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Mishnah Sheviit 1 משנה שביעית
Until when is plowing done in a field with trees in the pre-Sabbatical year? According to Beit Shammai, as long as the plowing contributes to the growth of the fruit. According to Beit Hillel, until Shavuot [festival at the end of the wheat harvest]. These two measures are almost identical. עד אימתי חורשין בשדה האילן ערב שביעית. בית שמאי אומרים, כל זמן שהוא יפה לפרי. ובית הלל אומרים, עד העצרת. וקרובין דברי אלו להיות כדברי אלו. What is considered an orchard? Any [field which has at least] three trees per Beit Se'ah [area of land large enough to be planted with a Se'ah of grain]. If they are able to produce a block of pressed figs of sixty Italian Maneh [specific unit of weight], one can plow the whole Beit Se'ah on their account. Less than this, one can only plow for them an area [that would be needed to be] filled by the gatherer with his basket at his side. איזהו שדה האילן. כל שלשה אילנות לבית סאה, אם ראויין לעשות ככר דבלה של ששים מנה באיטלקי, חורשים כל בית סאה בשבילן. פחות מכאן, אין חורשין להן אלא מלא האורה וסלו חוצה לו. Both a non-fruit tree and a fruit tree are considered [as though they were] fig trees. If they are able to produce a block of pressed figs of sixty Italian Maneh, one can plow the whole Beit Se'ah due to their presence. Less than this, one can only plow [what the trees] need. אחד אילן סרק ואחד אילן מאכל, רואין אותן כאלו הם תאנים. אם ראויים לעשות ככר דבלה של ששים מנה באיטלקי, חורשים כל בית סאה בשבילן. פחות מכאן, אין חורשים להם אלא לצרכן. If one [tree] makes a block of pressed figs and two do not, or two make and one does not, one cannot plow for them except for their needs, as long as there are between three and nine [trees]. If there are at least ten, from ten and up, [regardless of] whether they produce or do not produce, the entire Beit Se'ah can be plowed because of their presence. As it says (Exodus 34:12), "From the plowing and the reaping you shall rest"; [this verse] is not needed to discuss the plowing and reaping of the Sabbatical year, rather the plowing of the pre-Sabbatical year that enters the Sabbatical year, and the reaping of the post-Sabbatical year that leaves the Sabbatical year. Rabbi Yishmael says, [this verse is needed to say that] just as [the prohibition extends only to] optional plowing, so too to optional reaping, excluding reaping the Omer [barley offering]. היה אחד עושה ככר דבלה ושנים אין עושין, או שנים עושין ואחד אינו עושה, אין חורשין להם אלא לצרכן, עד שיהיו משלשה ועד תשעה. היו עשרה, מעשרה ולמעלה, בין עושין בין שאינן עושין, חורשין כל בית סאה בשבילן. שנאמר (שמות לד) בחריש ובקציר תשבת, אין צריך לומר חריש וקציר של שביעית, אלא חריש של ערב שביעית שהוא נכנס בשביעית, וקציר של שביעית שהוא יוצא למוצאי שביעית. רבי ישמעאל אומר, מה חריש רשות, אף קציר רשות, יצא קציר העמר. If three trees belong to three different people, they combine and the whole Beit Se'ah can be plowed for them. And how much [distance] needs to be between them? Rabban Gamliel says, [enough distance] that a [pair of] oxen can pass [between them] with a plow. שלשה אילנות של שלשה אנשים, הרי אלו מצטרפין, וחורשין כל בית סאה בשבילן. וכמה יהא ביניהם, רבן גמליאל אומר, כדי שיהא הבקר עובר בכליו. Where ten saplings are scattered in a Beit Se'ah, one may plow the whole Beit Se'ah on their account up until Rosh HaShanah [New Year's festival]. If they are arranged into a row or surrounded by a border, then one may only plow on their account what is necessary for them. עשר נטיעות מפזרות בתוך בית סאה, חורשין כל בית סאה בשבילן, עד ראש השנה. היו עשויות שורה ומקפות עטרה, אין חורשין להם אלא לצרכן. Saplings and squash vines combine for calculating the [number of saplings in a] Beit Se'ah. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says, Whenever there are ten squash vines in a Beit Se'ah, one may plow the whole Beit Se'ah on their account until Rosh HaShanah. הנטיעות והדלועים, מצטרפין לתוך בית סאה. רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר, כל עשרה דלועים לבית סאה, חורשין כל בית סאה עד ראש השנה. For how long are they called saplings? Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says, until they become unconsecrated. Rabbi Yehoshua says, [until they are] seven years old. Rabbi Akiva says, a sapling is like its name. A tree that was cut down and has put out branches -- [if it was cut] lower than a handbreadth is like a sapling, and higher than a handbreadth is like a tree, [these are the] words of Rabbi Shimon. עד אימתי נקראו נטיעות. רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר, עד שיחלו. רבי יהושע אומר, בת שבע שנים. רבי עקיבא אומר, נטיעה כשמה. אילן שנגמם והוציא חליפין, מטפח ולמטה כנטיעה, מטפח ולמעלה, כאילן, דברי רבי שמעון.
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