say the halakha gives precedence to recitation over performance?

וְתוּ, מִי סָבַר לֵיהּ כְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קׇרְחָה? וְהָאָמַר רַב חִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי: זִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין הֲוָה קָאֵימְנָא קַמֵּיהּ דְרַב, וּמַקְדֵּים וּמָשֵׁי יְדֵיהּ, וּמְבָרֵךְ, וּמַתְנֵי לַן פִּרְקִין, וּמַנַּח תְּפִילִּין, וַהֲדַר קָרֵי קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע. וְכִי תֵּימָא: בִּדְלָא מְטָא זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, אִם כֵּן מַאי אַסְהַדְתֵּיהּ דְרַב חִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי?

And furthermore, does Rav really hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited Shema. And if you say: This was when the time for the recitation of Shema had not yet arrived and that is why he donned his phylacteries first, then what is the point of the testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi?

לְאַפּוֹקֵי מִמַּאן דְּאָמַר לַמִּשְׁנָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ, קָמַשְׁמַע לַן דְּאַף לְמִשְׁנָה נָמֵי צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ.

The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes to exclude the opinion of the one who said that one need not recite the blessing on Torah study for the study of mishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing.

מִכׇּל מָקוֹם קַשְׁיָא לְרַב! שְׁלוּחָא הוּא דְּעַוֵּית.

In any case this baraita is difficult for Rav. The Gemara responds: The messenger was at fault and brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited Shema at its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.

אָמַר עוּלָּא: כָּל הַקּוֹרֵא קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע בְּלֹא תְּפִילִּין, כְּאִילּוּ מֵעִיד עֵדוּת שֶׁקֶר בְּעַצְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: כְּאִילּוּ הִקְרִיב עוֹלָה בְּלֹא מִנְחָה, וְזֶבַח בְּלֹא נְסָכִים.

With regard to the recitation of Shema without phylacteries, Ulla said: Anyone who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself, as in Shema, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona). Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who recites Shema without phylacteries, it is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations. Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete.

וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: הָרוֹצֶה שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם שְׁלֵמָה

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven