Arakhin 15aערכין ט״ו א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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15aט״ו א

אילו באו עליה שנים אחד שלא כדרכה ואחד כדרכה יאמרו בעל פגומה חמשים בעל שלמה חמשים

Had two men engaged in forced intercourse with her, one in an atypical manner, i.e., anal intercourse, leaving her hymen untouched, and one in a typical manner, vaginal intercourse, in which case the second man pays the fine, people will say: Does it make sense that one who engaged in forced intercourse with a tainted woman, who has had anal intercourse, pays fifty sela, and one who one who engaged in forced intercourse with an untainted virgin also pays fifty sela? Apparently, the fifty sela is the fixed sum of the fine, while the rest of the payment varies on a case-by-case basis.

א"ל אביי אי הכי גבי עבד נמי יאמרו עבד בריא שלשים עבד מוכה שחין שלשים

Abaye again said to Rav Zeira: If so, the same claim can be applied with regard to a slave who is killed by an ox. People will say: Does it make sense that a healthy slave is worth thirty sela and a slave afflicted with boils is also worth thirty sela? Yet the mishna clearly indicates that there is no distinction, as the Torah states a fixed amount.

אלא אמר אביי אמר קרא (דברים כב, כט) תחת אשר עינה מכלל דאיכא בושת ופגם

Rather, Abaye said that the reason the payment of fifty sela does not cover all forms of damage is that the verse states: “Then the man that lay with her shall give to the young woman’s father fifty silver shekels, and she shall be his wife, because he tormented her; he may not send her away all his days” (Deuteronomy 22:29). This means that the payment is only for the torment, i.e., the rape. It may be inferred that there are additional payments for humiliation and degradation, beyond payment of the fine.

רבא אמר דאמר קרא (דברים כב, כט) ונתן האיש השוכב עמה וגו' הנאת שכיבה חמשים מכלל דאיכא מילתא אחריתי ומאי ניהו בושת ופגם:

Rava says a different answer, that the verse states: “Then the man that lay with her shall give to the young woman’s father fifty silver shekels” (Deuteronomy 22:29). Rava infers from here that payment for the pleasure of lying with the woman is fifty shekel. It may be inferred from here that there are other matters that must be paid by the rapist. And what are they? Compensation for humiliation and degradation.

מתני׳ במוציא שם רע להקל ולהחמיר כיצד אחד שהוציא שם רע על גדולה שבכהונה ועל קטנה שבישראל נותן מאה סלע

MISHNA: There are halakhot with regard to a defamer, who falsely claims that his bride was not a virgin, that are lenient and others that are stringent. How so? Both one who defamed a young woman who is the most prominent in the priesthood and one who defamed a young woman who is the lowliest among the Israelites gives payment of one hundred sela, the fine stated in the Torah (Deuteronomy 22:19).

נמצא האומר בפיו חמור מן העושה מעשה שכן מצינו שלא נתחתם גזר דין על אבותינו במדבר אלא על לשון הרע שנאמר (במדבר יד, כב) וינסו אותי זה עשר פעמים וגו':

Based on the relative scope of the fines, with the defamer paying twice the sum of the rapist and the seducer, it is apparent that one who utters malicious speech with his mouth is a more severe transgressor than one who performs an action. And this is corroborated, as we found that the sentence imposed on our ancestors in the wilderness was sealed only due to the malicious speech disseminated by the spies, as it is stated at that time: “All those men that have seen My glory, and My signs, which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet they have tried Me these ten times and have not listened to My voice” (Numbers 14:22).

גמ׳ ממאי דלמא משום דקא גרים לה קטלא דכתיב (דברים כב, כ) ואם אמת היה הדבר וגו' והוציאו את הנערה וגו'

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that one who utters malicious speech with his mouth is a more severe sinner than one who performs an action. The Gemara asks: From where is this proven? Perhaps the punishment for the one who defames is more severe because the defamation has the potential to cause his wife’s death. As it is written: “But if this thing be true, that the signs of virginity were not found in the young woman, then they shall bring out the young woman to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die” (Deuteronomy 22:20–21).

אמר רבא אמר קרא (דברים כב, יט) כי הוציא שם רע על שם רע שהוציא:

Rava said that the verse states: “And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the young woman, because he has defamed a virgin of Israel; and she shall be his wife; he may not send her away all his days” (Deuteronomy 22:19). This indicates that he is punished severely for his words, for the defamation, not because she might be put to death.

וכן מצינו שלא נתחתם גזר דין וכו': ממאי דלמא דאכתי לא מלא סאתן דאמר רב המנונא אין הקב"ה נפרע מן האדם עד שתתמלא סאתו שנאמר {איוב כ׳:כ״ב } במלאת ספקו יצר לו

§ The mishna teaches: As we found that the sentence imposed on our ancestors in the wilderness was sealed only due to the malicious speech disseminated by the spies. The Gemara asks: From where is known that their punishment was due to the malicious speech of the spies? Perhaps until that time their se’a, the measure of their sins warranting punishment, was not yet filled, as Rav Hamnuna says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not punish a person until his se’a is filled, as it is stated: “In the fullness of his sufficiency he shall be in straits” (Job 20:22). In other words, one is punished only when he has committed a sufficient number of sins, and the malicious speech of the spies was simply the last of a series of transgressions.

אמר ר"ל אמר קרא וינסו אותי זה עשר פעמים על זה נתחתם גזר דין:

Reish Lakish said that the verse states: “All those men who have seen My glory, and My signs, which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet they have tried Me now [zeh] ten times and have not listened to My voice” (Numbers 14:22). The extra word “now [zeh]” teaches that their sentence was sealed for this specific sin, i.e., the malicious speech of the spies.

תניא א"ר אלעזר בן פרטא בוא וראה כמה גדול כח של לשון הרע מנלן ממרגלים ומה המוציא שם רע על עצים ואבנים כך המוציא שם רע על חבירו על אחת כמה וכמה

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar ben Perata says: Come and see how great the power of malicious speech is. From where do we derive this? From the punishment received by the spies. And if one who defames the wood and rocks of Eretz Yisrael received such a severe punishment, then with regard to one who defames another person, all the more so will he be punished severely.

ממאי דלמא משום דר' חנינא בר פפא דאמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דבר גדול דברו מרגלים באותה שעה דכתיב (במדבר יג, לא) כי חזק הוא ממנו אל תיקרי כי חזק הוא ממנו אלא ממנו כביכול בעל הבית אין יכול להוציא כליו משם

The Gemara asks: From where is it known that the punishment of the spies was for malicious speech? Perhaps their punishment was due to the sin explained by Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa. As Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: The spies uttered a great statement of blasphemy at that time. As it is written: “But the men that went up with him said: We are not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than us [mimmennu]” (Numbers 13:31). Do not read this as “for they are stronger than us [mimmennu]” but rather read it as: For they are stronger than Him [mimmennu]. i.e., stronger than God. They were saying, as it were, that the owner, i.e., God, cannot remove His utensils, the inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael, from there. If so, one can explain that the spies were punished for their blasphemy rather than for their malicious speech.

אלא אמר רבה אמר ר"ל אמר קרא (במדבר יד, לז) וימותו האנשים מוציאי דבת הארץ רעה על דבת הארץ שהוציאו

Rather, Rabba says that Reish Lakish says that the verse states: “Those men that brought up an evil report of the land died by the plague before the Lord” (Numbers 14:37). This teaches that they were punished not for their blasphemy but for the evil report of the land that they brought.

תניא אמר ר' יהודה עשר נסיונות ניסו אבותינו להקב"ה שנים בים ושנים במים שנים במן שנים בשליו אחת בעגל ואחת במדבר פארן

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: Our ancestors tried the Holy One, Blessed be He with ten trials: Two at the sea, and two with water, two with the manna, two with the quail, one with the golden calf, and one in the wilderness of Paran.

שנים בים אחת בירידה ואחת בעלייה בירידה דכתיב (שמות יד, יא) המבלי אין קברים במצרים

The Gemara lists the ten trials in detail. Two at the sea: One when the Jews descended into the sea, and one when they ascended from the sea. The Jews tried God when they descended into the sea, as it is written: “And they said to Moses: Because there were no graves in Egypt, have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? What is this you have done to us, to take us out of Egypt” (Exodus 14:11).

בעלייה כדרב הונא דא"ר הונא ישראל שבאותו הדור מקטני אמנה היו כדרבה בר מרי דאמר רבה בר מרי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קי } וימרו על ים בים סוף ויושיעם למען שמו מלמד שהיו ישראל ממרים באותה שעה ואומרים כשם שאנו עולים מצד זה כך מצרים עולים מצד אחר

And they also tried God when they ascended from the sea, in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: The Jewish people of that generation, during the Exodus, were of little faith. This is in accordance with a statement of Rabba bar Mari. As Rabba bar Mari says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “But they were rebellious at the sea, even at the Red Sea. Nevertheless, He saved them for His Name’s sake” (Psalms 106:7–8)? This teaches that the Jews were rebellious at that time, and they said: Just as we are ascending from one side, so too perhaps the Egyptians are ascending from the other side, and we will not be saved.

אמר לו הקב"ה לשר של ים פלוט אותם ליבשה אמר לפניו רבש"ע כלום יש עבד שנותן לו רבו מתנה וחוזר ונוטלה הימנו אמר לו אני נותן לך אחד ומחצה שבהם

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the ministering angel of the sea: Spew out the dead Egyptians onto dry land. The ministering angel said before Him: Master of the Universe, is there a servant whose master gives him a gift and then takes it from him? Since the dead Egyptians were given to me for my fish to eat, how can You retract Your gift? God said to the sea: I will give you one and a half times their number. Although I am taking them back now, later I will give you one and a half times as many people. In the case of the Egyptians it is stated: “Six hundred chosen chariots” (Exodus 14:7), whereas with regard to Sisera, who was defeated at the Kishon Brook, it is written: “Nine hundred chariots of iron” (Judges 4:13).

אמר לפניו רבש"ע כלום יש עבד שתובע את רבו אמר לו נחל קישון יהיה ערב מיד פלטן ליבשה דכתיב (שמות יד, ל) וירא ישראל את מצרים מת על וגו'

The ministering angel said before Him: Master of the Universe, is there a servant who issues a claim against his master for a gift promised to him? Who will be the guarantor? God said to the ministering angel: The Kishon Brook will be a guarantor for Me. Immediately, the sea spewed the Egyptians out onto the land, and the Jewish people came and saw that they were dead. As it is written: “And Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore” (Exodus 14:30).

שנים במים במרה וברפידים במרה דכתיב (שמות טו, כג) ויבואו מרתה ולא יכלו לשתות וכתיב (שמות יז, ג) וילן העם על משה

The Gemara continues its list of the Jewish people’s trials of God: Two with water: One in Mara and one in Rephidim. The Jewish people tested God in Mara as it is written: “And when they came to Mara, they could not drink of the waters of Mara, for they were bitter. Therefore the name of it was called Mara” (Exodus 15:23), as Mara means bitter. And it is written: “And the people murmured against Moses, saying: What shall we drink?” (Exodus 15:24).

ברפידים דכתיב (שמות יז, א) ויחנו ברפידים ואין מים לשתות וכתיב (שמות יז, ב) וירב העם עם משה

The Jewish people also tested God in Rephidim, as it is written: “And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their stages, according to the commandment of the Lord, and encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink” (Exodus 17:1). And it is written: “And the people fought with Moses, and said: Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said to them: Why do you fight with me? Why do you test the Lord?” (Exodus 17:2).

שנים במן דכתיב

The Gemara continues: Two with manna, as it is written: