Bava Kamma 81aבבא קמא פ״א א
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81aפ״א א

שיהו מרעין בחורשין ומלקטין עצים בשדותיהם ומלקטים עשבים בכל מקום חוץ מתלתן וקוטמים נטיעות בכל מקום חוץ מגרופיות של זית ומעין היוצא בתחילה בני העיר מסתפקין ממנו ומחכין בימה של טבריא ובלבד שלא יפרוס קלע ויעמיד את הספינה

The conditions are that people shall have the right to graze their animals in forests, even on private property; and that they shall have the right to gather wood from each other’s fields, to be used as animal fodder; and that they shall have the right to gather wild vegetation for animal fodder in any place except for a field of fenugreek; and that they shall have the right to pluck off a shoot anywhere for propagation and planting, except for olive shoots; and that the people of the city shall have the right to take supplies of water from a spring on private property, even from a spring that emerges for the first time; and that they shall have the right to fish in the Sea of Tiberias, i.e., the Sea of Galilee, provided that the fisherman does not build an underwater fence to catch fish, thereby causing an impediment to boats.

ונפנין לאחורי הגדר ואפילו בשדה מליאה כרכום ומהלכים בשבילי הרשות עד שתרד רביעה שניה ומסתלקין לצידי הדרכים מפני יתידות הדרכים והתועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד ומת מצוה קונה מקומו:

The baraita continues the list of Joshua’s ten conditions: And people shall have the right to relieve themselves outdoors behind a fence, even in a field that is full of saffron [karkom]; and they shall have the right to walk in permitted paths, i.e., those paths that cut through a private field, throughout the summer until the second rainfall, when crops begin to sprout; and they shall have the right to veer off to the sides of the roads onto private property because of hard protrusions [yeteidot] of the road; and one who becomes lost among the vineyards shall have the right to cut down branches and enter an area of the vineyard, or cut down branches and exit an area of the vineyard, until he finds his way back to the road; and that a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva] acquires its place and is buried where it was found.

שיהו מרעין בחורשין אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא דקה בגסה אבל דקה בדקה וגסה בגסה לא וכל שכן גסה בדקה דלא:

The first condition mentioned in the baraita is that people shall have the right to graze their animals in forests. Rav Pappa said: We said this only with regard to small domesticated animals, i.e., sheep or goats, that graze in a forest of large trees. Small animals grazing in a forest of this kind would not destroy it. But in the case of small animals grazing in a forest with small growth, or large animals, e.g., oxen, grazing in a forest of large trees, these practices are not permitted, as in either of these scenarios the practice would destroy the forest. And, all the more so, it is understood that large animals grazing in a forest with small growth is not permitted.

ומלקטין עצים משדותיהם לא אמרן אלא בהיזמי והיגי אבל בשאר עצים לא ואפילו בהיזמי והיגי לא אמרן אלא במחוברין אבל בתלושין לא

The Gemara discusses the next condition mentioned in the baraita: And that they shall have the right to gather wood from each other’s fields, to be used as animal fodder. The Gemara comments: We said this only with regard to twigs of thorns and shrubs, as the field’s owner does not care about these. But with regard to other types of wood, it is not permitted. And even with regard to twigs of thorns and shrubs, we said this only when they are attached to the ground. But when they have been detached by the owner it is not permitted, as he has already claimed them for himself.

ואפי' במחוברין לא אמרן אלא בלח אבל ביבשים לא ובלבד שלא ישרש:

And even when they are attached we said this only when the twigs are still moist, but when they are completely dry it is not permitted, as the owner requires these for firewood. Moreover, it is permitted only provided that one does not uproot the thorn bush or shrub from the ground, but it is prohibited to pull them out with their roots.

ומלקטין עשבים בכל מקום חוץ משדה תלתן למימרא דתלתן מעלו לה עשבים ורמינהי תלתן שעלתה עם מיני עשבים אין מחייבין אותו לעקור

The Gemara further discusses Joshua’s conditions: And that they shall have the right to gather wild vegetation for animal fodder in any place except for a field of fenugreek. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that wild vegetation is good for fenugreek, and therefore the owner wants it to be left in his field? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna that deals with diverse kinds (Kilayim 2:5): With regard to fenugreek that sprouted alongside various types of wild vegetation, one is not required to uproot the vegetation. Although it is generally prohibited to grow different species of vegetables together in one patch, if the species have a negative impact on each other’s growth, it is not prohibited. In this case the wild vegetation may be left alongside the fenugreek because it is harmful to it, and the halakhot of diverse kinds do not apply in a case of this kind.

אמר רב ירמיה לא קשיא כאן לזרע כאן לזירין לזרע קשו לה עשבים דמכחשי לה לזירין מעלי לה דכי קיימי ביני עשבים מירכבא

Rav Yirmeya said: This is not difficult. Here, the mishna is referring to a case where the fenugreek was planted for its seeds; there, the baraita that lists Joshua’s conditions is referring to fenugreek planted for its stalks. When it is planted for its seeds, wild vegetation is bad for it, as it weakens the fenugreek and lowers its yield. But when it is planted for its stalks, wild vegetation is good for it, as when it is situated among vegetation it climbs on it and thereby grows to a larger size.

איבעית אימא כאן לאדם כאן לבהמה דכיון דלבהמה הוא דזרעה עשבים נמי מיבעי לה ומנא ידעינן א"ר פפא שאריה משארי לאדם לא שאריה משארי לבהמה:

If you wish, say instead another answer: Here, the mishna is referring to a case where the fenugreek was planted for human consumption; and there, the baraita is referring to fenugreek planted for animal consumption. Since the owner sowed the fenugreek for animal consumption, the wild vegetation is also required by him, as this too can be used for animal fodder. And how can we know if a particular fenugreek field was planted for human or animal consumption, and thereby know whether the vegetation may be picked and taken? Rav Pappa said: If he planted it in rows [mesharei], it is for human consumption; if he did not plant in rows but planted haphazardly, it is for animal consumption.

וקוטמין נטיעה בכל מקום חוץ מגרופיות של זית פי' ר' תנחום ור' ברייס משום זקן אחד בזית כביצה בקנים ובגפנים מן הפקק ולמעלה ושאר כל האילנות מן אובו של אילן ולא מן חודו של אילן

The baraita teaches: And that they shall have the right to pluck off a shoot anywhere for propagation and planting, except for olive shoots, as this would cause damage to the olive tree. Rabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes explained this in the name of a certain elder: With regard to olive trees, one must distance himself by the size of an egg from the trunk before detaching a shoot; in the case of reeds and grape vines, he may take shoots only from the place of the first knot and above. And with regard to all other trees, shoots may be taken only from the thick part of the tree, where there are many branches growing, but not from the thin part of the tree.

מן חדש שאינו עושה פירות ולא מן ישן שהוא עושה פירות ממקום שאינו רואה את החמה

Furthermore, one may take from a new branch, which does not yet produce fruit, but not from old branches, which do produce fruit; and one may take from a place that does not face the sun,