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Mishnah Shekalim 1.4 משנה שקלים
On the first of the month of Adar a proclamation is made about the [giving of the] shekalim and about kilayim [forbidden mixed plantings]. On the 15th of the month the Book of Esther is read in cities. Additionally, they repair the roads between cities, the roads within cities, the mikvaot [pools for ritual immersion], take care of all public needs, mark graves and remove the kilayim [from the fields]. באחד באדר משמיעין על השקלים ועל הכלאים. בחמשה עשר בו קורין את המגילה בכרכין, ומתקנין את הדרכים ואת הרחובות ואת מקואות המים, ועושין כל צרכי הרבים, ומצינין את הקברות, ויוצאין אף על הכלאים. Rabbi Yehuda said: At first they used to uproot [kilayim] and would throw it away before them. When sinners began to multiply [i.e. when people did not remove the kilayim] they would uproot it and throw it on the roads. [Eventually,] they decreed that the entire field should be declared ownerless [and anyone can take food from these fields - because the owners did not remove their kilayim at all]. אמר רבי יהודה, בראשונה היו עוקרין ומשליכין לפניהם. משרבו עוברי עבירה, היו עוקרין ומשליכין על הדרכים, התקינו שיהו מפקירין כל השדה כלה. On the 15th [of Adar] tables would be set up [in order to exchange money] throughout the land. On the 25th they would set up in the Temple. When they moved to the Temple they began to mortgage [property and other valuables for coins]. Who did they take mortgages from? Levites, Israelites, converts and freed slaves. They did not take mortgages from women, slaves and children. Any child whose father has begun to pay the shekel for him, [the father] cannot stop paying the half-shekel on his behalf. They did not take mortgages from priests for the sake of peace. בחמשה עשר בו, שלחנות היו יושבין במדינה. בעשרים וחמשה, ישבו במקדש. משישבו במקדש, התחילו למשכן. את מי ממשכנין, לוים וישראלים, גרים ועבדים משחררים, אבל לא נשים ועבדים וקטנים. כל קטן שהתחיל אביו לשקול על ידו, שוב אינו פוסק. ואין ממשכנין את הכהנים מפני דרכי שלום. Rabbi Yehuda said: Ben Bukhrei testified in Yavneh saying that a priest that contributes the half-shekel is not sinning. Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai said to him: This is not true. In fact, any priest who does not give a half-shekel is sinning. Rather, the priests interpreted the verse for their own benefit, "And every meal-offering of a priest shall be wholly made to smoke; it shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 6:16): If the omer [barley measure] offering and the lechem hapanim [showbread, displayed in the Temple] offering are ours, how can they be eaten? אמר רבי יהודה, העיד בן בוכרי ביבנה, כל כהן ששוקל אינו חוטא. אמר לו רבן יוחנן בן זכאי, לא כי, אלא כל כהן שאינו שוקל חוטא, אלא שהכהנים דורשים מקרא זה לעצמן: (ויקרא ו:טז) "וכל מנחת כהן כליל תהיה לא תאכל", הואיל ועמר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים שלנו, היאך נאכלים. Despite the fact that it was taught that we do not accept mortgages from women, slaves and children - if they gave a half-shekel it was accepted. The half-shekel of non-Jew or the Cuthite is not accepted. We also do not accept from a non-Jew or a Cuthite the bird offering of a man who was a zav [had an unusual genital flow] or a woman who was a zavah [had an unusual genital flow], the bird offering of a woman who has given birth, sin offerings or guilt offerings, but we do accept from them vowed offerings. This is the rule: Any vowed or donated offering is accepted from them; any offering that is not vowed or donated is not accepted from them. Accordingly it was explained by Ezra who said, "It is not for you and for us to build a house for our God." (Ezra 4:3) אף על פי שאמרו, אין ממשכנין נשים ועבדים וקטנים, אם שקלו מקבלין מידן. הנכרי והכותי ששקלו, אין מקבלין מידן. ואין מקבלין מידן קני זבין וקני זבות וקני יולדות, וחטאות ואשמות, אבל נדרים ונדבות, מקבלין מידן. זה הכלל, כל שנדר ונדב, מקבלין מידן; כל שאין נדר ונדב אין מקבלין מידן. וכן הוא מפרש על ידי עזרא, שנאמר: (עזרא ד:ג) "לא לכם ולנו לבנות בית לאלהינו". The following people have to pay a surcharge when buying the half-shekel coin: Levites, Israelites, converts and freed slaves. However, priests, women, slaves and children do not have to pay the surcharge. One who pays the half-shekel on behalf of a priest, a woman, a slave or child is exempt [from paying the surcharge]. If he pays the half-shekel on his own behalf and on behalf of his fellow, he must only pay the surcharge once. Rabbi Meir said: He must pay it twice. One who gives a sela [which is worth two shekels] and receives one shekel in return must pay the surcharge twice. ואלו שחיבין בקלבון, לוים וישראלים וגרים ועבדים משחררים, אבל לא כהנים ונשים ועבדים וקטנים. השוקל על ידי כהן, על ידי אשה, על ידי עבד, על ידי קטן, פטור. ואם שקל על ידו ועל יד חברו, חיב בקלבון אחד. רבי מאיר אומר, שני קלבונות. הנותן סלע ונוטל שקל, חיב שני קלבונות. One who pays the half-shekel on behalf of a poor person, or his neighbor, or a resident of his city, is exempt from the surcharge. However, if he loaned them [the half-shekel] he must pay it. Brothers and partners who must pay the surcharge are exempt from tithes on animals, and in cases where they are required to give tithes on animals, they are exempt from the surcharge. How much is the surcharge? Rabbi Meir said: 1 silver meah [1/12 of a shekel]. The Sages said: 1/2 of a silver meah [1/24 of a shekel]. השוקל על ידי עני, ועל ידי שכנו, ועל ידי בן עירו, פטור. ואם הלום חיב. האחין והשתפין שחיבין בקלבון, פטורין ממעשר בהמה. וכשחיבין במעשר בהמה, פטורין מן הקלבון. וכמה הוא קלבון, מעה כסף, דברי רבי מאיר. וחכמים אומרים, חצי.
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