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בס"ד

ELI Talks: Shais Rishon

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  1. (יב) דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה אֶתְרוֹג זֶה יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה הַתְּמָרָה הַזּוֹ יֵשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם וְאֵין בּוֹ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה וְאֵין בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה הֲדַס יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֵיחַ וְאֵין בּוֹ טַעַם, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים וְאֵין בָּהֶם תּוֹרָה. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ אֵין בָּהּ טַעַם וְאֵין בָּהּ רֵיחַ, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ בָּהֶם בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם לֹא תּוֹרָה וְלֹא מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, וּמָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם, לְאַבְּדָן אִי אֶפְשָׁר, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יֻקְשְׁרוּ כֻלָּם אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת וְהֵן מְכַפְּרִין אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ, וְאִם עֲשִׂיתֶם כָּךְ אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אֲנִי מִתְעַלֶּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עמוס ט, ו): הַבּוֹנֶה בַשָּׁמַיִם מַעֲלוֹתָו, וְאֵימָתַי הוּא מִתְעֲלֶה כְּשֶׁהֵן עֲשׂוּיִין אֲגֻדָּה אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ט, ו): וַאֲגֻדָּתוֹ עַל אֶרֶץ יְסָדָהּ, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.

    (12) Another explanation: "The fruit of a beautiful tree" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this citron (etrog), which has taste and has smell, so too Israel has among them people that have Torah and have good deeds. "The branches of a date palm" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this date, which has taste and has no smell, so too Israel has among them those that have Torah but do not have good deeds. "And a branch of a braided tree (a myrtle)" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this myrtle, which has smell and has no taste, so too Israel has among them those that have good deeds but do not have Torah. "And brook willows" - these are [referring to] Israel. Just like this willow, which has no smell and has no taste, so too Israel has among them people that have no Torah and have no good deeds. And what does the Holy One, blessed be He, do to them? To destroy them is impossible, but rather the Holy One, blessed be He, said "bind them all together [into] one grouping and these will atone for those." And if you will have done that, I will be elevated at that time. This is [the meaning of] what is written (Amos 9:6), "He Who built the upper chambers in the heavens" (indicating his elevation). And when is He elevated? When they make one grouping, as it is stated (Ibid.), "and established His grouping on the earth." Hence Moshe warned Israel, "And you shall take for yourselves on the first day."

  2. (א) בִשְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִבְרִית. בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְקָרְבָּן:

    (ב) מִילָה הָיְתָה בְּמִצְרַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב מח) "וְכָל עָרֵל לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ". מָל אוֹתָם משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ שֶׁכֻּלָּם בִּטְּלוּ בְּרִית מִילָה בְּמִצְרַיִם חוּץ מִשֵּׁבֶט לֵוִי וְעַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (דברים לג ט) "וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ":

    (ג) וּטְבִילָה הָיְתָה בַּמִּדְבָּר קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט י) "וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם". וְקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד ה) "וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עלֹת", עַל יְדֵי כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִקְרִיבוּם:

    (ד) וְכֵן לְדוֹרוֹת כְּשֶׁיִּרְצֶה הָעַכּוּ''ם לְהִכָּנֵס לִבְרִית וּלְהִסְתּוֹפֵף תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וִיקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל תּוֹרָה צָרִיךְ מִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן. וְאִם נְקֵבָה הִיא טְבִילָה וְקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו טו) "כָּכֶם כַּגֵּר". מָה אַתֶּם בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן אַף הַגֵּר לְדוֹרוֹת בְּמִילָה וּטְבִילָה וְהַרְצָאַת קָרְבָּן:

    (ה) וּמַהוּ קָרְבַּן הַגֵּר. עוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה אוֹ שְׁתֵּי תּוֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּשְׁנֵיהֶם עוֹלָה. וּבַזְּמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם קָרְבָּן צָרִיךְ מִילָה וּטְבִילָה וּכְשֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ יָבִיא קָרְבָּן:

    (ו) גֵּר שֶׁמָּל וְלֹא טָבַל אוֹ טָבַל וְלֹא מָל אֵינוֹ גֵּר עַד שֶׁיָּמוּל וְיִטְבּל. וְצָרִיךְ לִטְבּל בִּפְנֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה. וְהוֹאִיל וְהַדָּבָר צָרִיךְ בֵּית דִּין אֵין מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה. וְאִם הִטְבִּילוּהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּר:

    (ז) גֵּר קָטָן מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל דַּעַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁזְּכוּת הִיא לוֹ. מְעֻבֶּרֶת שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה וְטָבְלָה אֵין בְּנָהּ צָרִיךְ טְבִילָה. טָבַל בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ וְנִתְגַּיֵּר בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּפְנֵי שְׁנַיִם אֵינוֹ גֵּר. בָּא וְאָמַר נִתְגַּיַּרְתִּי בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי וְהִטְבִּילוּנִי אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן לָבֹא בַּקָּהָל עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא עֵדִים:

    (1) 1. There are three ways in which someone enters the covenant: by circumcision, by immersion, and by a Temple offering.

    (2) 2. Circumcision as it was in Egypt, as it says, "Every uncircumcised person shall not eat of it (the Passover offering)." Moses our teacher circumcised them and everyone spurned the covenant in Egypt with the exception of the Tribe of Levi. On this it says, "Your covenant was withheld."

    (3) 3. Immersion was in the desert before receiving the Torah, as is said, "Sanctify yourselves today and tomorrow; wash your clothes." The offering, as is said, "Send the young ones of Israel to bring elevation offerings" - and everyone in Israel brought them.

    (4) 4. Throughout the generations, any non-Jew who wants to enter the covenant and come in under the 'wings of the Presence of God' accepts upon him or herself the yoke of Torah - he needs circumcision, immersion and a Temple offering. If female, she needs only immersion and an offering, as is said "As for you, so for the foreigner." That's to say, just as you (entered via) circumcision, immersion and an offering, so too the foreigner (shall enter via) circumcision, immersion and an offering.

    (5) 5. What's a convert's offering? An elevation offering or two doves or two turtledoves (and the two are considered an offering). At this time in history where there are no offerings, one needs (merely) circumcision and immersion. Once the Temple is built, one will bring an offering.

    (6) A convert who was circumcised and has not immersed, or has immersed and not circumcised is not a convert until he is circumcised and immersed. And it is necessary to immerse before three (men). And since the matter requires a Beit Din (counsel) - no immersion is done on the Sabbath, nor Yom Tov (holiday) nor at night. And if he was immersed, he is a convert....

    (7) A minor convert - is immersed upon the knowledge of Beit Din (counsel), because it is in his interest. A pregnant woman who converts and immerses - her child does not need immersion. If he immersed in front of only himself, and converted to himself, or even in front of two, he is not a convert. If he comes and say "I converted in the Beit Din of so and so and they immersed me" - he is not trusted to come into the community until he brings witnesses.

  3. ההוא ארמאה דהוה סליק ואכיל פסחים בירושלים אמר כתיב (שמות יב, מג) כל בן נכר לא יאכל בו (שמות יב, מח) כל ערל לא יאכל בו ואנא הא קאכילנא משופרי שופרי אמר ליה רבי יהודה בן בתירא מי קא ספו לך מאליה אמר ליה לא כי סלקת להתם אימא להו ספו לי מאליה כי סליק אמר להו מאליה ספו לי אמרו ליה אליה לגבוה סלקא אמרו ליה מאן אמר לך הכי אמר להו רבי יהודה בן בתירא אמרו מאי האי דקמן בדקו בתריה ואשכחוהו דארמאה הוא וקטלוהו שלחו ליה לרבי יהודה בן בתירא שלם לך ר' יהודה בן בתירא דאת בנציבין ומצודתך פרוסה בירושלים
    With regard to the investigation of the priestly lineage, the Gemara relates: A certain gentile would ascend on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, claiming he was Jewish, and eat Paschal lambs in Jerusalem. He would then return home and boast about how he had tricked the Jews. He said: It is written: “This is the statute of the Paschal lamb; no foreigner may eat of it” (Exodus 12:43), and another verse says: “Any uncircumcised man shall not eat of it” (Exodus 12:48). And yet, I ate from the finest of the fine portions of the Paschal lamb. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him, in an attempt to thwart any repetition of this action: Did they feed you from the fat tail of the lamb? Do you really think they gave you the finest portion? The gentile was ignorant of the fact that the fat tail is sacrificed on the altar, not eaten. The gentile said to him: No. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira replied: If so, when you ascend there next time, say to them: Feed me the fat tail. The next year when he ascended, he said to the other members of the group he joined: Feed me from the fat tail. They said to him: The fat tail is offered up to God. They said to him: Who said that to you, to ask for that portion? He said to them testily: It was Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. They said: What is this incident that has come before us? Could Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira have told him to eat the fat tail? This matter must be investigated further. They investigated his background and found that he was a gentile, and they killed him. They sent a message to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: Peace unto you, Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, as you are in Netzivin and your net is spread in Jerusalem. Despite your distance from Jerusalem, you enabled us to apprehend a person who deceived us.
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