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Mishnah Sanhedrin 9.6 משנה סנהדרין
And these are [executed by] burning: one who sleeps with with a woman and her daughter, and a priest's daughter who commits adultery. Included in the [prohibition] of "a woman and her daughter" are: his daughter, his daughter's daughter, his son's daughter, his wife's daughter, her daughter's daughter, his mother-in-law, the mother of his mother-in-law, and the mother of his father-in-law. And these are [executed by] decapitation: a murderer and the occupants of a wayward city [a city whose inhabitants are mostly idolatrous Jews]. A murderer who struck his neighbor with stone or iron, or held him down into water or into fire such that he is unable to ascend from there, and [the victim] dies—he is liable. [If he] pushed him into water or into fire such that he is able to ascend from there, and he dies—he is exempt. [If he] set a dog on him or he set a snake on him, he is exempt. [If he] caused the snake to bite him, Rabbi Yehudah maintains he is liable, and the Sages maintain he is exempt. One who strikes his fellow, whether with a stone or with his fist, and they evaluated that the victim will die, and [his condition] improved from what it was, then later it became more severe, and he dies—he is liable. Rabbi Nechemiah says, he is exempt, because there is a basis for the matter [i.e. the claim that his death did not result from the blow]. ואלו הן הנשרפין, הבא על אשה ובתה, ובת כהן שזנתה. יש בכלל אשה ובתה, בתו, ובת בתו, ובת בנו, ובת אשתו, ובת בתה, ובת בנה, חמותו, ואם חמותו, ואם חמיו. ואלו הן הנהרגים, הרוצח, ואנשי עיר הנדחת. רוצח שהכה את רעהו באבן או בברזל, וכבש עליו לתוך המים או לתוך האור, ואינו יכול לעלות משם, ומת, חיב. דחפו לתוך המים או לתוך האור ויכול לעלות משם ומת, פטור. שסה בו את הכלב, שסה בו את הנחש, פטור. השיך בו את הנחש, רבי יהודה מחיב, וחכמים פוטרין. המכה את חברו בין באבן בין באגרוף, ואמדוהו למיתה, והקל ממה שהיה, ולאחר מכאן הכביד ומת, חיב. רבי נחמיה אומר, פטור, שרגלים לדבר. [If one] intended to kill an animal and killed a person; [or intended to kill] a non-Jew and killed a Jew; [or intended to kill] a fetus that was not viable and killed a viable fetus, he is exempt. [If he] intended to strike another on his loins, without enough [strength] to kill him [by striking] his loins, and the blow hit him on his heart with enough strength to kill him, and he died, he is exempt. [If he] intended to strike another on his heart, with enough strength to kill him on his heart, and the blow hit him on his loins, without enough strength to kill him on his loins, and he died, he is exempt. [If he] intended to strike an adult, without enough strength to kill an adult, and the blow landed on a minor, with enough strength to kill a minor, and he died, he is exempt. [If he] intended to strike a minor, with enough strength to kill a minor, and the blow landed on an adult, without enough strength to kill an adult, and he died, he is exempt. However, [if he] intended to strike another on his loins with enough strength to kill him on his loins, and the blow landed on his heart, and he died, he is liable. [Similarly, if he] intended to strike an adult, with enough strength to kill an adult, and the blow landed on a minor, and he died, he is liable. Rabbi Shimon says, even [if he] intended to kill this one, and he killed that one, he is exempt. נתכון להרוג את הבהמה והרג את האדם, לנכרי והרג את ישראל, לנפלים והרג את בן קימא, פטור. נתכון להכותו על מתניו ולא היה בה כדי להמית על מתניו, והלכה לה על לבו והיה בה כדי להמית על לבו, ומת, פטור. נתכון להכותו על לבו והיה בה כדי להמית על לבו, והלכה לה על מתניו ולא היה בה כדי להמית על מתניו, ומת, פטור. נתכון להכות את הגדול ולא היה בה כדי להמית את הגדול, והלכה לה על הקטן והיה בה כדי להמית את הקטן, ומת, פטור. נתכון להכות את הקטן והיה בה כדי להמית את הקטן, והלכה לה על הגדול ולא היה בה כדי להמית את הגדול, ומת, פטור. אבל נתכון להכות על מתניו והיה בה כדי להמית על מתניו, והלכה לה על לבו, ומת, חיב. נתכון להכות את הגדול והיה בה כדי להמית את הגדול, והלכה לה על הקטן, ומת, חיב. רבי שמעון אומר, אפלו נתכון להרוג את זה והרג את זה, פטור. [If] a murderer became mixed into a [group of] other people, they are all exempt. Rabbi Yehudah says, they bring them into the dome [a jail]. [If] many people mix with one another, [all of whom] are liable for execution, they are [all] executed with the least severe [form of execution]. [If] those who are to be stoned become mixed up with those who are to be burned, Rabbi Shimon says, they are to be stoned, since burning is the more severe. And the Sages say, they are to be burned, since stoning is the more severe. Rabbi Shimon said to them, if burning were not the more severe, it would not be given [as punishment] to a priest's daughter who committed adultery! They said to him, if stoning were not the more severe, it would not be given to to the blasphemer and the idolator! [If] those to be decapitated become mixed with those to be strangled, Rabbi Shimon says, [they are to be executed] with a sword [i.e. decapitated]. And the Sages say, by strangulation. רוצח שנתערב באחרים, כלן פטורין. רבי יהודה אומר, כונסין אותן לכפה. כל חיבי מיתות שנתערבו זה בזה, נדונין בקלה. הנסקלין בנשרפין, רבי שמעון אומר, נדונין בסקילה, שהשרפה חמורה. וחכמים אומרים, נדונין בשרפה, שהסקילה חמורה. אמר להן רבי שמעון, אלו לא היתה שרפה חמורה, לא נתנה לבת כהן שזנתה. אמרו לו, אלו לא היתה סקילה חמורה, לא נתנה למגדף ולעובד עבודה זרה. הנהרגין בנחנקין, רבי שמעון אומר, בסיף. וחכמים אומרים, בחנק. One who is liable for two [forms of] execution is given the more severe. [If] he commits a transgression which incurs two death penalties, he is given given the more severe. Rabbi Yosi says, he is given [the one that accords with] the first obligation that comes upon him [i.e. he is given the form of execution warranted by the first transgression he committed]. מי שנתחיב בשתי מיתות בית דין, נדון בחמורה. עבר עברה שיש בה שתי מיתות, נדון בחמורה. רבי יוסי אומר, נדון בזקה הראשונה שבאה עליו. One who is lashed [as punishment for a transgression] and then repeats [that transgression], the court puts him in the dome and feeds him barley until his stomach bursts. One who kills someone in the absence of witnesses, they put him in the dome and feed him sparing bread and scant water. מי שלקה ושנה, בית דין מכניסים אותו לכפה ומאכילין אותו שעורין עד שכרסו מתבקעת. ההורג נפש שלא בעדים, מכניסין אותו לכפה ומאכילין אותו לחם צר ומים לחץ. One who steals a kasvah [a vessel for use in the Temple]; one who curses [God] by enchantment; and one who sleeps with an Aramean woman—zealots may attack him. A priest who served while ritually impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court. Rather, the young priests take him outside the Temple courtyard, and split his skull with logs. A non-priest who served in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says, [he is executed] by strangulation; and the Sages say, [his is executed] by Heaven's hands [and not by the court]. הגונב את הקסוה, והמקלל בקוסם, והבועל ארמית, קנאין פוגעין בו. כהן ששמש בטמאה, אין אחיו הכהנים מביאין אותו לבית דין, אלא פרחי כהנה מוציאין אותו חוץ לעזרה ומפציעין את מוחו בגזרין. זר ששמש במקדש, רבי עקיבא אומר, בחנק. וחכמים אומרים, בידי שמים.
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