Bava Batra 89b:7בבא בתרא פ״ט ב:ז
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Bava Batra 89b:7"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
89bפ״ט ב

אמר רב פפא דיגרומי

Rav Pappa says: It is a balance scale for blacksmiths, who weigh heavy pieces of metal.

א"ר מני בר פטיש כדרך שאמרו לענין איסורן כך אמרו לענין טומאתן

Rabbi Mani Bar Pattish says: Just as the Sages said with regard to the prohibition of the scales that one may not use a scale that does not meet the criteria listed in the baraita, so too they said that this applies with regard to their ritual impurity. In other words, if the cords and pole are not attached in the proper manner, they are not susceptible to ritual impurity as part of the scale.

מאי קמ"ל תנינא חוט מאזנים של חנוני ושל בעלי בתים טפח קנה ומתנא שלה איצטריכא ליה דלא תנן

The Gemara asks: What is this statement teaching us? We learned in a mishna (Kelim 29:5): With regard to the rope from which the scales are suspended, if the balance scale belongs to a storekeeper or to homeowners it must be one handbreadth in length for it to be susceptible to ritual impurity. Why, then, is the statement of Rabbi Mani Bar Pattish necessary? The Gemara answers: Although the mishna in tractate Kelim discusses the rope from which the scales are suspended, it was still necessary for Rabbi Mani Bar Pattish to mention the halakha with regard to the scale’s lever and cord, which we did not learn about in that mishna.

ת"ר אין עושין משקלות לא של בעץ ולא של אבר ולא של גיסטרון ולא של שאר מיני מתכות אבל עושה הוא של צונמא ושל זכוכית

§ The Sages taught: One may not prepare weights of tin [ba’atz], nor of lead, nor of a metal alloy [gisteron], nor of any other types of metal, because all of these deteriorate over time and the buyer will ultimately pay for more merchandise than he receives. But one may prepare weights of hard rock and of glass.

ת"ר אין עושין המחק של דלעת מפני שהוא קל ולא של מתכת מפני שהוא מכביד אבל עושהו של זית ושל אגוז של שקמה ושל אשברוע

The Sages further taught: One may not prepare the leveler, used to remove the excess from the mouth of a vessel, from a gourd, because it is a light material and does not level effectively, thereby causing a loss for the seller. And it may not be made of metal, because it weighs down and removes too much of the merchandise, leading to a loss for the buyer. But one may prepare it from the wood of an olive tree, or of a nut tree, or of a sycamore tree, or of a boxwood tree,which are of medium weight.

ת"ר אין עושין את המחק צדו אחד עב וצדו אחד קצר לא ימחוק בבת אחת שהמוחק בבת אחת רע למוכר ויפה ללוקח ולא ימחוק מעט מעט שרע ללוקח ויפה למוכר

The Sages taught: One may not prepare the leveler in such a manner that one of its sides is thick and one other side is thin, because in such a case the two sides will not level equally. Furthermore, one may not level all at once, by a single quick movement, as one who levels all at once acts in a manner that is bad for the seller and good for the buyer, because he removes less of the excess than one who levels in the regular fashion. And conversely one may not level little by little, i.e., with several slow movements, as this is bad for the buyer and good for the seller.

על כולן אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אוי לי אם אומר אוי לי אם לא אומר אם אומר שמא ילמדו הרמאין ואם לא אומר שמא יאמרו הרמאין אין תלמידי חכמים בקיאין במעשה ידינו איבעיא להו אמרה או לא אמרה אמר רב שמואל בר רב יצחק אמרה ומהאי קרא אמרה (הושע יד, י) כי ישרים דרכי ה' וצדיקים ילכו בם ופושעים יכשלו בם

Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai said with regard to all these halakhot: Woe to me if I say them, and woe unto me if I do not say them. If I say them, perhaps swindlers will learn new methods of cheating of which they were previously unaware. And if I do not say them, perhaps swindlers will say: Torah scholars are not well versed in our handiwork. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Did Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai decide to say these halakhot in public or did he not say them? Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak says: He said them, and he said them on the basis of this verse: “For the ways of the Lord are right, and the just walk in them; but transgressors stumble over them” (Hosea 14:10).

ת"ר (ויקרא יט, לה) לא תעשו עול במשפט במדה במשקל ובמשורה במדה זו מדידת קרקע שלא ימדוד לאחד בימות החמה ולאחד בימות הגשמים במשקל שלא יטמין משקלותיו במלח במשורה שלא ירתיח

§ The Gemara further discusses weights and measures. The Sages taught: “You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in measure [bammidda], in weight, or in measure [uvamesura]” (Leviticus 19:35). The baraita defines these terms: “In measure [bammidda],” this is referring to measuring land, teaching that in order to measure land in a just manner one may not measure for one person in the summer when the measuring rope has become dry and short, and for one other individual in the rainy season, when the measuring rope is wet and limp, and therefore stretches more. “In weight” means that one may not cover his weights in salt, as salt erodes the weights, causing a loss for the buyer. “Or in measure [bamesura]” means that one may not cause liquid he is measuring to foam by pouring it speedily, as this results in a loss for the buyer, who receives less of the liquid than the amount for which he paid.

וק"ו ומה משורה שהיא אחד משלשים וששה בלוג הקפידה עליו תורה ק"ו להין וחצי הין ושלישית ההין ורביעית ההין ולוג וחצי לוג ורביעית וחצי תומן ועוכלא

The Gemara notes: And it can be inferred by means of an a fortiori inference that if in the case of a mesura, which is a measure equivalent to merely one thirty-sixth of a log, the Torah was particular that one must measure honestly, so too, a fortiori, one must be careful in the case of one hin, and a half-hin, and a third-hin, and a quarter-hin, which is twelve log, and one log, and a half-log, and a quarter-log, and a half-tomen, i.e., one-sixteenth of a kav, and even an ukla, a smaller unit, as defined below.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסור לאדם שישהה מדה חסרה או יתרה בתוך ביתו ואפילו היא עביט של מימי רגלים אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא באתרא דלא חתימי אבל באתרא דחתימי אי לא חזי חתימה לא שקיל ובאתרא דלא חתימי נמי לא אמרן אלא דלא מהנדסי אבל מהנדסי לית לן בה

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: It is prohibited for a person to keep in his house a measure that is too small or too large than its supposed volume or weight, and this is the case even if he does not measure with it but simply uses it as a chamber pot for urine. Rav Pappa said: We said this prohibition only with regard to a place where measures are not stamped with the government’s seal, which confirms that the measure is accurate. But in a place where the measures are stamped, if the buyer does not see the seal he would not take the merchandise. Since they could not be used dishonestly, one is permitted to utilize these measures for other purposes. And in a place where measures are not stamped as well, we said that it is prohibited to keep these measures in one’s house only in a place where they do not inspect measures to see if they are fit for use. But if they do inspect measures, we have no problem with it.

ולא היא זימנין דמיקרי בין השמשות ומיקרי ושקיל תניא נמי הכי לא ישהה אדם מדה חסרה או יתרה בתוך ביתו ואפי' היא עביט של מימי רגלים אבל עושה הוא סאה תרקב וחצי תרקב וקב וחצי קב ורובע ותומן וחצי תומן

The Gemara comments: And that is not so; one is never permitted to keep incorrect measures in his house, as sometimes it happens that one measures at twilight, when people are hurried, and consequently it happens that the buyer takes the merchandise despite the fact that it was measured with an incorrect measure. This is also taught in a baraita: A person may not keep in his house a measure that is too small or too large, even if it is used as a chamber pot for urine. But he may prepare measures in accordance with the established format: Measurements of a se’a; a tarkav, which is three kav or one-half of a se’a; and a half-tarkav, which is one and one-half kav; and a kav; and a half-kav; and a quarter-kav; and a tomen, which is one-eighth of a kav; and a half-tomen;