דְּקָמְתַקֵּן מָנָא, בָּאוּר נָמֵי קָא מְתַקֵּן מָנָא! תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּיא: חוֹתְכָהּ בָּאוּר בְּפִי שְׁתֵּי נֵרוֹת. אָמַר רַב נָתָן בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב: מוֹחֲטִין אֶת הַפְּתִילָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב. מַאי ״מוֹחֲטִין״? אָמַר רַב חֲנִינָא בַּר שֶׁלֶמְיָא (מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב): לְעַדּוֹיֵי חוּשְׁכָא. Is it because he thereby mends a vessel? If so, when one cuts it in the fire, he is also preparing a vessel for use. Rabbi Ḥiyya taught in explanation: He cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles. In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: One may moḥet a wick on a Festival. The term moḥet was unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: What is the meaning of the word moḥet? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark; in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly.
תָּנֵי בַּר קַפָּרָא: שִׁשָּׁה דְּבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בִּפְתִילָה. שְׁלֹשָׁה לְהַחְמִיר, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לְהָקֵל. לְהַחְמִיר: אֵין גּוֹדְלִין אוֹתָהּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְאֵין מְהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתָהּ בָּאוּר, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין אוֹתָהּ לִשְׁנַיִם. לְהָקֵל: מְמַעֲכָהּ בַּיָּד, וְשׁוֹרָהּ בְּשֶׁמֶן, וְחוֹתְכָהּ בָּאוּר בְּפִי שְׁתֵּי נֵרוֹת. Bar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard to the halakhot of a wick on a Festival, three of which are to be stringent and three of which are to be lenient. The three halakhot to be stringent are: One may not spin or twist it ab initio on a Festival, and one may not singe it in fire before lighting it so that it will burn well, and one may not cut it into two. The three halakhot to be lenient are: One may crush it by hand, as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; and one may soak it in oil so that it will later burn well; and one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles.
וְאָמַר רַב נָתָן בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב: עַתִּירֵי בָּבֶל, יוֹרְדֵי גֵיהִנָּם הֵם. כִּי הָא דְּשַׁבְּתַאי בַּר מָרִינוּס אִקְּלַע לְבָבֶל, בְּעָא מִנַּיְיהוּ עִסְקָא — וְלָא יְהַבוּ לֵיהּ. מְזוֹנֵי מֵיזָן — נָמֵי לָא זַיְנוּהוּ. § After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: The wealthy Jews of Babylonia will descend to Gehenna because they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents such as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requested their participation in a business venture, to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, and they did not give it to him. Furthermore, when he asked them to sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him.
אָמַר: הָנֵי מֵעֵרֶב רַב קָא אָתוּ, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְנָתַן לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ״, כׇּל הַמְרַחֵם עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת — בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מִזַּרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, וְכׇל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְרַחֵם עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת — בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ. He said: These wealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, but they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you, and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: Anyone who has compassion for God’s creatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassion for God’s creatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father. Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
וְאָמַר רַב נָתָן בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר רַב: כׇּל הַמְצַפֶּה עַל שֻׁלְחַן אֲחֵרִים — עוֹלָם חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״נוֹדֵד הוּא לַלֶּחֶם אַיֵּה יָדַע כִּי נָכוֹן בְּיָדוֹ יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ״. רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר: אַף חַיָּיו אֵינָן חַיִּים. This is another teaching that Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: Whoever looks to the table of others for his sustenance, the world is dark for him. Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, for it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand” (Job 15:23). Rav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life, as he receives no satisfaction from it.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שְׁלֹשָׁה חַיֵּיהֶן אֵינָם חַיִּים, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: הַמְצַפֶּה לְשֻׁלְחַן חֲבֵירוֹ, וּמִי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ מוֹשֶׁלֶת עָלָיו, וּמִי שֶׁיִּסּוּרִין מוֹשְׁלִין בְּגוּפוֹ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא חָלוּק אֶחָד. וְתַנָּא קַמָּא: אֶפְשָׁר דִּמְעַיֵּין בְּמָנֵיהּ. In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: There are three whose lives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of others for his sustenance; and one whose wife rules over him; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe. Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: And the first tanna, who did not include such a person, maintains: It is possible for him to examine his clothes and remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering.
מַתְנִי׳ אֵין שׁוֹבְרִין אֶת הַחֶרֶס, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין הַנְּיָיר לִצְלוֹת בּוֹ מָלִיחַ. MISHNA: One may not break earthenware on a Festival. And one may not cut paper in order to roast salted fish on it. Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat.
וְאֵין גּוֹרְפִין תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם, אֲבָל מְכַבְּשִׁין. And one may not sweep out anything that has fallen into an oven or stove that interferes with the baking, such as plaster. But one may press down and flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly.
וְאֵין מַקִּיפִין שְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת לִשְׁפּוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה, וְאֵין סוֹמְכִין אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה בַּבְּקַעַת, וְכֵן בַּדֶּלֶת. וְאֵין מַנְהִיגִין אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה בַּמַּקֵּל בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר. And one may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them, so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. And one may not prop a pot that does not stand straight with a piece of wood, in order to prevent it from falling. And similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stick in the public domain on a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permits it.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי טַעְמָא — מִשּׁוּם דְּקָא מְתַקֵּן מָנָא. GEMARA: With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: What is the reason for this prohibition? Because one is thereby preparing a vessel for use.
וְאֵין גּוֹרְפִין תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם. תָּנֵי רַב חִיָּיא בַּר יוֹסֵף קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן: וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱפוֹת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן גּוֹרְפוֹ — מוּתָּר. דְּבֵיתְהוּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא נְפַל לַהּ אֲרִיחָא בְּתַנּוּרָא בְּיוֹמָא טָבָא, אֲמַר לַהּ רַבִּי חִיָּיא: חֲזַי, דַּאֲנָא רִפְתָּא מְעַלַּיְיתָא בָּעֵינָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְשַׁמָּעֵיהּ: טְוִי לִי בַּר אֲווֹזָא, וְאִזְדְּהַר מֵחֲרוֹכָא. It was taught in the mishna: And one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted. The Gemara relates an incident with regard to the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell into her oven on a Festival, preventing her from baking. Rav Ḥiyya said to her: See, you should know that I want good-quality bread. He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, Rava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duck in an oven, and be careful not to singe it. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבִינָא לְרַב אָשֵׁי: אָמַר לַן רַב אַחָא מֵהוּצָל, דְּמָר שָׁרְקִין לֵיהּ תַּנּוּרָא בְּיוֹמָא טָבָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֲנַן אַרַקְתָּא דִפְרָת סָמְכִינַן, וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי הוּא דְּצַיְּירֵיהּ מֵאֶתְמוֹל. אָמַר רָבִינָא: וְקִטְמָא — שְׁרֵי. In a related case, Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master, Rav Ashi, allows his attendants to plaster the mouth of the oven for him on a Festival. This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? He said to him: We rely on the bank of the Euphrates River. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: And this applies only when one wrapped or made some mark on the mud the day before, so that it not be muktze. Ravina said: And as for kneading with ashes for this purpose, it is permitted, since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.
וְאֵין מַקִּיפִין שְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן: אֲבָנִים שֶׁל בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא, מוּתָּר לְצַדְּדָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֵיתִיבֵיהּ רַבָּה לְרַב נַחְמָן: אֵין מַקִּיפִין שְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת לִשְׁפּוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: שָׁאנֵי הָתָם, מִשּׁוּם דְּקָא עָבֵיד אֻהְלָא. § It was taught in the mishna: One may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them. Rav Naḥman said: With regard to large stones of a lavatory, upon which one sits to attend to his needs, it is permitted to put them together in the proper manner, so that they may be used on a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman: Wasn’t it taught that one may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them? This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. He said to him: There, with regard to barrels, it is different, because one makes a tent. It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבָּה זוּטָא, לְרַב אָשֵׁי: אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה, בָּנָה אִצְטְבָא בְּיוֹם טוֹב, דְּלָא עָבֵיד אֻהְלָא — הָכִי נָמֵי דִּשְׁרֵי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הָתָם, בִּנְיַן קֶבַע אָסְרָה תּוֹרָה, בִּנְיַן עֲרַאי לָא אָסְרָה תּוֹרָה. וּגְזַרוּ רַבָּנַן עַל בִּנְיַן עֲרַאי מִשּׁוּם בִּנְיַן קֶבַע, וְהָכָא מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹדוֹ לָא גְּזַרוּ בֵּיהּ רַבָּנַן. Rabba the Younger, so called to distinguish him from the more famous amora known as Rabba, said to Rav Ashi: However, if that is so, then if, on a Festival, one built a solid bench [itztaba], without a gap below the seat, a situation in which one does not make a tent, so too, will you say that it is permitted? He said to him: The two cases are not comparable: There, with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, the Torah prohibited erecting a permanent construction, but the Torah did not prohibit erecting a temporary construction. The Sages, however, decreed against creating a temporary construction on a Festival due to a permanent construction. However, here, with regard to a lavatory, due to the dignity of the user, the Sages did not decree with regard to it.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: הַאי מְדוּרְתָּא, מִלְּמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה — שְׁרֵי. מִלְּמַטָּה לְמַעְלָה — אָסוּר. Rav Yehuda said: With regard to this bonfire, in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it from above to below it is permitted, as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, from below to above, it is prohibited, for this is considered building.