from the northernmost province [mehiparkheya] of Eretz Yisrael to the southernmost province of Syria.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אֵין מִשְׂתַּכְּרִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חַיֵּי נֶפֶשׁ כְּגוֹן יֵינוֹת שְׁמָנִים וּסְלָתוֹת
The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit in Eretz Yisrael by buying and reselling items that contain an element of basic sustenance, such as wines, oils, and flours, because this causes their price to rise. Rather, those who grow the produce should sell them in the markets, without recourse to a middleman.
אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שֶׁהָיָה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּיַיִן וָשֶׁמֶן בְּיַיִן סָבַר לַהּ כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּשֶׁמֶן בְּאַתְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שְׁכִיחַ מִישְׁחָא
The Sages said of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya that he would earn a profit through the sale of wine and oil. With regard to wine, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, who says that it is permitted to export wine from Eretz Yisrael despite the fact that this causes it to become more expensive, as drinking wine leads to licentiousness. With regard to oil, in Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s locale oil was common; consequently, there was no concern that its price would rise if it were not sold directly to the consumer.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אֵין מִשְׂתַּכְּרִין פַּעֲמַיִם בְּבֵיצִים אָמַר מָרִי בַּר מָרִי פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל חַד אָמַר עַל חַד תְּרֵי וְחַד אָמַר תַּגָּר לְתַגָּרָא
The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit twice from the sale of eggs. Mari bar Mari said: Rav and Shmuel disagree about the meaning of that statement. One said it means that the seller may not charge double the price he paid for the eggs. And one said that one merchant may not sell to another merchant; rather, the merchant who buys from the owner of the eggs must sell directly to the consumer.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן מַתְרִיעִין עַל פְּרַקְמַטְיָא וַאֲפִילּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת
§ Apropos price fluctuations, the Gemara cites a baraita. The Sages taught: A community sounds the alarm and gathers in public prayer for merchandise [perakmatya] whose price has dropped. And even on Shabbat it is permitted to cry and plead, even though one may not pray for his personal needs on Shabbat, as this hardship affects the entire public.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כְּגוֹן כְּלֵי פִשְׁתָּן בְּבָבֶל וְיַיִן וָשֶׁמֶן בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף וְהוּא דְּזָל וְקָם עַשְׂרָה בְּשִׁיתָּא
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The baraita is referring specifically to merchandise that serves as the basis of the local economy, such as linen garments in Babylonia, and wine and oil in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Yosef said: And that halakha, that public prayer is recited even on Shabbat, applies only when the merchandise was reduced in price and stood at such prices that goods that had been worth ten are currently selling for six.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אֵין יוֹצְאִין מֵאָרֶץ לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָמְדוּ סָאתַיִם בְּסֶלַע אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצֵא לִיקַּח אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁמּוֹצֵא לִיקַּח אֲפִילּוּ עָמְדָה סְאָה בְּסֶלַע לֹא יֵצֵא
The Sages taught: One may not leave Eretz Yisrael to live outside of Eretz Yisrael unless the price of two se’a of grain stood at a sela, which is double its usual price. Rabbi Shimon said: When does this exception, permitting one to leave Eretz Yisrael under certain circumstances, apply? It applies when one is unable to find produce to buy, as he has no money. But when one has money and is able to find produce to buy, even if the price of a se’a of grain stood at a sela, he may not leave.
וְכֵן הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי אוֹמֵר אֱלִימֶלֶךְ מַחְלוֹן וְכִלְיוֹן גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר הָיוּ וּפַרְנְסֵי הַדּוֹר הָיוּ וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נֶעְנְשׁוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מֵאָרֶץ לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתֵּהֹם כׇּל הָעִיר עֲלֵיהֶן וַתֹּאמַרְנָה הֲזֹאת נׇעֳמִי מַאי הֲזֹאת נָעֳמִי אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ חֲזִיתֶם נָעֳמִי שֶׁיָּצָאת מֵאָרֶץ לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ מָה עָלְתָה לָהּ
And Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would likewise say: Elimelech and his sons Mahlon and Chilion were prominent members of their generation and were leaders of their generation. And for what reason were they punished? They were punished because they left Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated concerning Naomi and Ruth: “And all the city was astir concerning them, and the women said: Is this Naomi?” (Ruth 1:19). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: “Is this Naomi”? How does this indicate that her husband and sons were punished for leaving Eretz Yisrael? Rabbi Yitzḥak says that the women said: Have you seen what befell Naomi, who left Eretz Yisrael for outside of Eretz Yisrael? Not only did she not escape tribulations there, but she lost her status entirely.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שֶׁבָּאת רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל בֹּעַז וְהַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי עַד דְּלָא שָׁכֵיב שִׁיכְבָא קָיְימָא מְנוּ בַיְיתֵיהּ
And Rabbi Yitzḥak also says with regard to this passage: That very day when Ruth the Moabite came to Eretz Yisrael, the wife of Boaz died, i.e., from the moment of their arrival the possibility was created for Ruth’s eventual marriage to Boaz. This explains the adage that people say: Before the deceased dies, the person who will next be in charge of his house arises, as in this case Boaz’s new wife, Ruth, arrived as his previous wife died.
אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא אָמַר רַב אִבְצָן זֶה בֹּעַז מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן כִּי אִידַּךְ דְּרַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא דְּאָמַר רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא אָמַר רַב מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מִשְׁתָּאוֹת עָשָׂה בֹּעַז לְבָנָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי לוֹ שְׁלֹשִׁים בָּנִים וּשְׁלֹשִׁים בָּנוֹת שִׁלַּח הַחוּצָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים בָּנוֹת הֵבִיא לְבָנָיו מִן הַחוּץ וַיִּשְׁפֹּט אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים
Apropos the story of Ruth the Gemara adds: Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: The judge Ibzan of Bethlehem (see Judges 12:8–10) is Boaz. The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us? The Gemara explains that this comment is in accordance with the other statement of Rabba bar Rav Huna, as Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: Boaz prepared one hundred and twenty feasts for his children at their weddings. As it is stated, concerning Ibzan: “And he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters he sent abroad, and thirty daughters he brought in from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel seven years” (Judges 12:9). The verse indicates that he had sixty children.
וּבְכׇל אַחַת וְאַחַת עָשָׂה שְׁנֵי מִשְׁתָּאוֹת אֶחָד בְּבֵית אָבִיו וְאֶחָד בְּבֵית חָמִיו וּבְכוּלָּן לֹא זִימֵּן אֶת מָנוֹחַ אָמַר כּוּדָנָא עֲקָרָה בְּמַאי פָּרְעָא לִי
And at each and every wedding he prepared for his children, he made two feasts, one in the house of the father of the groom and one in the house of the father-in-law of the groom. And he did not invite Manoah, the future father of Samson, whose wife was barren (see Judges 13:2) to any of them, as he said: It is not worth inviting him; he is a sterile mule, how will he pay me back? Manoah will never invite me in return, as he has no children.
תָּאנָא וְכוּלָּן מֵתוּ בְּחַיָּיו וְהַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי בְּחַיִּיךְ דִּילַדְתְּ שִׁיתִּין שִׁיתִּין לְמָה לִיךְ אִיכְּפַל וְאוֹלִיד חַד דְּמִשִּׁיתִּין זָרִיז
A Sage taught: And all of the children of Ibzan died during his lifetime. And this explains the adage that people say: Why do you need the sixty, the sixty children that you beget during your lifetime? Go to the trouble and beget one who will be more diligent than sixty. This adage refers to Boaz, who had sixty children who died, and yet his last child, born from Ruth, is his glory, as King David was born from this line.
(סִימָן מָלַךְ אַבְרָהָם עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים שֶׁנִּפְטַר נִתְנַשֵּׂא לְבַדּוֹ) אָמַר רַב חָנָן בַּר רָבָא אָמַר רַב אֱלִימֶלֶךְ וְשַׂלְמוֹן וּפְלוֹנִי אַלְמוֹנִי וַאֲבִי נָעֳמִי כּוּלָּן בְּנֵי נַחְשׁוֹן בֶּן עַמִּינָדָב הֵן מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן שֶׁאֲפִילּוּ מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ זְכוּת אָבוֹת אֵינָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת לוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיּוֹצֵא מֵאָרֶץ לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ
The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing statements that Rav Ḥanan bar Rava said that Rav said: Melech; Abraham; ten years; when he died; and He alone was exalted. Rav Ḥanan bar Rava says that Rav says: With regard to Elimelech, and Boaz’s father, Salmon, and So-and-so, the unnamed relative who was a closer relative to Elimelech than Boaz (Ruth 4:1), and Naomi’s father, all of these are descendants of Nahshon, son of Amminadab, the head of the tribe of Judah (see Ruth 4:20–21 and Numbers 2:3). The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us by this statement? He is teaching that even in the case of one who has the merit of his ancestors to protect him, this merit does not stand for him when he leaves Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as Elimelech died on account of this sin.
וְאָמַר רַב חָנָן בַּר רָבָא אָמַר רַב אִמֵּיהּ דְּאַבְרָהָם אֲמַּתְלַאי בַּת כַּרְנְבוֹ אִמֵּיהּ דְּהָמָן אֲמַּתְלַאי בַּת עוֹרֶבְתִּי וְסִימָנָיךְ טָמֵא טָמֵא טָהוֹר טָהוֹר
And Rav Ḥanan bar Rava says that Rav says: The mother of Abraham was called Amatlai bat Karnevo. The mother of Haman was called Amatlai bat Orevati. And your mnemonic, to ensure that the two are not confused for one another, is that a raven [orev] is impure, and in this manner one remembers that Orevati is the grandmother of the impure Haman, while a sheep [kar] is pure, which indicates that Karnevo is the grandmother of the pure Abraham.
אִמֵּיהּ דְּדָוִד נִצֶּבֶת בַּת עַדְאֵל שְׁמָהּ אִמֵּיהּ דְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן צְלֶלְפּוֹנִית וַאֲחָתֵיהּ נַשְׁיָין לְמַאי נָפְקָא מִינַּהּ לִתְשׁוּבַת הַמִּינִים
Rav Ḥanan bar Rava continues: The mother of David was named Natzvat bat Ada’el. The mother of Samson was named Tzelelponit, and his sister was called Nashyan. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference as to what their names were? The Gemara answers: It is important with regard to an answer for heretics who inquire into the names of these women, which are not stated in the Bible. One can reply that there is a tradition handed down concerning their names.
וְאָמַר רַב חָנָן בַּר רָבָא אָמַר רַב עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים נֶחְבַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ שָׁלֹשׁ בְּכוּתָא וְשֶׁבַע בְּקַרְדּוּ וְרַב דִּימִי מִנְּהַרְדְּעָא מַתְנִי אִיפְּכָא אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא עִיבְרָא זְעֵירָא דְּכוּתָא זֶהוּ אוּר כַּשְׂדִּים
And Rav Ḥanan bar Rava says that Rav says: Our forefather Abraham was imprisoned for ten years, because he rejected the idol worship that was accepted in his land. He was imprisoned for three years in the city of Khuta, and seven years in Karddu. And Rav Dimi of Neharde’a teaches the opposite, that he was imprisoned seven years in Khuta and three in Karddu. Rav Ḥisda said: The small passage of Khuta, this is Ur of the Chaldeans (see Genesis 11:31).
וְאָמַר רַב חָנָן בַּר רָבָא אָמַר רַב אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּפְטַר אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם עָמְדוּ כׇּל גְּדוֹלֵי אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בְּשׁוּרָה וְאָמְרוּ אוֹי לוֹ לָעוֹלָם שֶׁאָבַד
And Rav Ḥanan bar Rava says that Rav says: On that day when our forefather Abraham left the world, the leaders of the nations of the world stood in a line, in the manner of mourners, and said: Woe to the world that has lost