36b-37aל״ו ב-ל״ז א
לא כדרך שחלוקין בחומש הפקודים חלוקין באבני אפוד אלא כדרך שחלוקין בחומש שני The names of the tribes were not divided on the stones of the ephod the same way that they were divided in the list found at the beginning of the book of Numbers (Numbers 1:1–15). Rather they were divided the way that they were divided in the second book, i.e., Exodus (Exodus 1:2–4).
כיצד בני לאה כסידרן בני רחל אחד מכאן ואחד מכאן ובני שפחות באמצע How were they written? On one stone, the names of the sons of Leah were written in the order of their birth: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. On the other stone the sons of Rachel were written. One, Benjamin, was written on this side, i.e., at the bottom of the list, and one, Joseph, was written on that side, i.e., at the top of the list. And the children of the handmaids, i.e., Bilhah and Zilpah, who were Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, were written on the second stone in the middle.
ואלא מאי אני מקיים כתולדותם כשמותן שקרא להן אביהן ולא כשמות שקרא להן משה ראובן ולא ראובני שמעון ולא שמעוני דן ולא הדני גד ולא הגדי תיובתא דרב כהנא תיובתא But rather, if their names were not written in the order of their births, then how do I establish the meaning of the phrase: “According to their birth” (Exodus 28:10)? It means that their names were written according to the names that their father, Jacob, called them, and not according to the names that Moses called them. On the stones it said Reuben, and not Reubenites; Simeon, and not Simeonites; Dan, and not Danites; Gad, and not Gadites. This baraita contradicts Rav Kahana’s opinion, as according to all of the opinions in the baraita, the division of the names on the ephod is not identical to the division of the tribes on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. The Gemara confirms: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Kahana is in fact a conclusive refutation.
ואלא מאי והחציו תנא חציו של מול הר גריזים מרובה מחציו של הר עיבל מפני שלוי למטה The Gemara asks: Rather, what is meant by the phrase: “And the half of them facing Mount Ebal” (Joshua 8:33)? It is taught in a baraita: The use of the definitive article in the verse indicates that the smaller half of the Jewish people was on Mount Ebal. The half that was facing Mount Gerizim was larger than the half on Mount Ebal, because the tribe of Levi was included in the group that was facing Mount Gerizim, and they remained on the bottom between the two mountains.
אדרבה מפני שלוי למטה בצרי להו הכי קאמר אף על פי שלוי למטה בני יוסף עמהם שנאמר (יהושע יז, יד) וידברו בני יוסף את יהושע לאמר מדוע נתתה לי נחלה גורל אחד וחבל אחד ואני עם רב ויאמר אליהם יהושע אם עם רב אתה עלה לך היערה The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: On the contrary, because the tribe of Levi remained on the bottom they were fewer in number. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita is saying: Although the tribe of Levi was on the bottom, the descendants of Joseph were among them, and the tribe of Joseph was numerous, as it is stated: “And the children of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying: Why did you give me a single lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the Lord has blessed me thus, and Joshua said to them: If you are a great people, you should go up to the forest” (Joshua 17:14–15).
אמר להן לכו והחבאו עצמכם ביערים שלא תשלוט בכם עין הרע אמרו ליה זרעיה דיוסף לא שלטא ביה עינא בישא דכתיב (בראשית מט, כב) בן פורת יוסף בן פורת עלי עין ואמר ר' אבהו אל תהי קורא עלי עין אלא עולי עין The Gemara explains that Joshua said to them: Go and hide yourselves in the forests, so that the evil eye will not have dominion over you, as you are such a large number of people. The tribe of Joseph said to him: The evil eye does not have dominion over the offspring of Joseph, as it is written: “Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain” (Genesis 49:22), and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: “By a fountain [alei ayin]”; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin], teaching that Joseph and his descendants are not susceptible to the evil eye.
רבי יוסי בר' חנינא אמר מהכא (בראשית מח, טז) וידגו לרוב בקרב הארץ מה דגים שבים מים מכסין עליהן ואין העין שולטת בהן אף זרעו של יוסף אין העין שולטת בהן The Gemara cites an alternative source for the assertion that the evil eye holds no sway over Joseph and his descendants: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said that it is derived from here: Jacob blessed Joseph’s children and said: “And let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earth” (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, waters cover them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, so too, with regard to Joseph’s descendants, the evil eye has no dominion over them.
הני חמשים אותיות חמשים נכי חדא הויין א"ר יצחק יוסף הוסיפו לו אות אחת שנאמר (תהלים פא, ו) עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים The Gemara asks with regard to the baraita that contradicts Rav Kahana’s opinion: Are these names of the tribes, which were written on the ephod, composed of a total of fifty letters? There are only forty-nine. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: They added one letter to the name of Joseph [Yosef ] when it was written on the ephod, as it is stated: “He appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef ] for a testimony when He went forth against the land of Egypt” (Psalms 81:6).
מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק כתולדותם בעינן אלא כל התורה כולה בנימן כתיב והכא בנימין שלם כדכתיב (בראשית לה, יח) ואביו קרא לו בנימין Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak objects to this: We require the names to be written “according to their birth,” and Joseph was not called Yehosef from birth. Rather, the explanation is as follows: Throughout the entire Torah, the name of Benjamin is written without a second letter yod between the letters mem and nun, and here, where he is born, Benjamin is written in full, spelled with a second yod. As it is written: “But his father called him Benjamin” (Genesis 35:18). Therefore, his name was written on the ephod with a second yod, “according to his birth.”
אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא יוסף שקידש שם שמים בסתר הוסיפו עליו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה יהודה שקידש שם שמים בפרהסיא נקרא כולו על שמו של הקב"ה § Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private, had one letter of the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the letter heh, added to his name. Whereas in the case of Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya] at the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt, merited that his entire name is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the entire four-letter name of God can be found within Judah’s name.
יוסף מאי היא דכתיב (בראשית לט, יא) ויהי כהיום הזה ויבא הביתה לעשות מלאכתו א"ר יוחנן מלמד ששניהם לדבר עבירה נתכוונו ויבא הביתה לעשות מלאכתו רב ושמואל חד אמר לעשות מלאכתו ממש וחד אמר לעשות צרכיו נכנס The Gemara explains: What is the situation where Joseph sanctified God’s name in private? As it is written: “And it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work” (Genesis 39:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that both Joseph and Potiphar’s wife stayed in the house, as they intended to perform a matter of sin. With regard to the phrase “when he went into the house to do his work,” Rav and Shmuel engage in a dispute with regard to its meaning. One says: It means that he went into the house to do his work, literally. And one says: He entered the house in order to fulfill his sexual needs with her.
ואין איש מאנשי הבית וגו' אפשר בית גדול כביתו של אותו רשע לא היה בו איש תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אותו היום יום חגם היה והלכו כולן לבית עבודת כוכבים שלהם והיא אמרה להן חולה היא אמרה אין לי יום שניזקק לי יוסף כיום הזה The verse continues: “And there was none of the men of the house there within” (Genesis 39:11). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that in such a large and important house like the house of that wicked man that no one was in there? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: That day was their festival day and they all went to their house of idol worship; and she told them that she was sick and could not go, as she said to herself: I have no day on which Joseph will attend to me like this day.
(בראשית לט, יב) ותתפשהו בבגדו לאמר וגו' באותה שעה באתה דיוקנו של אביו ונראתה לו בחלון אמר לו יוסף עתידין אחיך שיכתבו על אבני אפוד ואתה ביניהם רצונך שימחה שמך מביניהם ותקרא רועה זונות דכתיב (משלי כט, ג) ורועה זונות יאבד הון The verse states: “And she caught him by his garment, saying: Lie with me” (Genesis 39:12). At that moment his father’s image [deyokeno] came and appeared to him in the window. The image said to him: Joseph, the names of your brothers are destined to be written on the stones of the ephod, and you are to be included among them. Do you desire your name to be erased from among them, and to be called an associate [ro’eh] of promiscuous women? As it is written: “But he who keeps company with harlots wastes his riches” (Proverbs 29:3), as he loses his honor, which is more valuable than wealth.
מיד (בראשית מט, כד) ותשב באיתן קשתו א"ר יוחנן משום ר' מאיר ששבה קשתו לאיתנו ויפוזו זרועי ידיו נעץ ידיו בקרקע ויצאה שכבת זרעו מבין ציפורני ידיו Immediately: “And his bow abode [teishev] firm” (Genesis 49:24). Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Meir: This means that his bow, i.e., his penis, returned [shava] to its strength, as he overcame his desire. The verse about Joseph continues: “And the arms of his hands were made supple” (Genesis 49:24), meaning that he dug his hands into the ground and his semen was emitted between his fingernails.
מידי אביר יעקב מי גרם לו שיחקק על אבני אפוד אלא אביר יעקב משם רועה אבן ישראל משם זכה ונעשה רועה שנאמר (תהלים פ, ב) רועה ישראל האזינה נוהג כצאן יוסף “By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob” (Genesis 49:24): Who caused his name to be etched onto the stones of the ephod? It was only the might of Jacob. “From there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel” (Genesis 49:24) means: From there, because of Joseph’s ability to withstand this trial, he merited to become a shepherd [ro’eh] of the Jewish people, as it is stated: “Listen, O Shepherd of Israel, who leads like the flock of Joseph” (Psalms 80:2).
תניא היה ראוי יוסף לצאת ממנו י"ב שבטים כדרך שיצאו מיעקב אביו שנאמר (בראשית לז, ב) אלה תולדות יעקב יוסף אלא שיצא שכבת זרעו מבין ציפורני ידיו ואעפ"כ יצאו מבנימין אחיו וכולן נקראו על שמו שנאמר (בראשית מו, כא) ובני בנימין בלע ובכר ואשבל וגו' It is taught in a baraita: Joseph was deserving of having twelve tribes descend from him, the same as twelve tribes descended from his father Jacob, as it is stated: “These are the generations of Jacob, Joseph” (Genesis 37:2). This implies that everything that happened to Jacob was destined to happen to Joseph. However, he did not merit this because his semen was emitted from between his fingernails. And even so, the offspring that were meant to descend from him descended from his brother Benjamin, who had ten sons. And they were all named after Joseph, as it is stated: “And the sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard” (Genesis 46:21).
בלע שנבלע בין האומות ובכר בכור לאמו היה ואשבל ששבאו אל גרא שגר באכסניות The Gemara explains how each name relates to Joseph: Bela was named after Joseph, who was swallowed [nivla] among the nations. And Becher received that name because Joseph was the firstborn [bekhor] of his mother, Rachel. And Ashbel received his name because God sent Joseph into captivity [shevao El] in Egypt. Gera was named after Joseph, who dwelled [gar] in a foreign land [akhsaneyut].
ונעמן שנעים ביותר אחי וראש אחי הוא וראשי הוא מופים וחופים הוא לא ראה בחופתי ואני לא ראיתי בחופתו וארד שירד לבין אומות העולם א"ד וארד שפניו דומין לוורד And Naaman was called that because Joseph was extremely pleasing [na’im]. Ehi and Rosh received these names, as Benjamin said: Joseph is my brother [aḥi] and my leader [roshi]. Benjamin named his sons Muppim and Huppim, as Benjamin said: Joseph did not see my wedding canopy [ḥuppa] and I did not see his wedding canopy. And Ard was named after Joseph, who descended [yarad] to the lands of the nations of the world. Some say that the name Ard means that Joseph’s face was similar in its beauty to a rose [vered].
א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שאמר לו פרעה ליוסף (בראשית מא, מד) ובלעדיך לא ירים איש את ידו וגו' אמרו איצטגניני פרעה עבד שלקחו רבו בעשרים כסף תמשילהו עלינו אמר להן גנוני מלכות אני רואה בו Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: When Pharaoh said to Joseph: “And without you no man shall lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt” (Genesis 41:44), Pharaoh’s astrologers said: You will appoint a slave whose master bought him for twenty silver coins to rule over us? He said to them: I perceive royal characteristics [ginnunei malkhut] in him and see that he was not initially a slave.
אמרו לו א"כ יהא יודע בשבעים לשון בא גבריאל ולימדו שבעים לשון לא הוה קגמר הוסיף לו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה ולמד שנאמר (תהלים פא, ו) עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים (שפת לא ידעתי אשמע) ולמחר כל לישנא דאישתעי פרעה בהדיה אהדר ליה They said to him: If that is so and he is a child of royalty, he should know the seventy languages that all kings’ children learn. The angel Gabriel then came and taught him the seventy languages, but he could not learn all of them. Gabriel then added one letter, the letter heh, to Joseph’s name from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then he was able to learn the languages, as it is stated: “He appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony, when he went forth against the land of Egypt, the speech of one that I did not know I heard” (Psalms 81:6). And the next day, when he appeared before Pharaoh, in every language that Pharaoh spoke with him, he answered him.
אישתעי איהו בלשון הקדש לא הוה קא ידע מאי הוה אמר א"ל אגמרי אגמריה ולא גמר אמר ליה אישתבע לי דלא מגלית אישתבע לו Joseph then spoke in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and Pharaoh did not know what he was saying. Pharaoh said to him: Teach me that language. He taught him, but he could not learn it. Pharaoh said to him: Take an oath for my benefit that you will not reveal that I do not know this language. He took an oath for his benefit.
כי א"ל (בראשית נ, ה) אבי השביעני לאמור א"ל זיל איתשיל אשבועתך אמר ליה ואיתשלי נמי אדידך ואע"ג דלא ניחא ליה א"ל עלה וקבור את אביך כאשר השביעך Years later, when Joseph said to Pharaoh: “My father made me swear, saying” (Genesis 50:5) that I would bury him in Eretz Yisrael, Pharaoh said to him: Go request the dissolution of your oath. Joseph said to him: And should I also request dissolution for the oath that I took for your benefit? And consequently, even though Pharaoh was not amenable to letting Joseph go, he worried that Joseph would then request dissolution for the oath that he had taken for his benefit, and Pharaoh therefore said to him: “Go up and bury your father according to what he made you swear” (Genesis 50:6).
יהודה מאי היא דתניא היה ר"מ אומר כשעמדו ישראל על הים היו שבטים מנצחים זה עם זה זה אומר אני יורד תחלה לים וזה אומר אני יורד תחלה לים קפץ § What was the incident where Judah sanctified God’s name in public? As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: When the Jewish people stood at the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with one other. This one was saying: I am going into the sea first, and that one was saying: I am going into the sea first. Then, in jumped
שבטו של בנימין וירד לים תחילה שנאמר (תהלים סח, כח) שם בנימין צעיר רודם אל תקרי רודם אלא רד ים והיו שרי יהודה רוגמים אותם שנאמר (תהלים סח, כח) שרי יהודה רגמתם the tribe of Benjamin and descended into the sea first, as it is stated: “There is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them [rodem]” (Psalms 68:28). Do not read it as: “Ruling them [rodem]”; rather, read it as: Descending [red] into the sea [yam]. And the princes of the tribe of Judah were stoning them [rogmim otam] for plunging in first and not in the proper order, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: “The princes of Judah, their council [rigmatam]” (Psalms 68:28).
לפיכך זכה בנימין הצדיק ונעשה אושפיזכן לגבורה שנאמר (דברים לג, יב) ובין כתפיו שכן Therefore, Benjamin the righteous was privileged to serve as host to the Divine Presence of the Almighty, as the Temple was built in the territory of Benjamin, as it is stated in Moses’ blessing for the tribe of Benjamin: “The beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by Him; He covers him all the day, and He rests between his shoulders” (Deuteronomy 33:12).
אמר לו רבי יהודה לא כך היה מעשה אלא זה אומר אין אני יורד תחילה לים וזה אומר אין אני יורד תחילה לים קפץ נחשון בן עמינדב וירד לים תחילה שנאמר (הושע יב, א) סבבוני בכחש אפרים ובמרמה בית ישראל ויהודה עוד רד עם אל Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: That is not how the incident took place. Rather, this tribe said: I am not going into the sea first, and that tribe said: I am not going into the sea first. Then, in jumped the prince of Judah, Nahshon ben Amminadab, and descended into the sea first, accompanied by his entire tribe, as it is stated: “Ephraim surrounds Me with lies and the house of Israel with deceit, and Judah is yet wayward toward God [rad im El]” (Hosea 12:1), which is interpreted homiletically as: And Judah descended [rad] with God [im El].
ועליו מפרש בקבלה (תהלים סט, ב) הושיעני אלהים כי באו מים עד נפש טבעתי ביון מצולה ואין מעמד וגו' (תהלים סט, טז) אל תשטפני שבולת מים ואל תבלעני מצולה וגו' And in this regard, the tradition, i.e., the Writings, explicates Nahshon’s prayer at that moment: “Save me, God; for the waters are come in even unto the soul. I am sunk in deep mire, where there is no standing…let not the water flood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up” (Psalms 69:2–3, 16).
באותה שעה היה משה מאריך בתפלה אמר לו הקב"ה ידידיי טובעים בים ואתה מאריך בתפלה לפני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ומה בידי לעשות אמר לו (שמות יד, טו) דבר אל בני ישראל ויסעו ואתה הרם את מטך ונטה את ידך וגו' At that time, Moses was prolonging his prayer. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: My beloved ones are drowning in the sea and you prolong your prayer to me? Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, but what can I do? God said to him: “Speak to the children of Israel that they go forward. And you, lift up your rod and stretch out your hand” (Exodus 14:15–16).
לפיכך זכה יהודה לעשות ממשלה בישראל שנאמר (תהלים קיד, ב) היתה יהודה לקדשו ישראל ממשלותיו מה טעם היתה יהודה לקדשו וישראל ממשלותיו משום דהים ראה וינוס For this reason, because Nahshon and the tribe of Judah went into the sea first, the tribe of Judah merited to govern Israel, as it is stated: “Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it and fled” (Psalms 114:2–3). The baraita interprets the verses in this manner: What is the reason that Judah became His sanctuary and Israel came under His dominion? It is because “the sea saw it and fled.”
תניא רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר אי אפשר לומר לוי למטה שכבר נאמר למעלה ואי אפשר לומר למעלה שכבר נאמר למטה § The Gemara returns to discussing the blessing and curses. It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:9) that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: It is impossible to say that the tribe of Levi stood below, between the two mountains, as it is already stated that they were above, in the verse: “These shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people when you have passed over the Jordan: Simeon and Levi and Judah” (Deuteronomy 27:12). And it is impossible to say that they stood above on the mountain because it is already stated: “And all of Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side before the priests the Levites” (Joshua 8:33). This shows that the Levites stood below, between the mountains, with the Ark.
הא כיצד זקני כהונה ולויה למטה והשאר למעלה רבי יאשיה אומר כל הראוי לשרת למטה והשאר למעלה How is this possible? Only the Elders of the priesthood and the Levites stood below, and the rest of the Levites stood above on the mountain. Rabbi Yoshiya says: Any Levite who was fit to serve in the Temple stood below, between the mountains, and the rest of the tribe, who were too young or too old to serve in the Temple, stood above on the mountain.
רבי אומר אלו ואלו למטה הן עומדים הפכו פניהם כלפי הר גריזים ופתחו בברכה כלפי הר עיבל ופתחו בקללה מאי (דברים כז, יב) על על בסמוך Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Both the Levites and the Israelites were standing below. They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing, and then they turned toward Mount Ebal and opened with a curse. Therefore, what is the meaning of the verse: “These shall stand on [al ] Mount Gerizim to bless the people” (Deuteronomy 27:12)? Al means adjacent to the mountain but not actually on the mountain itself.
כדתניא (ויקרא כד, ז) ונתת על המערכת לבונה זכה רבי אומר על בסמוך אתה אומר על בסמוך או אינו אלא על ממש כשהוא אומר (שמות מ, ג) וסכות על הארון הוי אומר על בסמוך As it is taught in a baraita that discusses the shewbread: “And you shall put pure frankincense on [al ] each row” (Leviticus 24:7). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: “Al in this instance means adjacent to. Do you say that al means adjacent to, or perhaps it carries only its literal meaning of “on”? When it says in the verse: “And you shall screen the Ark [al haAron] with the curtain” (Exodus 40:3), the word “al” cannot mean on, as the curtain that separated the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies was not placed on top of the Ark, but near it. Therefore, you must say that al means adjacent to.
הפכו פניהם כלפי הר גריזים ופתחו בברכה כו' תנו רבנן ברוך בכלל ברוך בפרט ארור בכלל ארור בפרט ללמוד וללמד לשמור ולעשות הרי § It is stated in the mishna: They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing: Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image (see Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people, i.e., the two groups standing on either mountain, answered: Amen. Then they turned to face Mount Ebal and opened with the curse: “Cursed be the man who makes a graven or molten image” (Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people answered: Amen. The Sages taught (Tosefta 8:10): The blessings and curses include a general blessing for one who fulfills the entire Torah, and a particular blessing for each individual statement mentioned in the blessings and curses. Likewise, there is a general curse for one who does not fulfill the entire Torah and a particular curse for each individual statement. And for each of the blessings and curses there is a mitzva to learn and to teach, and to keep and to perform. Consequently,