4ד׳
1 א
לא יטעום אדם כלום עד שיברך שנאמר (תהילים כד) לה' הארץ ומלואה הנהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה מעל עד שיתירו לו כל המצות לא ישתמש אדם בפניו ידיו ורגליו אלא לכבוד קונהו שנאמר (משלי טז) כל פעל ה' למענהו. A person should not taste anything until he makes a Beracha (blessing) [on it], as it is said, “To Hashem is the Earth and its fullness…” (Psalms 24:1) [A person] who receives pleasure from this world without a Beracha makes inappropriate use of sacred property, until all of the Mitzvot (commandments) [that must be done over this object] will permit it to him. A person should use his face, his hands and his feet only for the honor of his Creator, as it is said, “Every creation of Hashem is for His sake.” (Proverbs 16:4)
2 ב
דבש תמרים ויין תפוחים וחומץ סתוניות מברכין עליהם כדרך שמברכין על המורייס. The Beracha (blessing) that is made on date honey, apple cider and vinegar made from autumn grapes is the same as the Beracha made on fish brine.
3 ג
יין חי מברכין עליו בורא פרי העץ [ונוטלין] הימנו לידים נתן לתוכו מים מברכין עליו ב"פ הגפן [ואין נוטלין] הימנו לידים דברי ר' אליעזר וחכ"א אחד זה ואחד זה מברכין עליו ב"פ הגפן ואין נוטלין הימנו לידים. The Beracha (blessing) for undiluted wine is Borei Pri Haetz (Who created the fruit of the tree) and it (i.e. undiluted wine) can be used to wash hands. [If] he added water into it, [then] the Beracha on it [becomes] Borei Pri Hagafen (Who created the fruit of the vine) and it (i.e. diluted wine) cannot be used to wash hands. [These are] the words of Rebbi Eliezer. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, “Whether this one (i.e. undiluted wine) or that one (i.e. diluted wine), the Beracha on it is Borei Pri Hagafen and it cannot be used to wash hands.”
4 ד
הביאו לפניו מיני תרגימא מברך עליהן בורא מיני כיסנין. [If] they brought in front of him [different] types of desserts, the Beracha (blessing) that he makes on them is Borei Minei Kisnin (Who created different types of nibblings).
5 ה
על הזרעים הוא אומר בורא מיני זרעים על הדשאים הוא אומר בורא מיני דשאים ועל הירקות הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה רבי יהודה אומר ברוך מצמיח האדמה בדברו ר"מ אומר אפי' ראה את הפת ואמר ברוך שברא את הפת זו כמה נאה פת זו הרי זו ברכתה אפילו ראה תאנים ואמר ברוך [מי] שברא תאנים הללו כמה [הן] נאות זו היא ברכתן ר' יוסי אומר כל המשנה ממטבע שטבעו חכמים בברכות לא יצא רבי יהודה אומר כל שנשתנה מברייתו [ושנה ברכתו] יצא. On seeds he says [the Beracha (blessing)] Borei Minei Zerayim (Who created different types of seeds), and on herbs he says [the Beracha] Borei Minei Deshaim (Who created different types of herbs), and on vegetables he says [the Beracha] Borei Pri Haadama (Who created the fruit of the ground). Rebbi Yehudah says “[on vegetables he makes the Beracha] Baruch Matzmiach Haadama Bidvaro (Blessed upon whose word the ground produces growths).” Rebbi Meir says, “even [if] he saw bread and he said ‘Blessed be the One Who created this bread, how nice this bread is,’ that is its Beracha. Even [if] he saw figs and he said ‘Blessed be the One Who created these figs, how nice they are,’ that is their Beracha.” Rebbi Yossi says, “Anyone who changes [the official text] of Berachot from what the Rabbis have coined, does not fulfill his obligation [of saying the Beracha].” Rebbi Yehudah says, “Any [type of food] that has been changed from its original form (like bread which used to be wheat or wine which used to be grapes), [if] he changed its Beracha [to the Beracha of the food in its original form], he has fulfilled his obligation [of saying the Beracha].”
6 ו
הכוסס [את החיטים] מברך עליהן בורא מיני זרעים אפאן ובשלן בזמן שהפרוסות קיימות מברך עליהן המוציא לחם מן הארץ וג' ברכות אין הפרוסות קיימות מברך עליהן בורא מיני מזונות ומברך ברכה אחת מעין שלש אחריהן. [A person] that chews [raw] wheat kernels, says a Beracha (blessing) on them Borei Minei Zerayim (Who created different types of seeds). [If] he [ground them into flour and] baked them [into bread] and [then] cooked them (i.e. the bread) [in water], as long as the pieces [of bread] remain [intact], he says the Beracha on them Hamotzi Lechem Min Haaretz (Who brings forth bread from the earth) and he says [after eating these pieces] the Three Berachot (i.e. Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals)). [If] the pieces [of bread] do not remain [intact] he makes the Beracha on them Borei Minei Mezonot (Who created different types of foods) and he makes the Beracha after [eating] them is One out of Three (i.e. Al Hamichya (For the Sustenance)).
7 ז
הכוסס [את] האורז מברך עליהן בורא פרי האדמה אפאן ובשלן אע"פ שהפרוסות קיימות מברך עליהן בורא מיני מזונות ואין מברך עליהן כלום אחריו זה הכלל כל שתחלתו המוציא מברך אחריו ג' ברכות. [A person] that chews [raw] rice [kernels], says a Beracha (blessing) on them Borei Minei Zerayim (Who created different types of seeds). [If] he [ground them into flour and] baked them [into rice bread] and [then] cooked them (i.e. the rice bread) [in water], even though the pieces [of the rice bread] remain [intact], he says the Beracha on them, Borei Minei Mezonot (Who created different types of foods), and he does not say any Beracha after them at all. This is the general rule: any [food] that [gets] the beginning [Beracha] Hamotzi Lechem Min Haaretz (Who brings forth bread from the earth), [gets] the Three Berachot (i.e. Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals)) after it.
8 ח
כיצד סדר הסעודה אורחין נכנסין ויושבין על גבי ספסלים וע"ג קתדראות עד שיכנסו כולן נכנסו כולן ונתנו להם לידים כל אחד ואחד נוטל ידו אחת מזגו להם את הכוס אחד ואחד מברך לעצמו הביאו להם פרפריות כל אחד ואחד מברך לעצמו עלו והסיבו נתנו להם לידים אע"פ שנוטל ידו אחת נותן לשתי ידיו מזגו להם את הכוס אע"פ שבירך על הראשונה מברך על השניה הביאו לפניהם פרפריות אע"פ שבירך על הראשונה מברך על השניה ואחד מברך לכולן [הביאו לאחד] שלש פרפריות אין [לו] רשות ליכנס רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר מנהג גדול היה בירושלים פורסין מטפחות על גבי פתח בזמן שהמטפחות פרוסים אורחין נכנסין נסתלקו אין רשות לאורחין ליכנס ועוד מנהג אחר היה בירושלים מוסר סעודה לטבח נתקלקל דבר בסעודה עונשין את הטבח הכל לפי כבוד בעה"ב והכל לפי האורחין. What is the order of a meal? Guests come in and sit down on top of benches and on top of soft seats until all [guests] come in. [After] all [guests] came in, and they (i.e. the servants) have given them [water to wash] hands, every one of them washes one hand. [When] they (i.e. the servants) poured them a cup [of wine], each one [of the guests] makes a Beracha (blessing) [for the wine] himself. [When] they (i.e. the servants) brought them appetizers each one [of the guests] makes a Beracha [for the appetizers] himself. [After the guests] have gotten up [from their temporary seats, moved to the main eating hall] and reclined [on sofas], they [i.e. the servants] gave them [water to wash their] hands [again]. Even though he already washed one hand, [still] he [has to] wash both of his hands [again]. [After] they (i.e. the servants) poured them a cup [of wine again], even though he already made a Beracha on the first [cup of wine], he makes [another] Beracha on the second [cup of wine]. [After] they (i.e. the servants) brought in front of them [more] appetizers, even though he [already] made a Beracha on the first [set of appetizers], he makes a [new] Beracha on the second [set of appetizers], but [this time] one [person] makes a Beracha for all of them. [A person] who comes [late] after three appetizers [have been served] does not have permission to enter [the dining hall]. Rebbi Shimon Ben Gamliel says, “There was a great custom in Yerushalayim (Jerusalem). They (i.e. house owners) would hang a towel above the door. While the towel is hanging guests can come in. [After] the towel has been removed guests are not permitted to come in [anymore]. And there was another custom in Yerushalayim. They (i.e. house owners) would give over [the responsibility for] a meal to a butcher (i.e. a caterer). If something went wrong during the meal they would punish the butcher [monetarily]. Everything according to the honor of the owner (i.e. the host) and everything according to the honor of the guests.”
9 ט
הלכה בסעודה יוצא [להסך את רגליו] נוטל ידו אחת יצא לרצות את חבירו והפליג נוטל ב' ידיו להיכן הוא נוטל בא ומיסב במקומו ונוטל [והטפיח] ומחזר על האורחין. [This] law [has been taught in the laws] of a meal. [A person] who goes out [of the dining room] to relieve himself, [when he goes back to the table] he washes one hand. [A person who goes out of the dining room] to speak to his friend, and makes a [long] interruption [by talking for a long time, when he goes back to the table he] washes both of his hands. Where does he wash them? He comes [back to the table], sits down in his place, and washes [his hands]. And he returns the pitcher [with which he washed his hands to the waiter who shows it] to the [other] guests [who are sitting together with him in the dining room].
10 י
שאלו את בן זומא מפני מה בא להן יין בתוך המזון כל אחד ואחד מברך לעצמו אמר להם מפני שאין בית הבליעה פנוי הביאו לו אורז ויין מברך על האורז ופוטר את היין צנון ונובלות מברך על הצנון ופוטר את הנובלות מליח ופרוסה מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפרוסה ר' חנינא בן גמליאל אומר מליח הבא בתחלה לפני המזון ופת הבא עם המליח לאחר המזון טעונה ברכה לפניה ולאחריה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פרוסות סימן גדול לאורחין כל זמן שהאורחין רואין את הפרוסות יודעין שדבר אחר בא [אחריהם ככר שלם] יודעין שאין דבר אחר [בא להם] בסעודה אחריהם. They (i.e. the students) have asked Ben Zoma, “What is the reason that when they (i.e. the servants) bring them (i.e. the guests) wine in the middle of the meal each person makes a Beracha (blessing) [over the wine] by himself?” He said to them, “Because the throat is not empty.” [If] they (i.e. the servants) brought in front of him rice and wine, he should make a Beracha on the rice and [with it] exempt the wine [from a Beracha]. [If the servants brought in front of him] a radish and an unripe date, he makes the Beracha on the radish and [with it] exempts the unripe date [from a Beracha]. [If the servants brought in front of him] a salty [dish] and a slice [of bread] he makes the Beracha on the salty [dish] and [with it] exempts the slice [of bread from a Beracha]. Rebbi Chaninah Ben Gamliel says, “Bread that comes before the main meal and bread that comes with the salty dish after the main meal, require a Beracha before them and after them.” Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel says, “Slices [of bread] are a big sign for the guests. As long as the guests see slices [of bread on the table] they know that something else will come after them (i.e. the slices of bread). [However once the guests see] a complete loaf [of bread], fish and legumes [on the table] they know that nothing else will come after that in the meal.”
11 יא
[דגן וקטניות] מברכין על הדגן שהוא מן המובחר כיצד שלמה של גלוסקין ושלמה של בעל הבית מברך על שלמה של גלוסקין פרוסה של גלוסקין ושלמה של בעל הבית מברך על השלמה של בעל הבית פת חטין ופת שעורין מברך על של חטין פרוסה של חטין ושלמה של שעורים מברך על פרוסה של חטין פת כוסמין ופת שעורין מברך על שעורים והלא כוסמין יפין מן [השעורין] אלא שהשעורין ממין שבעה והכוסמין אינם ממין שבעה זה הכלל כל שהוא מין שבעה ומין דגן רבן גמליאל אומר מברך אחריו שלש ברכות וחכ"א ברכה אחת מעין שלש. We make a Beracha (blessing) on the better grain.2 How [does this work?] [If a person has] a whole [loaf of] fine white bread and a whole [loaf of] home-made bread, he makes the Beracha on the whole [loaf of] fine white bread. [If a person has] a slice of fine white bread and a whole [loaf of] home-made bread, he makes the Beracha on the whole loaf of home-made bread. [If a person has] wheat bread and barley bread, he makes the Beracha on the wheat bread. [If a person has] a slice of wheat bread and a whole [loaf of] barley bread, he makes the Beracha on the slice of wheat bread. [If a person has] barley bread and spelt bread, he makes the Beracha on the barley bread. But is not spelt better than barley? But rather [the reason that he makes the Beracha on the barley bread is] that barley is one of the seven species [for which the Land of Israel is blessed] and spelt is not one of the seven species [for which the Land of Israel is blessed]. This is the general rule: Anything that is from the seven species [for which the Land of Israel is blessed] and is a type of grain, Rabban Gamliel says, “he says after [eating] it Three Berachot (i.e. Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals))”, and Chachamim (Sages) say, “[he makes after eating it] Beracha One out of the Three (i.e. Al Hamichya (For the Sustenance)).”
12 יב
מעשה ברבן גמליאל וזקנים שהיו מסובין ביריחו הביאו לפניהם כותבות ואכלום ונתן רבן גמליאל רשות לברך קפץ רבי עקיבה וברך ברכה אחת מעין שלש אמר לו רבן גמליאל עקיבה מה לך אתה מכניס ראשך בין המחלוקת אמר לו למדתנו רבינו אחרי רבים להטות אע"פ שאתה אומר כך וחביריך אומרים כך הלכה כדברי המרובין. It happened [once] that Rabban Gamliel and the Elders2 were reclining [and eating] in Yericho (Jericho). They (i.e. the servants) brought in front of them dates, and they ate them. Rebbi Akiva jumped up and said after [eating them] the Beracha One out of the Three (i.e. Al Haetz (For the Tree)). Rabban Gamliel said to him, “Akiva! What is with you? You are sticking your head into the argument.” He said [back] to him, “Rebbi (My master)! You have taught us ‘to lean after the majority’ (Shemot 23:2). Even though that you say like this and your friends say like this, the law is like the words of the majority.”
13 יג
רבי יהודה אומר משום רבן גמליאל כל שהוא מין שבעה ואינו מין דגן [ודגן שלא] עשאן פת רבן גמליאל אומר מברך אחריו שלש ברכות וחכ"א ברכה אחת מעין שלש. כל שאינו [משבעת המינין] ולא ממין דגן כגון פת אורז ופת דוחן רבן גמליאל אומר ברכה אחת מעין שלש וחכ"א אין מברכין [כלום]. Rebbi Yehudah says in the name of Rabban Gamliel, “Anything [made] from the seven species [for which the Land of Israel is blessed] and is not a type of grain or [it is made from] grain which has not been made into bread, Rabban Gamliel says, ‘[After eating it] he makes the Three Berachot (i.e. Birkat Hamazon (Grace After Meals))’ and the Chachamim (Sages) say, ‘[After eating it] he makes the Beracha One out of the Three (i.e. Al Hamichya (For the Sustenance) or Al Haetz (For the Tree) or Al Hagafen (For the Vine))’. And anything which is not from the seven species [for which the Land of Israel is blessed] and is not a type of grain, Rabban Gamliel says, ‘[After eating it] he makes Beracha One out of the Three’ and Chachamim say, ‘He does not make any Beracha [at all].’”
14 יד
מעשה ברבי טרפון שהיה יושב בצילו של שובך בשבת במנחה הביאו לפניו דלי של צונן אמר להן רבי טרפון לתלמידיו השותה מים לצמאו כיצד מברך אמרו לו [למדנו] רבינו אמר להם בורא נפשות וחסרונן אמר להן אשאל אמרו לו [למדנו] רבינו אמר להן הרי הוא אומר (בראשית לז) וישבו לאכל לחם וגו' והלא [הלין דרכן של ערביים] להיות נושאין אלא עורות ריח רע ועטרן אלא שנתנו את הצדיק ההוא בין דברים החביבין והלא דברים ק"ו ומה אם בשעת כעסן של צדיקים [מרחמין] עליהן בשעת הרחמים על אחת כמה וכמה. It happened [once] with Rebbi Tarfon, that he was sitting in the shade of a dovecote, on Shabbat, in the afternoon. They (i.e. the servants) brought in front of him a bucket of cold [water to drink]. Rebbi Tarfon said to his students, “[A person] who drinks water to quench his thirst, what Beracha does he say [before drinking the water]?” They said to him, “Teach us our master.” He said to them, “Borei Nefashot Vechesronan (Who Created Souls and Made Them Lack).” [Then] he said to them, “I will ask [you another question].” They said to him, “Teach us our master.” He said to them, “It says [in the Torah], ‘And they sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes, and they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead, and their camels are carrying gum, balsam and resin, transporting them to Egypt.’ (Genesis 37:25) Is not it the way of the Arabs to [usually] carry bad smelling skins and tar? But rather [what happened was that God] placed that righteous man (i.e. Yosef) among favorable things. Is not this a Kal Vechomer (a derivation from minor to major)? Just like at the time when [God] is angry [at] the righteous [people, He still] has mercy on them, then at the time [of God’s] mercy, how much more so.”...
15 טו
כיוצא בו (ויקרא י) ויקרבו וישאום בכתנותם והלא דברים ק"ו ומה בשעת כעס של צדיקים מרחמין עליהן בשעת הרחמים על אחת כמה וכמה כיוצא בו (מלכים א יג) לא אכל האריה את הנבלה ולא שבר את החמור ומה אם בשעת כעסן וכו'. “Similar to this [it says], 'They (i.e. Mishael and Eltzafan) came forth and carried them (i.e. Nadav and Avihu) in their tunics outside of the camp…’ (Leviticus 10:5) Is not this a Kal Vechomer (a derivation from minor to major)? Just like at the time when [God] is angry [at] the righteous [people, He still] has mercy on them, then at the time [of God’s] mercy, how much more so. Similar to this [it says] ‘… the lion had not eaten the corpse and did not maul the donkey.’ (I Kings 13:28) Is not this a Kal Vechomer (a derivation from minor to major)? Just like at the time when [God] is angry [at] the righteous [people, He still] has mercy on them, then at the time [of God’s] mercy, how much more so.”
16 טז
אמר להם אשאל אמרו לו [למדנו] רבינו אמר להם מפני מה זכה יהודה למלכות אמרו לו מפני שהודה בתמר מעשה בארבעה זקנים שהיו יושבין בבית שער של ר' יהושע אלעזר בן מתיא חנינא בן חכינאי ושמעון בן עזאי ושמעון התימני והיו עסוקין במה ששנה להן ר"ט אמר להן ר"ע מפני מה זכה יהודה למלכות מפני שהודה בתמר הוסיפו הן מעצמן (איוב טו) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם להם לבדם נתנה הארץ אמר להם וכי נותנין שכר על העבירה אמרו לו אלא מפני מה זכה יהודה למלכות מפני שהציל את אחיו מן המיתה שנא' (בראשית לז) ויאמר יהודה [אל אחיו] מה בצע [כי נהרוג] וכתיב (שם) לכו ונמכרנו לישמעאלים אמר להן דיה להצלה שתכפר על המכירה אלא מפני מה זכה יהודה למלכות מפני הענוה שנא' (בראשית מד) ועתה ישב נא עבדך [וגו' אף] שאול לא זכה למלכות אלא מפני הענוה שנא' (שמואל א ט) פן יחדל אבי מן האתונות ודאג לנו שקל עבדו בו אבל שמואל אינו כן אלא (שמואל א י) נטש אביך את דברי האתונות ודאג לכם לאמר מה אעשה לבני [וכשהוא] בורח מן השררה [מה הוא אומר] (שמואל א יא) וישאלו [עוד] בה' [הבא עוד הלום איש] ויאמרו הנה הוא נחבא אל הכלים אמר להם ולא ערב הוא וסופו של ערב לצאת ידי ערבותו. אלא מפני מה זכה יהודה למלכות [אמרו להם] למדנו רבינו אמר להם מפני שקידש שמו של הקב"ה שכשעלו שבטים ועמדו על הים זה אומר אני יורד וזה אומר אני יורד קפץ שבטו של יהודה [וירד בתחלה וקדש] שמו של הקב"ה ועל אותה השעה הוא אומר (תהילים סט) הושיעני אלהים כי באו מים עד נפש וגו' וכן הוא אומר (תהילים קיד) בצאת ישראל ממצרים וגו' היתה יהודה לקדשו יהודה קדש שמו של הקב"ה על הים [ולפיכך] ישראל ממשלותיו. [Then] he (i.e. Rebbi Tarfon) said to them (i.e. his students), “I will ask [you another question].” They said to him, “Teach us our master.” He said to them, “Why did [the tribe of] Yehudah merited the kingship [of Israel]?” They said to him, “Because [Yehudah] admitted [that he impregnated] Tamar.” It happened [once] with four elders, that they were sitting in the gatehouse of Rebbi Yehoshua. [They were] Elazar Ben Matya, Chaninah Ben Chachinai, Shimon Ben Azzai, and Shimon Hateimani. And they were involved [in discussing] what Rebbi Tarfon taught to them, “Why did [the tribe of] Yehudah merited the kingship [of Israel]?” “Because [Yehudah] admitted [that he impregnated] Tamar.” They have added [another source to that explanation] on their own. “[It says in the book of Iyov], ‘… that which the wise related from their fathers and did not withhold. To them alone the earth was given…’ (Job 15:18-19)” He (i.e. Rebbi Tarfon) said to them (i.e. to the four elders), “Do they give reward for a transgression? But rather what is [the real] reason why [the tribe of] Yehudah merited the kingship of Israel?” [The four elders said back to Rebbi Tarfon,] “Because he (i.e. Yehudah) saved his brother (i.e. Yosef) from death, as it is said, ‘Yehudah said to his brothers, “What benefit [will we have] if we kill our brother?”’ (Genesis 37:26) and it is written, ‘Let us go and sell him to the Ishmaelites…’ (Genesis 37:27)”8 He (i.e. Rebbi Tarfon) said [back] to them (i.e. the four elders), “It is enough that [the act of] saving [him] should [serve] as forgiveness for the [act of] selling [him to the Ishmaelites]. But rather what is [the real] reason why [the tribe of] Yehudah merited the kingship of Israel?” [The four elders said back to Rebbi Tarfon,] “Because of [Yehudah’s] humility, as it is said, ‘And now your servant (i.e. Yehudah) will become a slave to my master (i.e. Yosef) instead of the boy (i.e. Binyamin).’ (Genesis 44:33) Also [the only reason that] Shaul merited the kingship [of Israel] was due to [his] humility, as it is said, ‘… may be my father will turn his attention away from the donkeys and will start to worry about us.’ (I Samuel 9:5) [Since Shaul said “us” and not “me”] he considered his servant as [important as] himself, but Shmuel did not do so, but rather [he said], ‘Your father stopped worrying about the donkeys and is worried about you, saying “What will happen to my son?”’ (I Samuel 10:2) And when he (i.e. Shaul) runs away from [accepting his newly appointed role of] leadership what does it say? ‘And they have asked God, “Is the man even here?” and God said, “Here he is hiding by the vessels.”’ (I Samuel 10:22)” He (i.e. Rebbi Tarfon) said [back] to them (i.e. the four elders), “Is not he (i.e. Yehudah) a cosigner? And in the end [it is the responsibility] of a cosigner to fulfill his pledge. But rather what is [the real] reason why [the tribe of] Yehudah merited the kingship of Israel?” They said to him, “Teach us our master.” He said to them, “[The reason the tribe of Yehudah merited the kingship of Israel is] because they sanctified God’s name on the sea. When [all of] the tribes came and stood by the sea, this one said, ‘I will go down [into the water first]’ and this one said, ‘I will go down [into the water first].’ The tribe of Yehudah jumped up and went in first and sanctified God’s name [by doing so]. And regarding that moment it says [in Tehillim], ‘Save me God, because the water is up to my soul.’ (Psalms 69:2) And it also says, ‘When Yisrael was going out of Egypt, the children of Yakov from the nation of a foreign tongue, Yehudah was His sanctifier…’ (Psalms 114:1-2) Since Yehudah sanctified God’s name on the sea, therefore ‘…Yisrael his subjects.’ (ibid.) ”
17 יז
עקרו להביא את החתן ואת הכלה הניחו שם זקן או חולה אין צריכין לברך למפרע וכשהן חוזרין אין צריכין לברך לכתחלה לא הניחו שם זקן או חולה צריכין לברך למפרע וכשהן חוזרין צריכין לברך לכתחלה. [If people got up from the place where they were eating and] left [the room, in order] to bring in the bride [into the dining room] and they left there (i.e. in the room where they were eating) an old person or even a sick person, they do not need to say the Beracha (blessing) after [the food, in order that they can leave the room]. And when they come back they do not need to say the Beracha before [the food that they are going to eat now]. [However, if] they did not leave there (i.e. in the room where they were eating) even an old person or a sick person they need to say the Beracha after [the food that they ate up to this point, so that they can leave the room]. And when they come back they need to make [a new] Beracha before [the food that they are going to eat now].
18 יח
בעל הבית שהיה מיסב ואוכל קראו חבירו לדבר עמו אין צריך לברך למפרע וכשהוא חוזר א"צ לברך לכתחלה הפליג צריך לברך למפרע וכשהוא חוזר צריך לברך לכתחלה. The owner of the house who was reclining and eating, [if suddenly] his friend called him [outside] to talk to him [right outside of his house], [and the person in the house came out of the house, he] does not need to make a Beracha (blessing) after [the food, so that he can leave the house]. And when he comes back [into the house to continue eating] he does not need to say the Beracha before [the food that he is going to eat now]. [However, if] he made a [big] interruption (i.e. his friend called him to go far away from his house) he needs to make the Beracha after [the food that he ate up to this point, before he can leave], and when he comes back [to continue eating] he needs to make a [new] Beracha before [the food that he is going to eat now].
19 יט
פועלין שהיו עודרין בתאנים וגודרין בתמרים ומוסקין בזיתים אף על פי שמפסיקין ואוכלין מפסיקין ואוכלין אין צריך לברך למפרע וכשהן חוזרין אין צריכין לברך לכתחלה הפליגו צריכין לברך למפרע וכשהן חוזרין צריכין לברך לכתחלה. Workers that are picking figs, or cutting dates, or harvesting olives, even though they keep interrupting [their work] and eating [the fruit that they are picking] over and over again, they do not need to say a Beracha after [eating the fruit each time] and when they go back [to eat the fruit again] they do not need to make a [new] Beracha before [eating the fruit]. [However, if] they made a [big] interruption (i.e. they walked away from the tree to do something) [then] they need to make a Beracha after [eating the fruit, before they walk away] and when they come back [to the tree to keep on working and meanwhile eat the fruit again] they need to make a Beracha before [they start eating the fruit again].