7bז׳ ב
היה עולה בסולם ונפל עליו והרגו הרי זה אינו גולה [Or] if he was ascending on a ladder and if he fell and killed him, this one is not [liable for] exile.
זה הכלל This is the general rule:
כל שבדרך ירידתו גולה ושלא בדרך ירידתו אינו גולה: Anyone on his way down, [that person is liable for] exile. Anyone that is not on his way down, [that person is liable for] exile.
גמ׳ מנא ה"מ Gemara: From where is it derived [that downward motion that kills someone is punished by exile]?
אמר שמואל Shmuel said
דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, כג) ויפל עליו וימות עד שיפול דרך נפילה that the verse said: “And he cast it upon him, and he died” (Numbers 35:23) [meaning] until it falls in the way of falling.
תנו רבנן Our Rabbis taught [in a baraita]:
(במדבר לה, יא) בשגגה פרט למזיד (דברים יט, ד) בבלי דעת פרט למתכוין “Through error” (Numbers 35:11) this excludes acting willfully. “Without awareness” (Deuteronomy 19:4) this excludes intentionality.
מזיד Acting willfully
פשיטא בר קטלא הוא is obvious! He is liable for death!?
(אלא) אמר רבא (Rather) Rava said:
אימא פרט לאומר מותר Say [instead: “Through error”] excludes the one who says it is permitted [to do a prohibited action].
א"ל אביי Abaye said to him:
אי אומר מותר אנוס הוא If he is one who says it is permitted, [then he falls into the category of] one who had no choice.
אמר ליה [Rava] said to him:
שאני אומר It is because I say
האומר מותר קרוב למזיד הוא that the one who said it is permitted [falls into the category of] one who was grossly negligent.
(דברים יט, ד) בבלי דעת פרט למתכוין “Without awareness” (Deuteronomy 19:4) excludes intentionality.
מתכוין Intentionality
פשיטא בר קטלא הוא is obvious! He is liable for death!?
אמר רבה Rabbah said:
פרט למתכוין להרוג את הבהמה והרג את האדם לכותי והרג את ישראל לנפל והרג בן קיימא This excludes [when] he intends to kill an animal and kills a person, [when he intends to kill] a Cutite and kills a Jew, [when he intends to kill] a stillbirth and kills a viable infant.
ת"ר Our Rabbis taught [in a baraita]:
(במדבר לה, כב) אם בפתע פרט לקרן זוית בלא איבה פרט לשונא הדפו שדחפו בגופו או השליך עליו להביא ירידה שהיא צורך עליה בלא צדיה פרט למתכוין לצד זה והלכה לה לצד אחר (שמות כא, יג) ואשר לא צדה פרט למתכוין לזרוק שתים וזרק ארבע “If he came upon him suddenly” (Numbers 35:22) this excludes a [case when someone turns quickly] around a corner. “Without hatred” (Numbers 35:22) excludes the one who hates [their victim]. “He pushed him” (Numbers 35:22) [means] when he pushed his body. “Or hurled upon him” (Numbers 35:22) includes downward motion that is for a need of upward motion. “Without lying in wait (tz’diyah)” (Numbers 35:22) excludes the one who intends [to throw something] to one side (tzad) and it goes to the other side. “And if one does not lie in wait (tzadah)” (Exodus 21:13) excludes the one who intends to throw [something] two cubits and he threw [it] four cubits.
(דברים יט, ה) ואשר יבא את רעהו ביער מה יער רשות לניזק ולמזיק ליכנס לשם אף כל רשות לניזק ולמזיק ליכנס לשם “When a person comes upon his friend in a forest” (Deuteronomy 19:5) Just as in a forest it is permitted for the perpetrator and the victim to enter there [because it is public space], so too [the same rules apply in] any [place where it is] permitted for the perpetrator and the victim to enter there.
בעא מיניה רבי אבהו מרבי יוחנן R' Abahu asked R' Yohanan a question:
היה עולה בסולם ונשמט השליבה מתחתיו ונפלה והרגה מהו If a person was ascending a ladder and a rung broke under him and it fell and struck someone below and killed him,
כי האי גוונא עליה היא או ירידה היא is this a situation of ascent [where he would be exempt] or descent [where he would be held liable]?
א"ל He said to him:
כבר נגעת בירידה שהיא צורך עליה You've already touched on this [in an earlier baraita]—in a case of descending for the purpose of ascent [here, we mean that the rung is going downward for the purpose of the person ascending].
איתיביה He challenged him
זה הכלל כל שבדרך ירידתו גולה שלא בדרך ירידתו אינו גולה "This is the general rule: anything that is within a downward movement, [that person] is sent to exile. Anything not in a downward movement [that person who initiated the act] is not exiled."
שלא בדרך ירידתו לאיתויי מאי And what does this "anything not in a downward movement include?"
לאו לאיתויי כה"ג Does it not include this case?! [where the rung is downward and you are moving up, where, according to this general rule, that person would not be culpable for the rung falling].
וליטעמיך כל שבדרך ירידתו לאיתויי מאי But according to your reasoning, [the rule that] anything that is in the way of descent includes what?!
אלא לאיתויי קצב הכא נמי לאיתויי קצב Does it not include a butcher? Here too, it also comes to include the case of the butcher—
דתניא as it is taught in a baraita:
קצב שהיה מקצב a butcher who was cutting [meat].
תנא חדא One tanna teaches
לפניו חייב לאחריו פטור ותניא אידך that [if he struck someone who was standing] before him, he would liable and [if the person was behind him], he would be exempt. Another tanna teaches
לאחריו חייב לפניו פטור that [if he struck someone behind him] he would be liable and if [he struck someone before him], he would be exempt.
ותניא אידך בין לפניו בין לאחריו חייב ותניא אידך Another tanna teaches that whether the person was before him or behind him, he would liable. And another tanna teaches
בין לפניו בין לאחריו פטור that whether he was before him or behind him, he would be exempt.
ולא קשיא This is not a difficulty.
כאן בירידה שלפניו ועליה שלאחריו כאן בעליה שלפניו וירידה שלאחריו כאן בירידה שלפניו ושל אחריו כאן בעליה שלפניו ושל אחריו. Here [where he would be liable for the person standing before him but exempt if he were behind him] is when the knife is descending in front of him and ascending behind him. Here [where he is he is exempt for the person standing before him but liable for the person standing behind him] is when the upward motion is in front of him but the downward motion is behind him. Here [where he is liable in both situations] is when the downward motion is both in front of him and behind him. And here [where he is exempt in all cases] is when the upward motion is both in front of him and behind him.
לימא כתנאי [Now we return back to the debate between R' Abahu and R. Yohanan about the case of the fallen rung]. Let us say this same issue was the matter of a Tannaitic debate:
היה עולה בסולם ונשמטה שליבה מתחתיו תני חדא One who is ascending a ladder and a rung falls. One tanna taught
חייב ותניא אידך that he is liable and another taught
פטור that he is exempt.
מאי לאו בהא קא מיפלגי דמר סבר Was it not about this that they were disagreeing? One of them held
ירידה היא ומר סבר that it was a case of descent [where he is liable] and one of them holds
עליה היא that he is ascending [where he is exempt]. ...
לא דכ"ע עליה היא ולא קשיא No [that's wrong], everybody agrees that it is a case of ascent. And this is not a problem [they still have a disagreement].
כאן לניזקין כאן לגלות Here [one is talking about the issue of] damages [where he would be obligated to pay the compensation for damages caused] and the other [is talking about the issue of] exile [from which he would be exempted].
איבעית אימא If you want, say
הא והא לגלות ולא קשיא that both cases are talking about exile and there is [still] not a difficulty.
הא דאתליע הא דלא אתליע They are disagreeing about it being rotten. Here, [where he would be obligated for exile] is when (the rung) is rotten. Here [where he would be exempt from exile] is when it is not rotten.
ואיבעית אימא And if you want, say
הא והא דלא אתליע ולא קשיא that they both agree that the wood was not rotten and it is [still] not a difficulty:
הא דמיהדק והא דלא מיהדק: Here [where he would be exempt from exile] is when the rung has been fastened. Here, [where he would be liable] is when he did not fasten it.
מתני׳ נשמט הברזל מקתו והרג רבי אומר Mishnah: If the iron axe head slipped from its handle and it killed someone, Rebi says
אינו גולה וחכמים אומרים he isn't exiled, and the Sages say
גולה that he is exiled.
מן העץ המתבקע רבי אומר If [a wood chip] from the tree broke off [and that wood chip killed someone], Rebi says
גולה וחכמים אומרים he is exiled, and the Sages say
אינו גולה: that he isn't exiled.
גמ׳ תניא אמר להם רבי לחכמים Gemar: It was taught: Rebi said to the Sages:
וכי נאמר (דברים יט, ה) ונשל הברזל מעצו Does it say, "and the iron [flies off] from ITS wood?"
והלא לא נאמר אלא מן העץ Does it not only say "from the wood?"
ועוד נאמר עץ למטה ונאמר עץ למעלה מה עץ האמור למעלה מן העץ המתבקע אף עץ האמור למטה מן העץ המתבקע And furthermore, the word "wood" is said below and the word "wood" is said above. Just as the word "wood" is said above [and refers to wood that comes] from the tree being chopped, so too the word "wood" is said below [and refers to wood that comes] from the tree being chopped.
אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב Rav Chiyah bar Ashi said in the name of Rav:
ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו ונשל הברזל מן העץ רבי סבר Both [the Sages and Rebi] interpreted one verse. The iron breaks off from the wood [Ve'neshal].
יש אם למסורת ונישל כתיב Rebi holds that the transmission [how the written word appears in the text] is what matters, and 'Ve'Neyshal' it is written [the form of which implies that the phrase should be understood as meaning that the axe blade caused something else—i.e., a wood chip—to come loose],
ורבנן סברי but the Sages hold
יש אם למקרא ונשל קרינן that the pronunciation [how we actually read the word] is what matters and "nashal" we read [the form of which implies that the actual axe head flew off].
ורבי יש אם למסורת סבירא ליה But does Rebi hold that the transmission [how the written word appears in the text] is what matters?