2ב׳
1 א
אֵלּוּ מְצִיאוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. אֵלּוּ מְצִיאוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ, מָצָא פֵרוֹת מְפֻזָּרִין, מָעוֹת מְפֻזָּרוֹת, כְּרִיכוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְעִגּוּלֵי דְבֵלָה, כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹם, מַחֲרוֹזוֹת שֶׁל דָּגִים, וַחֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁל בָּשָׂר, וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶר הַבָּאוֹת מִמְּדִינָתָן, וַאֲנִיצֵי פִשְׁתָּן, וּלְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁל אַרְגָּמָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁנּוּי, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. כֵּיצַד. מָצָא עִגּוּל וּבְתוֹכוֹ חֶרֶס, כִּכָּר וּבְתוֹכוֹ מָעוֹת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, כָּל כְּלֵי אֶנְפּוֹרְיָא אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז: Which are the found items that belong to him [the finder], and which ones must he announce? These are the found items which belong to him [the finder]: if one found scattered fruit, scattered money, sheaves in the public domain, fig-cakes, baker's bread, strings of fish, cuts of meat, wool as it is from the country, bundles of flax and purple wool - these are his [the finder's,] these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, anything which has on it a change, one must announce. How so? If one found a cake with a clay shard in it, or a sheaf with money within it. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says, any merchandise, one does not need to announce.
2 ב
וְאֵלוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז, מָצָא פֵרוֹת בִּכְלִי אוֹ כְלִי כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, מָעוֹת בְּכִיס אוֹ כִיס כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, צִבּוּרֵי פֵרוֹת, צִבּוּרֵי מָעוֹת, שְׁלשָׁה מַטְבְּעוֹת זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה, כְּרִיכוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְכִכָּרוֹת שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶר הַלְּקוּחוֹת מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן, כַּדֵּי יַיִן וְכַדֵּי שֶׁמֶן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז: And these [objects] one is required to announce: if one found fruit in a vessel or a vessel as is, money in a purse or any purse as is, heaps of fruit or heaps of money, three coins stacked one on top of another, sheaves in private property, or home-baked bread, shearings of wool bought from the artisan, jugs of wine or oil - these one must announce.
3 ג
מָצָא אַחַר הַגַּפָּה אוֹ אַחַר הַגָּדֵר גּוֹזָלוֹת מְקֻשָּׁרִין, אוֹ בִשְׁבִילִין שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן. מָצָא כְלִי בָּאַשְׁפָּה, אִם מְכֻסֶּה, לֹא יִגַּע בּוֹ, אִם מְגֻלֶּה, נוֹטֵל וּמַכְרִיז. מָצָא בְגַל אוֹ בְכֹתֶל יָשָׁן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. מָצָא בְכֹתֶל חָדָשׁ, מֵחֶצְיוֹ וְלַחוּץ, שֶׁלּוֹ, מֵחֶצְיוֹ וְלִפְנִים, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. אִם הָיָה מַשְׂכִּירוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ: If one found, behind a hedge or a fence, a group of tied-together fledglings, or in the pathways of fields - one should not touch them. If one found a vessel in a trash-heap: if it was covered, one should not touch it, but if it was exposed, one should take and announce [it]. If one found [an object] in a stone-pile or in an old wall, these belong to him [the finder]. If one found [an object] in a new wall: from the middle [of the wall] to the outside, these belong to him [the finder], [but] from the middle [of the wall] to the inside, these belong to the owner of the house. If the house had been rented to others, [then] even something [found] within the house [itself] these belong to him [the finder].
4 ד
מָצָא בַחֲנוּת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. בֵּין הַתֵּבָה וְלַחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁל חֶנְוָנִי. לִפְנֵי שֻׁלְחָנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. בֵּין הַכִּסֵּא וְלַשֻּׁלְחָנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לַשֻּׁלְחָנִי. הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלַח לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ פֵּרוֹת, וּמָצָא בָהֶן מָעוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם הָיוּ צְרוּרִין, נוֹטֵל וּמַכְרִיז: If one found [an object] in a store, these belong to him [the finder]. Between the counter and the shopkeeper, these belong to the shopkeeper. In front of the money-changer, these belong to him [the finder]. Between the seat and the money-changer, these belong to the money-changer. The one who buys fruits from another or who sent fruit to another, and within them found coins, these belong to him [the finder]. [But] if they were tied [together], one should take [them] and announce [their finding].
5 ה
אַף הַשִּׂמְלָה הָיְתָה בִכְלָל כָּל אֵלֶּה. לָמָּה יָצָאת. לְהָקִּישׁ אֵלֶיהָ, לוֹמַר לְךָ, מַה שִּׂמְלָה מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לָהּ תּוֹבְעִים, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לוֹ תוֹבְעִים, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז: Even a garment is in the same general rule of all of these. Why [did the Torah] specify it? To compare to it, to say to you: just as a garment is special in that it has markings, and [if lost] there are claimants for it, so too anything which has markings and has claimants for it, one must announce [it].
6 ו
וְעַד מָתַי חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז. עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ בוֹ שְׁכֵנָיו, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שָׁלשׁ רְגָלִים, וְאַחַר הָרֶגֶל הָאַחֲרוֹן שִׁבְעָה יָמִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ לְבֵיתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה וְיַחֲזֹר שְׁלשָׁה וְיַכְרִיז יוֹם אֶחָד: And until when must one announce [the object]? Until one's neighbors knew of it - these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says, the three pilgrimage festivals, and after the last festival, seven days - in order that [someone] will go home - three, and will return - three, and will announce - one day.
7 ז
אָמַר אֶת הָאֲבֵדָה וְלֹא אָמַר סִימָנֶיהָ, לֹא יִתֶּן לוֹ. וְהָ רַמַּאי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר סִימָנֶיהָ, לֹא יִתֶּן לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב) עַד דְּרשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ, עַד שֶׁתִּדְרשׁ אֶת אָחִיךָ אִם רַמַּאי הוּא אִם אֵינוֹ רַמָּאי. כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל, יַעֲשֶׂה וְיֹאכַל. וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵין עוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל, יִמָּכֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ, רְאֵה הֵיאַךְ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ. מַה יְּהֵא בַדָּמִים. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן: If one described the lost object but not its markings, one should not give [it] to him. And the deceiver, even though he described its markings, one should not give [it] to him, as the Torah states, (Deuteronomy 22:2) "Until your brother sought darash it": Until you investigate tidrosh [whether] your brother is a fraud [or] if he is not a fraud. Anything which does work and eats, one may use it [to do work] and feed it. Something which does not work but does eat, [the finder] must sell it, as the Torah states, (Deuteronomy 22:2) "You shall return it to him": See how you shall return it to him. What should be [done] with the money? Rabbi Tarfon says, one may use them - therefore, if [the money] was lost, he is responsible for them. Rabbi Akiva says, one may not use them, therefore if [the money] was lost, he is not responsible for them.
8 ח
מָצָא סְפָרִים, קוֹרֵא בָהֶן אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, גּוֹלְלָן. אֲבָל לֹא יִלְמֹד בָּהֶן בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְלֹא יִקְרָא אַחֵר עִמּוֹ. מָצָא כְסוּת, מְנַעֲרָהּ אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְשׁוֹטְחָהּ לְצָרְכָּהּ, אֲבָל לֹא לִכְבוֹדוֹ. כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת, מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן לְצָרְכָּן, אֲבָל לֹא לְשָׁחֳקָן. כְּלֵי זָהָב וּ כְלֵי זְכוּכִית, לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. מָצָא שַׂק אוֹ קֻפָּה, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לִטֹּל, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל: If one found sefarim [books of the Tanach written in holiness, on parchment, and used for personal or public study, or for reading aloud in public. Sometimes the intent is specifically Torah scrolls], one should read from them once every thirty days and if one does not know how to read, he should roll them. However, one should not learn from them for the first time, nor may one read [from them] with someone else. If one found clothing, one should shake it once every thirty days, and spread it out [according] to its need, but not to honor himself [by hanging it in his home]. Utensils of silver or bronze, one should use them [according] to their need, but not to wear them out. Utensils of gold or glass one should not touch them until Eliyahu comes. If one found a bag or a box, or anything which is undignified to pick up - one should not pick [it] up.
9 ט
אֵיזוֹ הִיא אֲבֵדָה, מָצָא חֲמוֹר אוֹ פָרָה רוֹעִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אֵין זוֹ אֲבֵדָה. חֲמוֹר וְכֵלָיו הֲפוּכִין, פָּרָה רָצָה בֵּין הַכְּרָמִים, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲבֵדָה. הֶחֱזִירָהּ וּבָרְחָה, הֶחֱזִירָהּ וּבָרְחָה, אֲפִילוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְעָמִים, חַיָּב לְהַחֲזִירָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב) הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם. הָיָה בָטֵל מִ סֶּלַע, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי סֶלַע, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ כְּפוֹעֵל בָּטֵל. אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם בֵּית דִּין, מַתְנֶה בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין. אִם אֵין שָׁם בֵּית דִּין, בִּפְנֵי מִי יַתְנֶה, שֶׁלּוֹ קוֹדֵם: What is a lost object? If one found a donkey or a cow grazing along the path, this is not a lost object; a donkey with its gear overturned, a cow running between vineyards, this is a lost object. If [the finder] returned the animal and it ran away, he returned it and it ran away, even four or five times, he is obligated to return it; as the Torah states, (Deuteronomy 22:1) "You shall surely return them." If [the finder's] lost time is worth a sela, he should not say to him [the owner]: "Give me a sela;" but he should give him his wage like an idle laborer. If there is a court there, he may bring it before the court; if there is not a court there before which to bring it, his own [need] takes precedence.
10 י
מְצָאָהּ בָּרֶפֶת, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בָּהּ. בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, חַיָּב בָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה בֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת, לֹא יִטַּמָּא לָהּ. אִם אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו, הִטַּמֵּא, אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ, אַל תַּחֲזִיר, לֹא יִשְׁמַע לוֹ. פָּרַק וְטָעַן, פָּרַק וְטָעַן, אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְעָמִים, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב. הָלַךְ וְיָשַׁב לוֹ וְאָמַר, הוֹאִיל וְעָלֶיךָ מִצְוָה, אִם רְצוֹנְךָ לִפְרֹק פְּרֹק, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, עִמּוֹ. אִם הָיָה זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה, חַיָּב. מִצְוָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לִפְרֹק, אֲבָל לֹא לִטְעֹן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף לִטְעֹן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה עָלָיו יָתֵר עַל מַשָּׂאוֹ, אֵין זָקוּק לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, תַּחַת מַשָּׂאוֹ, מַשְּׂאוֹי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ: If one found [an animal] in the stable, he is not obligated with it; [if it is in] the public domain, he is obligated with it. If it was in a cemetery, he may not impurify [himself] for it. If his father said to him 'impurify [yourself]', or 'do not return [a lost object]', he should not listen to him. If [a person] unloaded [an animal] and [the owner] reloaded [the animal], he unloaded and he reloaded, even four or five times, he is obligated [to unload]; as the Torah states, (Exodus 23:5): "You shall surely relieve." If [the owner] went and sat down, and said to the passer-by: 'Since the mitsvah is upon you, if it is your will to unload [the animal], do so,' [the latter] is exempt; as the Torah states, (Exodus 23:5) "With him." If he is old or sick, he is obligated. It is a mitsvah from the Torah to unload [an animal], but not to reload [it]. Rabbi Shimon says: "Even to reload." Rabbi Yosei the Galilean says: "If [the weight] was more than it was able to carry, it is not necessary for him, as the Torah states, (Exodus 23:5): "Under its burden": a burden that it is able to withstand.
11 יא
אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדַת אָבִיו, אֲבֵדָתוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת. אֲבֵדָתוֹ וַאֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ, שֶׁלּוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת. אֲבֵדַת אָבִיו וַאֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ, שֶׁל רַבּוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת, שֶׁאָבִיו הֱבִיאוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וְרַבּוֹ שֶׁלִּמְּדוֹ חָכְמָה מְבִיאוֹ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וְאִם אָבִיו חָכָם, שֶׁל אָבִיו קוֹדֶמֶת. הָיָה אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ נוֹשְׂאִין מַשְּׂאוֹי, מֵנִיחַ אֶת שֶׁל רַבּוֹ. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵנִיחַ אֶת שֶׁל אָבִיו. הָיָה אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ בְּבֵית הַשֶּׁבִי, פּוֹדֶה אֶת רַבּוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו. וְאִם הָיָה אָבִיו חָכָם, פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אֶת רַבּוֹ: If his lost object and his father's lost object [are to be attended to], his lost object takes precedence; his own lost object and his teacher's lost object, his own takes precedence; his father's lost object and his teacher's lost object, his teacher's takes precedence, because his father brought him into this world, but his teacher, who taught him wisdom, brings him to live [in] the world to come; if his father is a sage, [the object] of his father takes precedence. If his father and his teacher were carrying a burden, he should relieve his teacher, and afterward relieve his father. If his father and his teacher were in prison, he should redeem his teacher and afterward he should redeem his father; if his father was a sage, he should redeem his father and afterward he should redeem his teacher.